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INDEX

Construction Insurance and UK Construction Contracts

Page 618 Page 619 INDEX INDEX Advance payment bond 14.25 – 14.26 Agency issues brokers, and 7.10 – 7.16 Aggregation professional indemnity insurance 10.48 Agreements for lease 15.11 – 15.24 Air space 3.98 Allocation of defence costs directors’ and officers’ liability 10.69 – 10.73 Annex guidance note text 599–613 Annual policies 5.29 – 5.33 Arbitration 31.18 – 31.36 awards appeals from 31.30 – 31.35 challenges to 31.30 – 31.35 enforceability 31.30 – 31.35 confidentiality and privacy 31.24 costs 31.36 expense 31.29 joinder 31.28 procedure 31.25 – 31.27 stay for 31.22 , 31.23 As damages 9.11 – 9.13 Basis clauses utmost good faith, and 2.98 – 2.102 Becomes legally liable to pay 9.6 – 9.10 Bid bond 14.27 , 14.28 Bonds 14.1 – 14.41 advance payment 14.25 – 14.26 bid 14.27 , 14.28 categories 14.16 – 14.30 conditional 14.9 – 14.15 defences to call 14.31 – 14.41 compliance with conditions 14.31 – 14.35 fraud 14.36 – 14.38 reliance on terms of contract 14.39 – 14.41 double 14.4 goods and materials 14.29 guarantee, and 14.5 maintenance 14.30 modern usage 14.7 nature of 14.3 – 14.6 on-demand 14.9 – 14.15 performance 14.17 – 14.21 retention 14.22 – 14.24 single 14.3 use of 14.2 Breach of duty 3.40 – 3.45 Breach of statutory duty 3.105 – 3.114 causation 3.109 co-extensive breaches of duty 3.113 defences 3.110 – 3.114 contributory negligence 3.111 volenti non fit injuria 3.111 definition 3.105 delegation of duty 3.112 injury 3.106 , 3.107 intention of statute 3.108 liability 3.106 – 3.108 particular statutes and regulations 3.114 Brokers 7.1 – 7.61 acting with reasonable speed 7.40 agency issues 7.10 – 7.16 appointing 7.1 – 7.61 assessment of notification 7.41 awareness of market 7.33 , 7.34 causation 7.42 – 7.50 common law duty of care 7.4 – 7.7 damages 7.42 – 7.50 duty 7.17 – 7.50 focused and deliberate strategy 7.19 fair presentation of risk 7.27 – 7.29 ICOB, and 7.51 – 7.61 placing 7.8 , 7.9 policy wording 7.37 producing 7.8 , 7.9 records 7.30 role 7.1 – 7.61 specific obligations 7.27 – 7.50 Page 620 standard terms, and 7.38 suitable level of cover 7.31 types of policies 7.39 unnecessary risks 7.35 , 7.36 working knowledge of insurance law 7.32 Building Act 1984 28.44 , 28.45 Building Regulations 2010 28.44 , 28.45 Captives 29.1 – 29.62 accounting 29.39 administration 29.44 alternative solutions 29.48 – 29.62 attitudes of authorities 29.19 beating the market 29.12 before forming 29.14 business plan 29.15 , 29.16 categories 29.2 claims handling 29.42 consolidation of board 29.47 cost 29.10 , 29.11 disadvantages 29.10 – 29.33 documentation 29.38 establishing 29.37 – 29.47 expansion 29.8 funding low-level losses 29.13 government controls and returns 29.20 investment 29.43 legal advice 29.37 local company legislation 29.18 loss control 29.33 , 29.45 management agreements 29.32 – 29.36 management time 29.21 managing 29.24 – 29.36 market cooperation 29.17 multinationals 29.7 mutual 29.55 , 29.56 operating budgets 29.50 – 29.52 participative insurance 29.7 – 29.62 premium payment 29.22 reinsurance 29.4 risk selection 29. selecting managers 29.26 – 29.31 self-insurance and funding 29.53 – 29.54 set-up and operating costs 29.46 taxation 29.6 , 29.40 underwriting 29.41 Categories of insurance 1.4 – 1.7 Causation 2.111 – 2.123 breach of duty, and 3.109 negligence 3.46 – 3.51 Claims 30.1 – 30.62 average 30.52 contribution clause 30.50 excess 30.51 form of notification 30.8 ICOB, and 30.53 – 30.56 insurance conduct of business rules 30.53 – 30.56 insured’s obligations where insurer in breach of obligations 30.35 – 30.37 insurer’s duty of good faith 30.6 , 30.7 loss payee 30.45 – 30.46 mitigation of loss 30.38 notification 30.3 – 30.5 notification clauses, contribution 30.25 , 30.26 notification requirements conditions precedent, whether 30.21 – 30.24 obligation to pay/reinstatement 30.39 – 30.44 procedures following notification 30.27 – 30.29 recipient of notification 30.10 , 30.11 reduction in recovery or indemnity 30.49 – 30.52 source of notification 30.9 subrogation 30.47 , 30.48 third party, settlement of 30.30 – 30.34 Claims control public liability policies 9.39 – 9.47 Classes of insurance contract 5.1 – 5.33 Co-insurance parties’ ability to sue and be sued, and 13.59 – 13.88 Collateral warranties 1.48 , 1.49 latent defects insurance, and 12.25 – 12.28 professional indemnity insurance 10.28 property insurance, and 15.37 – 15.43 Combined policies 5.15 – 5.18 Company directors public liability policies 9.53 Composite policies 2.161 , 5.15 – 5.18 Conditions 2.124 – 2.161 insurance conduct of business rules 2.144 , 2.145 Conditions of subcontract for construction text 499–510 Conditions precedent 2.137 notification of claims, and 30.21 – 30.24 Consequential loss policies 5.13 , 5.14 Construction (Design and Management) Regulations 2015 28.8 – 28.41 application in and outside Britain 28.19 , 28.20 changes from 2007 Regulations 28.14 civil liability for breach 28.41 client duties 28.26 , 28.27 clients 28.22 construction work 28.16 – 28.18 designer 28.28 – 28.30 Page 621 domestic clients 28.23 – 28.25 duties of contractor 28.37 , 28.38 duties relating to health and safety on construction sites 28.39 , 28.40 notifiable projects 28.21 overarching principle 28.11 policy objectives 28.10 principal contractor 28.34 – 28.36 principal designer 28.31 – 28.33 transitional arrangements 28.15 Construction industry 1.1 – 1.49 matters comprised in 1.2 statistics 1.1 Construction phase risk assessment 4.30 – 4.33 Construction projects characteristics 1.3 Consultancy agreements 1.48 , 1.49 Consumer insurance contracts representation obligations 2.71 – 2.81 Contract forms 1.44 – 1.47 Contractors all risks insurance 11.4 – 11.48 damage 8.46 – 8.59 defectively designed 11.22 – 11.26 defects in design 11.22 – 11.26 design and workmanship exclusions 11.18 – 11.21 fortuity, need for 11.14 – 11.16 gradual deterioration 11.17 insured 11.10 insured property 11.7 – 11.9 other parts or portions of property insured 11.27 – 11.48 period of insurance 11.11 – 11.13 wear and tear 11.17 Contracts (Rights of Third Parties) Act 1999 property insurance, and 15.44 Contractual liability 3.126 – 3.135 Contractual relationships and liabilities diagram 437 Contribution 2.162 – 2.169 Contributory negligence 3.53 – 3.56 breach of statutory duty, and 3.111 Corporate manslaughter 28.64 – 28.66 Costs arbitration 31.36 Financial Service Ombudsman 31.68 mediation 31.9 QC clauses 31.17 Damage 8.1 – 8.69 contractors all risks policies 8.46 – 8.59 meaning 8.1 – 8.69 partial exclusion of claims 8.62 – 8.68 product guarantee policies 8.61 product liability policies 8.15 – 8.45 professional indemnity policies 8.60 property damage policies 8.46 – 8.59 public liability policies 8.6 – 8.14 Damages nuisance, and 3.76 Defective Premises Act 1972 28.46 , 28.47 Design stage risk assessment 4.18 – 4.29 Development agreement between developer and fund 15.5 – 15.10 Difference in conditions insurance 5.19 – 5.22 Directors’ and officers’ liability 10.53 – 10.73 Disclosure of material facts allocation of defence costs 10.69 – 10.73 breach of warranty 10.65 – 10.67 common law 2.46 – 2.65 composite policies 10.62 duty of insured 2.46 – 2.65 knowledge of company 10.63 – 10.64 non-disclosure 10.63 – 10.64 policy exclusions 10.68 QTPIP 10.57 , 10.58 structure of policy 10.5 – 10.61 waiver 2.70 Dispute resolution 31.1 – 31.68 policy 31.2 Economic loss 3.23 – 3.39 application of rules 3.33 – 3.39 Employers’ liability 9.56 Excesses public liability policies 9.20 – 9.37 Explosion 11.55 Ex turpi causa 3.58 Fair presentation obligations Non-consumer insurance contracts 2.82 – 2.97 FIDIC conditions of contract 24.1 – 24.74 contractor’s care of works 24.12 – 24.16 contractor’s risks during operation service period 24.51 – 24.54 employer’s risks 24.16 – 24.20 employer’s risks during operation service period 24.51 exceptional risks 24.48 – 24.51 general requirements 24.61 – 24.66 Gold Book 24.47 Green Book 24.40 – 24.46 indemnities 24.6 – 24.12 contractor, by 24.58 insurance 24.21 – 24.39 Page 622 insurances to be provided during design-build period 24.67 – 24.70 insurances to be provided during operation service period 24.70 – 24.74 main forms 24.1 Red Book 24.4 responsibility for care of works 24.55 – 24.58 risk allocation 24.47 risk and responsibility 24.6 shared indemnities 24.59 – 24.60 Silver Book 24.4 text 483–487 Yellow Book 24.4 FIDIC Plant and Design-Build Contract text 495–498 FIDIC Turnkey Contract text 489–493 Financial Services Ombudsman 31.47 – 31.68 approach of 31.58 costs 31.68 eligible complainants 31.52 , 31.53 jurisdiction challenges 31.55 – 31.57 remedies 31.62 – 31.67 time limits 31.54 Fire 3.116 – 3.121 , 11.53 , 11.54 Floater policies 5.29 – 5.33 Flood 11.60 – 11.63 Foreseeability negligence, and 3.52 Formation of insurance 6.1 – 6.21 assessment of risk 6.11 – 6.12 Fraud defence to call on bond 14.36 – 14.38 Fraudulent claims 2.106 – 2.109 public liability policies 9.52 Fraudulent devices 2.106 – 2.109 Glossary 425–431 Goods and materials bond 14.29 Health and safety 28.1 – 28.74 disclosure of previous convictions 28.74 fines 28.72 funding defence costs 28.67 insurance implications of prosecutions 28.67 – 28.74 prosecution costs 28.73 prosecutions 28.48 – 28.66 abuse of process 28.57 investigations 28.49 – 28.56 sentencing 28.60 – 28.63 trial 28.58 regulations of general application 28.42 Highway nuisance 3.80 Homeowner insurance 12.6 – 12.14 NHBC 12.6 – 12.14 Zurich Insurance 12.6 – 12.14 Hot work warranties 9.54 , 9.55 I Chem E Lump Sum Red, Green and Burgundy Contracts 26.1 – 26.36 ICOB 7.51 – 7.61 claims, and 30.53 – 30.56 I Mech E/IET Model Form of Contract 25.1 – 25.22 accidents and injury 25.16 – 25.22 care of the works 25.10 – 25.15 contractors equipment 26.27 – 26.30 death, illness and injury 26.33 – 26.26 documentation insurance provisions 26.5 overarching insurance provisions 25.4 – 25.9 plant, site materials and temporary works 26.6 – 26.22 purchasers/purchaser’s affiliates property 26.34 – 26.35 third party liabilities 26.31 – 26.33 I Mech/IEE MF/1 (Rev 6) 2014 text 511–514 Indemnity 2.110 Inducement burden of proof 2.54 Innominate term 2.143 In respect of accidental injury to persons 9.14 Institution of Chemical Engineers Lump Sum (Red Book) Contract 2013 text 515–518 Institution of Chemical Engineers Reimbursable (Green Book) Contract text 519–521, 523–582 Insurable interest 2.16 – 2.37 classic definition 2.17 consequential loss 2.30 – 2.35 statutes 2.21 – 2.24 Insurance definition 2.1 – 2.15 elements 2.1 – 2.15 Insurance brokers see Brokers Insurance Companies (Legal Expenses Insurance) Regulations 1990 28.70 Insurance conduct of business rules see also ICOB conditions, and 2.144 , 2.145 Insurance contracts classes 5.1 – 5.33 Page 623 JCT Construction Management 2011 22.1 – 22.40 construction manager’s liability insurance and limitation of liability 22.13 employer’s insurance of liability 22.13 – 22.15 employer’s obligation to insure 22.15 – 22.22 , 22.28 – 22.36 excepted risks 22.27 , 22.28 injury to persons and property 22.9 – 22.12 , 22.26 personal injury and property damage 22.27 professional indemnity insurance 22.23 – 22.25 relevant provisions 22.5 – 22.8 specific clauses 22.9 – 22.39 sub-contractors 22.22 , 22.23 text 475–480 trade subcontractors 22.40 use of 22.2 , 22.3 JCT Design and Building Contract 2011 17.1 – 17.23 injury to persons and property 17.7 insurance against personal injury and property damage 17.8 , 17.9 insurance of works 17.10 , 17.11 insurance options 17.16 – 17.22 relevant provisions 17.5 , 17.6 subcontractors 17.23 text 445–452 use of 17.1 JCT forms of contract 11.49 – 11.67 bursting of pipes 11.64 – 11.67 escape of water 11.64 – 11.67 explosion 11.55 fire 11.53 , 11.54 flood 11.60 – 11.63 storm 11.56 JCT Intermediate Building Contract 2011 18.1 – 18.20 injury to persons and property 18.7 insurance against personal injury and property damage 18.8 , 18.9 insurance of works 18.10 , 18.11 insurance options 18.13 – 18.19 relevant provisions 18.4 – 18.6 sub-contractors 18.20 text 453–459 use of 18.1 , 18.2 JCT Major Project Construction Contract 2011 20.1 – 20.24 indemnities 20.5 – 20.13 insurances 20.13 – 20.21 professional indemnity 20.21 – 20.24 relevant provisions 20.5 text 465 JCT Management Building Contract 2011 21.1 – 21.21 insurance options 21.14 – 21.20 personal injury and property damage 21.6 , 21.7 relevant provisions 21.2 , 21.3 specific clauses 21.4 – 21.13 text 467–474 works contractors 21.21 JCT Minor Works Contract 2011 19.1 – 19.20 injury to persons and property 19.7 , 19.8 insurance of works 19.9 – 19.17 relevant provisions 19.4 – 19.6 subcontractors 19.18 – 19.20 text 461–463 use of 19.2 , 19.3 JCT Standard Building Contract 2011 16.1 – 16.49 , 439–443 injury to persons and property 16.7 – 16.12 insurance against personal injury and property damage 16.13 – 16.19 insurance of works 16.20 – 16.26 insurance options 16.27 – 16.42 relevant provisions 16.4 – 16.6 subcontractors 16.43 – 16.49 use of 16.2 Latent defects insurance 12.1 – 12.29 collateral warranties, and 12.25 – 12.28 future developments 12.29 nature of 12.1 policies 12.15 – 12.20 policies in practice 12.21 – 12.24 policy text 583–593 proposal form text 595–597 purpose 12.3 – 12.5 types 12.2 Lease property insurance, and 15.25 – 15.33 Legal liability 3.1 – 3.135 contractual 3.126 – 3.135 defences 3.53 – 3.59 fire 3.116 – 3.121 limitation 3.59 main heads 3.3 remedies 3.122 – 3.125 torts 3.4 Liability policies 5.5 – 5.8 , 9.1 – 9.59 Lighting obstructions 3.81 Limitation of actions 2.146 – 2.150 trespass to land, and 3.104 Limits of liability public liability policies 9.20 – 9.37 Page 624 Litigation 31.37 – 31.46 costs 31.45 , 31.46 county court versus High Court 31.39 Part 7 and Part 8 procedure 31.40 – 31.44 pre-action protocol 31.38 Lloyd’s 6.7 Loan documents property insurance, and 15.34 Maintenance bond 14.30 Maintenance period risk assessment 4.36 Material circumstances common law 2.66 – 2.69 Material damage policies 5.9 – 5.12 Material facts meaning 2.50 Mediation 31.3 – 31.9 costs 31.9 Misrepresentation waiver 2.70 Mitigation cover professional indemnity insurance 10.40 – 10.47 Mitigation of loss claims, and 30.38 Negligence 3.8 – 3.52 breach of duty 3.40 – 3.45 causation 3.46 – 3.51 duty of care 3.10 – 3.15 economic loss 3.23 – 3.39 foreseeability 3.52 personal injury 3.16 – 3.22 physical damage 3.16 – 3.22 NEC 3 (2013) 23.1 – 23.24 core clauses 23.3 failure to insure 23.22 – 23.24 indemnities 23.8 – 23.10 insurance cover 23.11 – 23.15 insurance policies 23.16 – 23.21 parties’ respective scope of responsibility 23.6 , 23.7 relevant provisions 23.5 New engineering contract/ECC (Third edition) text 481 NHBC 12.6 – 12.14 Non-consumer insurance contracts fair presentation obligations 2.82 – 2.97 Nuisance 3.60 – 3.84 act of trespasser 3.73 authorisation by statute 3.72 damages 3.76 defences 3.71 – 3.75 definition 3.60 demolition/rebuilding 3.77 highway 3.80 liability 3.65 – 3.70 lighting obstructions 3.81 objective standard of comfort 3.67 Party Wall etc. Act 1996 3.82 – 3.84 private 3.62 – 3.64 proof of damage 3.65 public 3.61 right to light 3.79 surrounding circumstances 3.66 unacceptable defences 3.75 who can claim 3.68 who is liable 3.69 , 3.70 withdrawal of support 3.78 Occupiers Liability Act 1957 28.43 Occurring during the period of insurance 9.17 Or accidental loss of or damage to tangible property 9.15 , 9.16 Partial exclusion of claims damage 8.62 – 8.68 Parties’ ability to due and be sued 13.1 – 13.116 co-insurance, effect 13.59 – 13.88 insurance arrangements, and 13.1 – 13.116 principles arising from authorities 13.114 – 13.116 recent Court of Appeal decisions 13.97 – 13.112 standard forms of building contract 13.5 – 13.55 Tyco Fire & Integrated Solutions (UK) Ltd v Rolls-Royce Motor Cars Ltd 13.89 – 13.96 waiver of subrogation and cross-liability clauses 13.56 – 13.58 Party Wall etc. Act 1996 3.82 – 3.84 Performance bond 14.17 – 14.21 Personal injury 3.16 – 3.22 PFI/PPP projects 27.1 – 27.72 changes 27.22 commoditisation 27.39 – 27.45 construction contract 27.26 contractual structure 27.11 – 27.14 cost sharing of insurance premiums 27.67 – 27.71 design and construction phase 27.18 design and construction phase 27.51 direct agreements 27.25 – 27.38 FM contract 27.27 , 27.28 funding project 27.8 – 27.10 guidance PF2 27.72 Page 625 insurance 27.24 insurance arrangements 27.46 – 27.72 insurance provisions in LDA 27.36 – 27.38 insurance section in SoPC4 27.48 , 27.49 interface agreement 27.29 , 27.30 lenders’ direct agreement 27.32 – 27.35 operational phase 27.19 , 27.52 – 27.54 other insurance policies 27.55 payment provisions 27.21 principles 27.1 – 27.14 procurement process 27.6 , 27.7 project agreement 27.15 – 27.24 property provisions 27.20 reasons for introduction 27.4 , 27.5 reinstatement of project assets 27.56 – 27.60 required insurances 27.50 responsibility for arranging insurance 27.46 risks that become uninsurable 27.61 – 27.66 standardisation 27.39 – 27.45 structures 27.1 – 27.14 subcontracts 27.25 – 27.38 termination 27.23 Pipes, bursting of 11.64 – 11.67 Placing insurance 6.1 – 6.21 Premium calculation 6.13 – 6.21 third party liability 6.19 – 6.21 Prescription trespass to land, and 3.104 Private nuisance 3.62 – 3.64 Procurement methods 1.14 – 1.43 contractor’s design portion 1.22 – 1.32 design and build 1.22 – 1.32 integrated 1.40 – 1.43 management 1.33 – 1.39 traditional/conventional 1.15 – 1.21 turn key 1.22 – 1.32 Product guarantee policies damage 8.61 Product liability 9.58 Product liability policies damage 8.15 – 8.45 Professional indemnity insurance 5.8 , 10.1 – 10.52 aggregation 10.48 – 10.52 block notification 10.16 – 10.18 can of worms notification 10.16 – 10.18 claim, meaning 10.9 claims made basis 10.8 collateral warranties 10.28 contractor’s 10.29 – 10.39 damage 8.60 form of clause 10.5 , 10.6 innocent non-disclosure clauses 10.27 interrelationship between claims and notification 10.19 – 10.25 mitigation cover 10.40 – 10.47 notification 10.11 – 10.15 QC clauses 10.26 Project feasibility risk assessment 4.5 – 4.17 Project insurance 5.23 – 5.28 Property damage policies 11.1 – 11.67 contractors all risks see Contractors all risks insurance damage 8.46 – 8.59 Property insurance 15.1 – 15.44 agreements for lease 15.11 – 15.24 collateral warranties 15.37 – 15.43 Contracts (Rights of Third Parties) Act 1999 15.44 development agreement between developer and fund 15.5 – 15.10 higher tier property documents 15.1 – 15.44 lease 15.25 – 15.33 loan documents 15.34 refurbishments 15.35 , 15.36 Proximate cause 2.111 – 2.123 loss caused by excepted cause, whether 2.120 – 2.123 loss caused insured against, whether 2.115 – 2.129 meaning 2.113 Public liability policies 5.7 , 9.5 – 9.55 as damages 9.11 – 9.13 becomes legally liable to pay 9.6 – 9.10 claims control 9.39 – 9.47 claims notification 9.38 company directors 9.53 cross-liability 9.19 damage 8.6 – 8.14 excesses 9.20 – 9.37 exclusions 9.18 fraudulent claims 9.52 hot work warranties 9.54 , 9.55 in respect of accidental bodily injury to persons 9.14 limits of liability 9.20 – 9.37 occurring during the period of insurance 9.17 or accidental loss of or damage to tangible property 9.15 , 9.16 other clauses, and 9.51 reasonable precautions 9.48 – 9.50 waiver of subrogation clauses 9.19 Public nuisance 3.61 Page 626 QC clauses 31.10 – 31.17 Costs 31.17 QTPIP 10.57 , 10.58 Refurbishments property insurance, and 15.35 , 15.36 Reinsurance 2.170 – 2.185 facultative 2.174 facultative obligatory 2.178 insurable interest in reinsurance contracts 2.181 , 2.182 nature of 2.172 open cover 2.178 reasons for 2.180 treaty 2.175 – 2.177 utmost good faith 2.183 , 2.184 warranties in contracts 2.185 Representation obligations consumer insurance contracts 2.71 – 2.81 Retention bond 14.22 – 14.24 Right to light 3.79 Risk assessment 4.1 – 4.37 construction phase 4.30 – 4.33 design stage 4.18 – 4.29 maintenance period 4.36 method 4.4 nature of 4.1 post-completion 4.37 project feasibility 4.5 – 4.17 testing and commissioning phase 4.34 , 4.35 vision 4.3 Road traffic liability 9.57 Rylands v Fletcher 3.85 – 3.94 defences 3.94 definition 3.86 – 3.91 liability 3.92 – 3.94 Slip 6.8 – 6.10 text 433–436 Standard forms of building contract parties’ ability to sue and be sued 13.5 – 13.55 Storm 11.56 Strict liability see Rylands v Fletcher Subrogation 2.151 – 2.160 claims, and 30.47 , 30.48 Subrogation and cross-liability clauses waiver of 13.56 – 13.58 Testing and commissioning phase risk assessment 4.34 , 4.35 Third Parties (Rights against Insurers) Act 1930 30.57 – 30.63 Third party liability premium calculation 6.19 – 6.21 Torts 3.4 Trespass to land 3.95 – 3.104 air space 3.98 damages 3.102 , 3.103 defences 3.101 definition 3.95 – 3.97 liability 3.99 – 3.100 limitation 3.104 prescription 3.104 Tyco Fire & Integrated Solutions (UK) Ltd v Rolls-Royce Motor Cars Ltd 13.89 – 13.96 Utmost good faith 2.38 – 2.110 basis clauses 2.98 – 2.102 duration of insured’s duty 2.103 – 2.105 reinsurance contracts 2.183 , 2.184 Valuation methods 1.8 – 1.13 cost contract 1.12 lump sum contracts 1.9 measurement contracts 1.10 , 1.11 Vicarious liability 3.9 , 3.115 Vision risk assessment, and 4.3 Volenti non fit injuria 3.57 breach of statutory duty, and 3.111 Warranties 2.124 – 2.161 common law 2.128 continuing 2.130 reinsurance contracts 2.185 statutory reform 2.134 – 2.136 true 2.131 Water, escape of 11.64 – 11.67 Withdrawal of support 3.78 Zurich Insurance 12.6 – 12.14

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