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Index

General Average

Page 311 Index Index Abandonment or condemnation of voyage, 3.63 Absorption clauses adjustment, 7.19 – 7.20 affreightment, contracts of, 7.20 average adjusters, fees and expenses of, 7.20 defences third parties, 7.22 waiver of, 7.21 hull policies, 7.19 – 7.23 insurance contracts, 7.19 – 7.23 International Hull Clauses 2003, 7.20 , 7.23 property interests, 7.20 – 7.23 salvage charges, 7.20 – 7.21 small losses, recovery of, 7.19 special charges, 7.20 – 7.21 rogation, 7.21 , 7.23 third parties, 7.22 – 7.23 value, 7.19 York-Antwerp Rules 1994, 7.20 Adjustment, 6.1 – 6.66 absorption clauses, 7.19 – 7.20 common law, 6.65 contract, 6.65 contribution, 5.9 , 6.1 – 6.2 damages, 6.65 economic loss, 5.34 effect of, 6.65 general average acts, effect of, 5.33 general principles, 6.1 – 6.2 governing law and practice, 5.33 , 6.29 – 6.37 insurance, 7.14 , 7.42 , 7.45 – 7.51 jettison, 6.1 jurisdiction, 6.26 – 6.29 liens, 5.13 termination of adventure value, 6.2 – 6.7 time, place and law governing adjustment, 5.33 value, 5.33 , 6.2 , 6.38 – 6.66 sacrifices, expenditures and contributory interests, 6.7 – 6.8 termination of adventure value, 6.2 – 6.7 time and place of, 6.3 – 6.19 see also Adjustment, insurance and; Average adjusters Adjustment, insurance and, 7.45 – 7.51 agreement as to adjustment, 7.45 foreign adjustment, 7.45 – 7.30 Institute Cargo Clauss, 7.49 Institute standard hull and freight clauses, 7.50 – 7.51 place of termination of adventure, 7.45 York-Antwerp Rules, 7.50 – 7.51 Admiralty jurisdiction, 1.23 , 2.6 , 6.29 , App 2 Adventure see Common adventure Agents, 2.37 Air, carriage by, 2.9 Arbitration clauses, 5.4 Association of Average Adjusters cargo, value of, 6.60 , 6.62 insurance contracts, 7.40 rules, 1.30 , 6.60 , 6.62 , 7.40 , App 12 salvage, lightening and the environment, 3.22 , 3.39 substituted expenses, 3.66 Authority to act, 2.36 – 2.48 agents, appointment of, 2.37 bills of lading, 2.46 charterparties, 2.46 conditions of general average, 2.36 – 2.48 contract, statutory rules overridden by, 2.46 contributions, liability for, 2.36 delegation, by, 2.39 – 2.43 exclusion of liability, 2.36 , 2.46 – 2.47 exercisable, whether the authority, 2.45 – 2.48 irrevocable authority, 2.45 jettison, 2.41 – 2.42 Page 312 natural justice, 2.41 necessitous interveners, 2.45 officers or crew members, general average acts by, 2.38 , 2.41 overriding the authority to act, 2.36 proper person, acts sanctioned by, 2.36 – 2.37 public policy, 2.46 ratification of acts, masters by, 2.42 – 2.43 superior orders, loss as a result of, 2.44 Average, definition of, 1.4 Average adjusters absorption clauses, 7.20 appointment, 1.34 , 5.36 – 5.37 , 6.20 – 6.21 , 6.30 causation and remoteness, 3.3 contributions, 6.20 – 6.21 fees and expenses of, 3.3 , 7.20 governing law and practice, 6.30 liens, 1.34 see also Association of Average Adjusters Average bonds bills of lading, 5.30 contract, 5.28 , 5.30 contribution, 5.14 , 5.17 – 5.18 , 5.30 general average acts, effect of, 5.30 governing law and practice, 6.32 liens, 1.34 , 5.30 limitation of actions, 5.35 – 5.42 Lloyd’s, 5.28 terms of, 5.35 Average Disbursements Clauses, copy of, App 15 , App 16 Average loss, meaning of, 1.5 Benefit common adventure, to, 1.21 , 2.33 danger to a common adventure, 2.33 general average acts, from, 7.3 insurance contracts, 7.3 Bigham clauses, 2.11 , 2.70 , 6.13 – 6.14 , 6.18 , 7.33 – 7.35 , App 7 Bills of exchange, discounts on, 6.64 Bills of lading, 5.28 – 5.30 authority to act, 2.46 average bonds, 5.30 cargo, value of, 6.61 contribution, 5.4 endorsement of, 5.29 exclusion of liability, 4.23 through, 2.8 Boilers, damage to, 2.57 , 3.11 , 4.32 Bonds see Average bonds Bottomry bonds, 6.63 Brussels Regulation, 6.26 – 6.27 Bunkers consumption of, 2.54 value of, 6.42 , 6.62 Burden of proof, 2.1 – 2.2 , 4.16 , 4.3 , 4.9 Cables, cutting away, 1.12 Cargo another ship, loading into another, 2.8 , 2.11 causation and remoteness, 3.4 condition of cargo, fault of claimant and, 6.12 – 6.14 contribution, 2.4 contributory value, place of assessment of, 6.12 – 6.14 damage whilst discharging, 3.13 deck, 2.31 discharge of, 2.21 , 7.32 dry-docking with, 3.66 exclusion of liability, 4.17 , 4.20 , 4.36 expenses, liability for, 7.32 forwarding, 3.66 freight, 2.4 – 2.5 fuel, used as, 2.52 inherent vice, 4.12 Institute Cargo Clauses, 7.4 , 7.13 , 7.36 , 7.49 insurance contracts, 7.4 , 7.7 , 7.32 – 7.35 lightered loss of, 3.4 value of, 2.90 lighters, putting cargo onto, 1.12 non-separation agreements, 7.31 – 7.34 part of discharge of, 2.21 sale of, 1.17 personal effects, 2.4 port of refuge expenses, 2.24 – 2.25 , 3.42 , 3.52 stranding, 3.42 subject-matter, 2.4 undeclared or wrongfully declared, 4.36 York-Antwerp Rules 2004, 2.4 see also Cargo, value of Cargo, value of, 6.49 – 6.58 Association of Average Adjusters Rules, 6.60 , 6.62 bills of lading, 6.61 commission on sale, 6.56 common law, 6.49 contributory values, 6.49 , 6.54 disbursements, 6.56 forwarding from port of refuge to destination by other means, 6.58 freight, 6.53 , 6.59 – 6.62 Page 313 hire, 6.61 market value, 6.49 sale of, 6.53 – 6.57 York-Antwerp Rules, 6.49 , 6.55 – 6.59 Cash deposits, 5.19 – 5.23 , 5.30 Causation and remoteness, 3.2 – 3.5 average adjusters, costs of employing, 3.3 direct consequence of general average act, 3.2 expenses, 3.2 – 3.3 fault, 4.10 freight, loss of, 3.3 incidental losses, 3.5 jettison, loss of freight and, 3.3 lightered cargo, loss of, 3.4 Marine Insurance Act 1906, 3.2 repairs, 3.4 Charges see Expenses and charges Charterparties authority to act, 2.46 cesser of liability, 4.30 contract, 5.29 contribution, 5.4 freight, 2.5 , 7.9 governing law and practice, 6.34 hire, 7.9 insurance contracts, 7.9 time charterparties, hire and, 7.9 voyage charterparties, freight and, 7.9 Civil Jurisdiction and Judgments Act 1982, 6.26 Civil Procedure Rules, 6.26 Claims procedure, 1.34 CMI Guidelines Relating to General Average , 1.32 – 1.33 Commercial enterprises, benefiting common, 2.25 Commission, 6.56 Common adventure common law, 1.21 common peril, disconnection of vessel and, 2.19 common safety and common benefit to the, 1.21 – 1.22 Continental legal system, 1.21 duration of a, 2.21 – 2.22 existence of a, 2.16 – 2.19 governing rules, 1.21 – 1.22 intention, average act and, 2.64 – 2.68 limitation of actions, 5.42 partial loss, 1.10 – 1.11 place of safety, property brought to a, 1.21 – 1.22 place of termination, 6.42 safe prosecution of the adventure, 1.21 , 2.12 single interest, division of, 2.17 single vessel, interests not at risk on a, 2.18 success of act, 2.87 two interests, exposure of, 2.17 York-Antwerp Rules, 1.22 , 2.19 see also Danger to a common adventure Compensation reasonableness, 2.70 – 2.72 salvage, lightening and the environment, 3.36 special compensation, 3.36 success of act, 2.78 see also Damages Conditions of general average, 2.1 – 2.88 authority to act, 2.36 – 2.48 burden of proof, 2.1 – 2.2 danger common adventure, to a, 2.16 – 2.35 existence of real, 2.12 – 2.15 general average loss must be direct consequence of general average act, 2.93 intentionally incurred for the benefit of the common adventure, average act must be, 2.64 – 2.68 maritime adventure in the nature of a voyage, 2.8 – 2.11 reasonable, action taken must be, 2.70 – 2.73 sacrifice or expenditure extraordinary nature, of an, 2.49 – 2.58 real, 2.59 – 2.64 subject-matter, 2.3 – 2.6 success of act, 2.74 – 2.92 Containers, value of, 6.42 , 6.62 Contract, 5.28 – 5.30 adjustment, 6.65 affreightment, contracts of, 7.20 authority to act, 2.46 average bonds, 5.28 – 5.30 construction, 5.29 contribution, 5.3 exceptions to liability, 4.17 – 4.21 , 4.29 – 4.36 fault, 4.11 freedom of contract, 1.25 general average acts, effect of, 5.28 – 5.29 governing law and practice, 6.29 – 6.36 implied contract theory, 1.17 – 1.19 limitation of actions, 5.35 Lloyd’s average bonds, 5.28 privity of contract, 1.24 Page 314 qualifying losses, 3.14 reasonableness, 3.14 Rome Convention 1980, 6.36 sacrifice or expenditure of an extraordinary nature, 2.49 salvage, lightening and the environment, 3.20 statutory rules overridden by, 2.46 variation, 1.24 – 1.25 York-Antwerp Rules, 5.29 see also Insurance contracts Contribution adjustment, 5.9 , 6.1 – 6.2 arbitration clauses, 5.4 authority to act, 2.36 average adjusters, 6.20 – 6.21 average bonds, 5.14 , 5.17 – 5.18 , 5.30 bills of lading, 5.4 cargo, 2.4 charterparties, 5.4 consignees of goods, 5.3 contract, 5.3 danger to a common adventure, 2.27 – 2.28 diminution in value, 5.9 – 5.11 economic loss, 5.10 , 5.34 enforcement, 5.2 – 5.3 entitlement to contribution, 2.27 – 2.28 , 5.8 – 5.11 exceptions to liability to contribute, 4.1 – 4.34 fault, 4.8 , 5.12 general average acts, effect of, 5.2 – 5.11 guarantees, 5.14 , 5.17 – 5.18 insurable interest, 5.9 insurance contracts, 7.2 – 7.8 , 7.24 – 7.38 insurers’ liability, 7.15 , 7.17 – 7.18 liability of contributors, 1.4 liens, 5.4 , 5.6 non-separation agreements, 7.33 ownership, 5.3 – 5.4 right of action, contributors’, 4.8 unjust enrichment, 5.9 York-Antwerp Rules, 5.4 , 5.9 , 5.12 see also Contributory value Contributory value, 6.38 , 6.40 – 6.41 cargo, 6.42 , 6.49 , 6.54 full, 7.42 insurance contracts, 7.29 – 7.30 , 7.40 , 7.42 – 7.44 insurers’ liability, 2.41 , 7.15 , 7.17 less than, amount, 7.43 partial loss, 1.11 particular average loss, reduced by, 7.44 place of assessment of, 6.9 – 6.18 ships, 6.42 termination of voyage value, 2.75 – 2.78 Crew authority to act, 2.38 general average acts, by, 2.38 , 2.41 see also Masters; Wages and maintenance Currency, 6.67 Custom, 3.65 , 4.1 , 6.30 Damage during voyage, 6.3 Damages, 5.34 , 6.65 ; see also Compensation Danger see Danger, existence of real; Danger to a common adventure Danger, existence of real common adventure, safe prosecution of the, 2.12 conditions of general average, 2.12 – 2.15 immediate danger, 2.13 , 2.15 masters ordinary firmness and sound judgment of, 2.12 reasonable and bona fide belief of, 2.15 potential danger, 2.14 precautions, taking, 2.13 York-Antwerp Rules, 2.13 – 2.15 Danger to a common adventure, 2.16 – 2.35 benefit, loss exceeding, 2.33 conditions of general average, 2.16 – 2.35 contribution necessary, no legally enforceable right to, 2.27 – 2.28 deck cargo, 2.31 duration of the common adventure, 2.21 – 2.22 existence of a common adventure, 2.16 – 2.19 expenses, 2.32 human lives, preservation of, 2.28 intended beneficiaries, 2.34 interests danger not threatening all, 2.29 different, effect of the danger on, 2.30 – 2.32 , 2.35 same ownership, in, 2.27 – 2.28 jettison, 2.31 joint ownership, 2.27 – 2.28 necessary to avert or minimise the threat or direct consequence of earlier action, 2.16 – 2.35 ownership, interests in same, 2.27 – 2.28 particular average losses, 2.31 particular charges, 2.31 port of refuge expenses, 2.23 – 2.26 reduction in award, 2.33 Page 315 repairs, 2.32 restitution, 2.34 safety of common adventure, action taken for the, 2.16 single interests, danger to, 2.28 , 2.34 total loss, 2.30 York-Antwerp Rules, 2.32 Dangerous goods, 4.22 Deck cargo, 2.31 , 4.1 Definition of general average, 1.1 – 1.5 average, meaning of, 1.4 average loss, 1.05 contributors, liability of, 1.4 extraordinary expenditures, 1.4 extraordinary sacrifices 1.4 general average losses, types of, 1.4 Justinian’s Digest, 1.1 Marine Insurance Act 1906 s.6, 1.2 Rhodian law, 1.1 York-Antwerp Rules, 1.3 , 1.5 Delegation, 2.39 – 2.43 Delivery, withholding, 5.14 Demurrage, 3.7 Deposits, 5.19 – 5.23 , 5.30 , App 6 Detention, paying money to secure release from, 1.12 Deviation, 4.3 Diminution in value, 2.86 , 5.9 – 5.11 Direct consequence of general average act, 2.22 – 2.23 , 2.93 , 3.2 Disbursements Average Disbursements Clauses, copy of, App 15 , App 16 bills of exchange, discounts on, 6.64 bottomry bonds, 6.63 cargo, value of, 6.56 exchange rate losses, 6.64 Institute Time Clauses, App 14 insurance, 1.12 , App 14 meaning, 6.63 necessity, 6.63 respondentia bonds, 6.63 value, 6.38 , 6.63 – 6.65 York-Antwerp Rules, 6.65 Dry-docking with cargo, 3.66 Duration of the common adventure, 2.21 – 2.22 Early termination of voyage, 3.63 , 6.9 – 6.10 Economic loss, 5.12 , 5.34 Effects of a general average act, 5.1 – 5.48 adjustment, time, place and law governing, 5.33 average bonds, 5.30 contractual liability, 5.28 – 5.29 contribution, 5.2 – 5.11 defence, 5.1 economic loss, 5.34 insurers’ liability, 5.48 interest, 5.44 – 5.47 liability at law, 5.27 limitation of actions, 5.35 – 5.42 limitation of liability, 5.43 security, 5.12 – 5.26 Environment, 3.16 , 7.37 – 7.38 ; see also Salvage and the environment Examples of general average, 1.12 – 1.13 Exceptions to liability to contribute contractual qualification of liability to general average, 4.29 – 4.36 deck cargo, 4.1 fault of claimant, 4.2 – 4.27 illegality, 4.37 Excess liabilities, 7.17 , App 13 Exchange rate losses, 6.64 Exclusion of liability, 4.16 – 4.26 authority to act, 2.36 , 2.46 – 2.47 bills of lading, 4.23 burden of proof, 4.16 cargo owners, 4.17 , 4.20 contractual exclusions, 4.17 – 4.21 dangerous goods, Hague-Visby Rules and, 4.22 fault, 4.16 – 4.26 fire, actual fault and privity and, 4.21 Hague-Visby Rules, negligence and, 4.22 Harter Act, 4.23 , 4.26 indemnities, 4.17 Jason clause, negligence and, 4.23 – 4.26 marine insurance, 4.18 negligence, 4.17 – 4.19 , 4.22 – 4.26 scope of exclusion, 4.22 shipowners, 4.17 – 4.19 statutory exclusion, 4.21 unseaworthiness, 4.21 , 4.23 , 4.25 see also Exemption clauses Exemption clauses cargo, undeclared or wrongfully declared, 4.36 cesser of liability under charterparties, 4.30 construction, 4.30 fire, extinguishments of, 4.32 insurance contracts, 7.4 machinery and boilers during refloating, damage to, 4.32 salvage, environmental damage and, 4.34 smoke damage, 4.32 York-Antwerp Rules, 4.31 – 4.36 Page 316 Expenditure see Extraordinary expenditure; Sacrifice or expenditure Expenses and charges absorption clauses, 7.20 – 7.21 average adjusters, 3.3 , 7.20 cargo, 7.32 causation and remoteness, 3.2 – 3.3 danger to a common adventure, 2.32 insurance contracts, 7.32 lightening, 3.38 particular charges, 1.9 port charges, 3.56 – 3.61 salvage, 1.7 – 1.10 , 3.19 , 3.38 , 7.4 , 7.20 – 7.21 see also Port of refuge expenses; SUB:stituted expenses Extraordinary expenditure, 2.49 – 2.58 definition of general average, 1.4 insurance, 2.80 reasonableness, 2.70 recovery of, 2.79 – 2.80 salvage, 2.09 supervening disasters, 2.09 terminal value, 2.79 – 2.80 Extraordinary sacrifices, 2.49 – 2.58 definition of general average, 1.4 reasonableness, 2.70 success of act, 2.78 termination of voyage value, 2.78 Fault of claimant actionable fault, 4.11 basis of rule, 4.4 – 4.7 burden of proof, 4.3 – 4.9 causation, 4.10 condition of cargo, danger arising from, 4.3 , 4.12 contractual liability, 4.11 contribution, 4.8 , 5.12 contributors’ right of action, 4.8 deviation, 4.3 exclusion of liability, 4.2 – 4.27 Hague Rules, limitation of actions and, 4.14 inherent vice, cargo and, 4.12 Jason Clause, 4.24 – 4.26 jettison of cargo, 4.3 , 4.12 , 4.27 joint tortfeasors, 4.13 limitation of actions, 4.14 limitation of liability, 4.15 negligent navigation, 4.3 seaworthiness, 4.3 , 4.9 – 4.11 third parties, prejudicing, 4.27 tortious liability, 4.11 , 4.13 York-Antwerp Rules, 4.8 , 4.12 Fire actual fault or privity, 4.21 exclusion of liability, 4.21 , 4.32 extinguishments of, 3.9 , 3.56 – 3.57 , 4.32 hold, extinguishing by pouring water into the, 1.12 port charges, 3.56 – 3.57 York-Antwerp Rules, 3.9 Foreign adjustment, 7.45 – 7.50 Foreseeability, 3.15 Forwarding cargo, 3.66 , 6.58 Freight abandonment of, 2.59 adjustment, 7.49 – 7.50 cargo, 2.4 owners’ risk, at, 2.5 value of, 6.53 , 6.59 – 6.62 causation and remoteness, 3.3 charterers’ risk, at, 2.5 classification and calculation of, 2.5 Institute Clauses, 7.12 , 7.36 , 7.50 – 7.51 insurance, 7.9 , 7.12 , 7.26 , 7.28 – 7.31 jettison, 3.3 loss of, 3.3 mitigation, 3.77 pre-paid, 2.5 subject-matter, 2.5 value, 6.59 – 6.60 voyage charterparties, 7.9 York-Antwerp Rules, 2.5 , 6.59 Frustration, 6.10 Fuel additional consumption, 1.12 , 3.64 cargo or ship’s material used as, 2.52 extraordinary consumption of, 2.50 – 2.52 , 2.55 – 2.56 port of refuge expenses, 3.53 reasonable supply of, 2.50 – 2.52 substituted expenses, 3.64 York-Antwerp Rules 2004, 3.12 , 3.53 General average losses direct consequence of general average act, as, 2.93 salvage, expenses in the nature of, 1.8 types of, 1.4 Governing law and practice adjustment, 5.33 , 6.29 – 6.37 average adjusters, appointment of, 6.30 average bonds, 6.32 charterparties, 6.34 contract, 6.29 – 6.36 custom, 6.30 proper law, identification of, 6.35 Page 317 Rome Convention 1980, 6.36 York-Antwerp Rules, 6.37 Governing rules of general average, 1.21 – 1.31 common adventure, common safety and common benefit to, 1.21 – 1.22 necessity, 1.23 salvage, necessity and, 1.23 unjust enrichment, restitution by, 1.23 variation by contract, 1.24 – 1.25 York-Antwerp Rules, 1.26 – 1.31 Guarantees, 5.14 , 5.17 – 5.18 , 5.30 – 5.31 contribution, 5.14 copy of text of, App 4 insurers’ liability, 7.18 liens, 1.34 , 5.13 limitation of actions, 5.36 – 5.42 Lloyd’s, App 5 settlement of claims abroad, App 5 Hague Rules, limitation of actions and, 4.14 Hague-Visby Rules, 4.22 Harter Act, 4.23 , 4.26 Hatches, water in the, 3.8 Hire, 3.12 , 6.61 , 7.9 Hull insurance, 7.4 absorption clauses, 7.19 – 7.23 adjustment, 7.50 – 7.51 disbursements and increased value, App 14 excess liabilities, 7.17 , App 13 Institute Clauses, 7.12 , 7.50 – 7.51 Institute Time Clauses (Hull) , 7.17 , 7.37 – 7.38 insurers’ liability, 7.12 International Hull Clauses, 7.17 , 7.20 , 7.23 , 7.31 , 7.36 – 7.37 , App 14 Human lives, preservation of, 2.6 Hypothecation of the ship, 1.12 Illegality, 4.37 Immediate danger, 2.13 , 2.15 , 2.53 Indemnities exclusion of liability, 4.17 insurance contracts, 7.1 , 7.3 – 7.4 , 7.7 , 7.24 – 7.44 insurers’ liability, 7.10 , 7.14 , 7.16 , 7.18 Marine Insurance Act 1906, 7.39 particular charges, 1.9 proportionate to the insured amount, 7.39 – 7.44 ships, value of, 6.45 Inherent vice, 4.12 Inland waters, voyages on, 2.11 Institute Cargo Clauses, 7.13 , 7.36 , 7.49 Institute Freight Clauses, 7.36 Institute Hull Clauses, 7.17 , 7.31 , 7.36 – 7.38 Institute Time Clauses Hulls: Disbursements and Increased Value, copy of, App 14 Hulls: Excess Liabilities, copy of, App 13 Institute Time Clauses (Hull), 7.17 , 7.37 – 7.38 Insurance see Insurance contracts; Insurers’ liability; Marine Insurance Act 1906 Insurance contracts, 7.1 – 7.52 absorption clauses, 7.19 – 7.23 adjustment, 7.42 , 7.45 – 7.51 all risks insurance, 7.36 Association of Average Adjusters Rules, 7.40 averting or minimising loss, 3.64 , 7.4 benefit from general average act, 7.3 Bigham clauses, non-separation agreements in, 7.33 – 7.35 calculation of rights and liabilities, 7.24 – 7.25 cargo, 7.4 , 7.8 , 7.32 – 7.36 contribution, 7.2 – 7.8 , 7.28 determined independently of insurance, liability to, 7.6 insured’s rights to, 7.24 – 7.38 non-separation agreements, 7.33 contributory value, 7.29 – 7.30 , 7.40 , 7.42 – 7.44 different contracts, 7.1 disbursements, 1.12 environment, insurance and, 7.37 – 7.38 exclusion of liability, 4.18 , 7.4 extraordinary expenditure, 2.80 freight, 7.8 – 7.9 , 7.36 , 7.50 – 7.51 general average acts, effect of, 5.48 general average expenditure, 7.26 , 7.28 – 7.31 general average sacrifice, 7.26 – 7.27 hire, 7.9 hull insurance, 7.4 , 7.19 – 7.23 , 7.31 , 7.36 – 7.38 human lives, preservation of, 2.6 indemnities, 7.1 , 7.3 – 7.4 , 7.7 , 7.24 – 7.44 Institute Cargo Clauses, 7.36 , 7.49 Institute Freight Clauses, 7.36 , 7.50 – 7.51 Institute Hull Clauses, 7.31 , 7.36 – 7.37 Institute Time Clauses (Hull), 7.37 – 7.38 , App 13 , App 14 insurable interest, 5.9 insured value, 7.41 , 7.44 insured’s rights to indemnity and contribution, 7.24 – 7.38 Page 318 International Hull Clauses 2003, 7.20 , 7.23 jettison, 7.35 more than one interest, assured with, 7.7 – 7.9 non-separation agreements, 7.32 – 7.35 partial loss, 1.6 , 1.11 particular average loss, 7.44 Protection and Indemnity Association cover, 7.52 reduction in liability, 7.24 salvage, 7.4 , 7.37 – 7.38 specific losses, 7.2 subrogation, 7.25 substituted expenses, 3.64 sue and labour, 7.4 third parties, claims against, 7.24 – 7.25 time charterparty hire, 7.9 types of loss, 7.2 under-insurance, 7.31 , 7.44 unjust enrichment, 7.8 , 7.24 valued policies, 7.41 , 7.43 voyage charterparty freight, 7.9 York-Antwerp Rules, 7.33 , 7.35 , 7.37 Insurers’ liability, 7.10 – 7.20 adjustment, 7.14 avoidance of insured peril, 7.10 – 7.12 contribution, 7.15 , 7.17 – 7.18 contributory value, 7.15 , 7.17 excess liabilities, 7.17 guarantees, 7.18 hull and freight clauses, 7.12 indemnities, 7.10 , 7.14 , 7.16 , 7.18 Institute Cargo Clauses General Average Clause, 7.13 Institute Time Clauses Hulls: Excess Liabilities, 7.17 loss suffered, 7.18 Marine Insurance Act 1906, 7.11 , 7.14 , 7.18 peril insured, 7.10 – 7.14 subject-matter insured, 7.10 – 7.14 under-insurance, 7.16 – 7.17 value insured, 7.15 – 7.17 Intentionally incurred for the benefit of the common adventure, average act must be, 2.64 – 2.68 conditions of general average, 2.64 – 2.68 expenses, 2.68 masters, 2.65 – 2.68 purpose of acts, 2.68 result not achieved, intention even if, 2.65 superior orders, masters acting under, 2.65 York-Antwerp Rules, 2.68 Interest apportionment, 5.47 general average acts, effect of, 5.44 – 5.47 more than one interest, assured with, 7.7 – 7.9 rate of, 5.45 guidelines on, text of, App 10 specified period for, 5.46 York-Antwerp Rules, 5.44 – 5.47 Interests all interests, danger not threatening, 2.29 common adventure, 2.17 – 2.18 danger to a common adventure, 2.27 – 2.32 , 2.35 different interests, effect of danger on, 2.30 – 2.32 , 2.35 same ownership, interests in the, 2.27 – 2.28 single interests danger to, 2.28 , 2.34 , 2.62 division of, 2.17 single vessel, interests not at risk on, 2.17 International Hull Clauses, text of, App 17 Intervening acts, 3.15 Jason clause, 4.23 – 4.26 Jettison, 1.12 – 1.13 adjustment, 6.1 authority to act, 2.41 – 2.42 causation and remoteness, 3.3 danger to a common adventure, 2.31 deck cargo, 4.1 fault, 4.3 , 4.12 , 4.27 freight, loss of, 3.3 insurance contracts, 7.35 stores, 1.12 success of act, 2.88 total loss, 1.6 Joint ownership, danger and, 2.27 – 2.28 Joint tortfeasors, 4.13 Jurisdiction adjustment, 6.26 – 6.29 admiralty jurisdiction, 1.23 , 2.6 , 6.29 , App 2 Brussels Regulation, 6.26 – 6.27 Civil Jurisdiction and Judgments Act 1982, 6.26 Civil Procedure Rules, 6.26 human lives, preservation of, 2.6 salvage, 1.23 Supreme Court Act 1981, text of, App 2 Justification of the general average doctrine, 1.14 – 1.20 common law, 1.17 implied contract theory, 1.17 – 1.19 Page 319 mutual insurance, 1.18 public policy, 1.16 unjust enrichment, restitution of, 1.19 York-Antwerp Rules, 1.20 Justinian’s Digest, 1.1 Land, goods on, 2.8 – 2.9 Letters of undertaking, 5.18 Liens, 5.12 – 5.15 , 5.30 adjustment, 5.13 average adjusters, appointment of, 1.34 average bonds, 1.34 , 5.30 claims procedure, 1.34 contribution, 5.4 , 5.8 contributory value, place of assessment of, 6.11 – 6.12 delivery, withholding, 5.14 guarantees, 1.34 maritime liens, 3.19 , 5.12 , 5.15 masters, 5.12 possessory liens, 5.10 , 5.13 , 5.19 ranking, 5.15 reasonableness, 5.14 release of, 1.34 Rhodia law, 5.12 salvage, lightening and the environment, 3.19 sacrifice or expenditure of an extraordinary nature, 2.50 – 2.51 success of act, 2.81 – 2.82 , 2.85 value, 5.13 Lightening the ship causation and remoteness, 3.4 environment, 3.18 – 3.28 expenses of, 3.38 hire, 3.12 lighters, putting the cargo into, 1.12 salvage, 3.18 – 3.28 value of lightered cargo, 2.90 Limitation of actions, 5.35 – 5.42 average adjusters, appointment of, 5.36 – 5.37 average bonds, 5.35 – 5.42 contract, 5.35 extension of, 5.42 fault, 4.14 general average acts, effect of, 5.35 – 5.42 general average statement, publication of, 5.35 Hague Rules, 4.14 specific time bars, 5.42 success of act, 2.82 termination of common maritime adventure, 5.43 York-Antwerp Rules, 5.36 – 5.42 Limitation of liability fault, 4.15 general average acts, effect of, 5.43 Limitation of Liability Convention 1976, 5.43 Lloyd’s general average deposit receipt, copy of, App 6 guarantees, App 5 Standard Form of Salvage Agreement, 3.20 see also Lloyd’s Average Bond Lloyd’s Average Bond contract, 5.28 copy of, App 3 , App 5 settlement of claims abroad, App 5 Low-value items omitted from adjustment, 4.28 Machinery and boilers, damage to, 2.57 , 3.11 , 4.32 Mails and personal effects, 4.28 Maintenance see Wages and maintenance Marine and maritime, definition of, 2.9 Marine Insurance Act ((1906) causation and remoteness, 3.2 definition of general average, 1.2 general average expenditure, 7.28 general average sacrifice, 7.27 indemnity, measure of, 7.39 insurers’ liability, 7.11 , 7.14 , 7.18 marine insurance contracts, 2.9 non-separation agreements, 7.35 partial loss, 1.6 – 1.7 , 1.9 – 1.10 particular charges, 1.9 ships, value of, 6.42 – 6.45 text, App 1 Masters agents for all parties, as, 2.37 authority to act, 2.37 – 2.43 , 2.45 – 2.48 danger, existence of real, 2.12 , 2.15 delegation, by, 2.39 – 2.43 exercisable, whether the authority, 2.45 , 2.48 inability to act, 2.38 liens, 5.12 ordinary firmness and sound judgment, 2.12 overriding, 2.36 public policy, 2.46 ratification of acts by, 2.42 – 2.43 reasonableness, 2.15 , 2.70 see also Wages and maintenance Masts, cutting away, 1.12 Mitigation of loss, 3.77 Page 320 Natural justice, 2.41 Navigation, vessels used in, 2.10 Necessity disbursements, 6.63 environment, lightening and, 3.18 general average acts, effect of, 5.1 governing rules, 1.23 necessitous interveners, 2.45 , 2.77 salvage, 1.23 , 3.18 termination of voyage value, 2.77 Negligence, 3.15 – 3.17 contribution, 7.33 environmental pollution, 3.16 exclusion of liability, 4.17 – 4.19 , 4.22 – 4.26 foreseeability, 3.15 Hague-Visby Rules, 4.22 intervening acts, 3.15 Jason clause, 4.23 – 4.26 navigation, 4.3 third parties, 3.16 York-Antwerp Rules, 3.16 – 3.17 Non-separation agreements Bigham clause, 7.33 – 7.35 cargo, 7.32 contributory value, place of assessment of, 6.13 , 6.15 – 6.18 insurance contracts, 7.32 – 7.35 Marine Insurance Act 1906, 7.35 text of, App 7 Overlapping intentions, 2.69 Overtime, 3.50 Ownership, 2.27 – 2.28 , 5.3 – 5.4 P&I Clubs, 7.52 Partial losses, 1.06 – 1.11 common adventure, 1.10 – 1.11 contributory values, 1.11 general average losses, types of, 1.8 Marine Insurance Act 1906, 1.6 – 1.7 , 1.9 – 1.10 marine insurance contracts, 1.6 , 1.11 particular average loss, 1.7 particular charges, 1.9 salvage charges, 1.7 , 1.10 services in the nature of salvage, 1.10 sue and labour charges, 1.11 York-Antwerp Rules, 1.11 Particular average contributory value, 6.18 , 7.44 danger to a common adventure, 2.31 definition of, 1.4 insurance contracts, 7.44 partial loss, 1.7 port of refuge expenses, 3.42 single interests, 2.17 success of act, 2.92 Particular charges assured’s own interests, 1.9 danger to a common adventure, 2.31 indemnities, 1.9 Marine Insurance Act 1906, 1.9 meaning, 1.9 partial loss, 1.9 salvage, expenses in the nature of, 1.9 sue and labour clause, 1.9 Payee of general average contribution, 5.6 – 5.7 Personal effects, 2.4 Pilotage charges, 2.24 – 2.25 Piracy, 3.67 – 3.68 Place of assessment of contributory values Bigham Clause, 6.13 – 6.14 , 6.18 cargo owners, liability of, 6.12 – 6.14 carriers, liability to, 6.11 different cargos bound for different points, 6.10 early termination, 6.9 – 6.10 frustration, 6.10 intention, 6.9 – 6.10 liens, 6.11 – 6.12 Non-Separation Agreement, 6.13 , 6.15 – 6.18 on-carriage, 6.11 – 6.18 particular average, 6.18 port of refuge, 6.10 , 6.12 substitute vessels, use of, 6.11 termination of adventure, 6.9 – 6.18 wages and maintenance, 6.18 York-Antwerp Rules, 6.9 , 6.14 – 6.17 Place of safety duration of common adventure, 2.22 port of refuge expenses, 2.23 , 3.43 success of act, 2.82 Port, voyages within the confines of a, 2.11 Port charges, 3.54 – 3.60 Port of refuge expenses, 2.23 – 2.26 abandonment or condemnation of voyage, 3.63 commercial enterprises, benefiting common, 2.25 common law, 2.26 , 3.40 – 3.44 continuous operation, as part of, 3.42 contributory value, place of assessment of, 6.10 current practice, 3.44 – 3.63 danger to a common adventure, 2.23 – 2.26 direct consequence of general average act, 2.23 early termination of voyage, 3.63 Page 321 entry, removal and departure, 3.47 fuel and stores, 3.53 handling or discharging, 3.52 meaning, 3.40 particular average loss, 3.42 perils of the sea, 3.43 pilotage charges, 2.24 – 2.25 place of safety, property brought to a, 2.23 , 3.43 port charges, 3.54 – 3.60 qualifying losses, 3.40 – 3.63 recommencing the voyage, expenses of, 3.43 repairs, 2.24 – 2.26 storage, reloading and stowage expenses, 3.62 stranded vessels, unloading cargo from, 3.42 termination of voyage value, 2.76 unloading and reloading expenses, 2.24 – 2.25 voyage, damage outside the, 3.61 wages and maintenance of master and crew, 3.43 – 3.46 , 3.48 – 3.51 warehouse charges, 2.24 – 2.25 York-Antwerp Rules, 2.26 , 3.44 – 3.50 Precautions, 2.13 , 2.53 Preservation of ship, 2.89 – 2.90 Privity of contract, 1.24 Propellers, repairs to, 1.12 Proper law, identification of, 6.35 Proper person, acts sanctioned by the, 2.36 – 2.37 Protection and Indemnity Association cover, 7.52 Qualifying losses, 3.1 – 3.77 causation and remoteness, 3.2 – 3.5 contractual liability, 3.14 mitigation of loss, 3.77 negligence, 3.15 – 3.17 port of refuge expenses, 3.40 – 3.63 salvage, lightening and the environment, 3.18 – 3.28 substituted expenses, 3.64 – 3.70 temporary repairs, 3.71 – 3.76 third party liability, 3.15 – 3.17 York-Antwerp Rules, 3.6 – 3.13 Railway, goods transferred to a, 2.8 Ransom, 2.71 , 3.67 – 3.68 Ratification of acts, 2.42 – 2.43 Real danger see Danger, existence of real Reasonableness, 2.70 – 2.73 Bigham Clause, 2.70 compensation for unreasonable loss, 2.70 – 2.72 conditions of general average, 2.70 – 2.73 contract, 3.14 extraordinary sacrifice and expenditure, 2.70 fuel, supply of, 2.50 – 2.52 liens, 5.14 masters, 2.70 mitigation, 3.77 place of refuge, selecting a, 2.70 Rule Paramount in York-Antwerp Rules, 2.72 substituted expenses, 3.64 UK Standard Conditions for Towage, 2.70 York-Antwerp Rules, 1.30 Recommencement of voyage, expenses of, 2.24 – 2.26 Refloating, damage during, 4.32 Refuge see Port of refuge expenses Remoteness see Causation and remoteness Repairs causation and remoteness, 3.04 danger to a common adventure, 2.32 propellers, 1.12 sacrifice or expenditure of an extraordinary nature, 2.50 – 2.51 ships, value of, 6.46 – 6.48 tempoary, 3.64 , 3.66 , 3.71 – 3.76 Respondentia bonds, 6.63 Restitution danger to a common adventure, 2.34 governing rules, 1.23 human lives, preservation of, 2.6 salvage, 2.34 termination of voyage value, 2.77 unjust enrichment, 1.19 , 1.23 Rhodian law, 1.1 , 5.12 Rule Paramount, 1.30 , 2.72 , 3.77 Sacrifice or expenditure cargo and ship’s material used as fuel, 2.52 conditions of general average, 2.49 – 2.64 contract, 2.49 crew, taking on extra or increasing wages of, 2.55 extraordinary nature of, 2.49 – 2.58 freight, abandonment of, 2.59 fuel extraordinary consumption of, 2.50 – 2.52 , 2.55 – 2.56 reasonable supply of, 2.50 – 2.52 imminent perils, 2.53 insurance contracts, 7.26 – 7.31 Page 322 kind and degree, differences in, 2.55 – 2.58 machinery and boilers, damage to, 2.57 Marine Insurance Act 1906, 7.27 – 7.28 ordinary and normal perils of the sea, 2.53 particular thing, sacrifice of a, 2.63 precautions, 2.53 real, must be, 2.59 – 2.64 repairs, 2.50 – 2.51 single interest, danger to, 2.62 success of act, 2.78 – 2.83 value, 6.7 – 6.8 , 6.38 wreck, part of superstructure in state of, 2.60 York-Antwerp Rules 2004, 2.52 , 2.57 – 2.58 , 2.60 Sacrificed property, 3.30 Safety of common adventure, 1.21 – 1.22 , 2.16 Salvage absorption clauses, 7.20 – 7.21 Admiralty law and jurisdiction, 1.23 charges, 1.7 , 1.9 – 1.10 , 7.4 , 7.19 – 7.20 complex operations, 2.21 duration of the common adventure, 2.21 engaging salvage services, 1.12 expenses in the nature of, 1.8 extraordinary expenditure, 2.09 governing rules, 1.23 human lives, preservation of, 2.6 insurance contracts, 7.4 Marine Insurance Act 1906, 1.7 , 1.10 necessity, 1.23 partial loss, 1.7 , 1.10 particular charges, 1.9 restitution, 2.34 self-interest, 2.35 services, 1.10 , 1.12 termination of voyage value, 2.77 Salvage: York-Antwerp Rules, 3.17 see also Salvage and the environment; Salvage liability Salvage and the environment, 3.18 – 3.28 Association of Average Adjusters, 3.22 , 3.39 complex salvage operations, 3.37 contracts, 3.20 differential salvage awards, 3.39 environmental services, 3.35 exemption clauses, 4.34 insurance contracts, 7.37 – 7.38 lightening, 3.18 – 3.28 Lloyd’s Standard Form of Salvage Agreement, 3.20 maritime liens, 3.19 necessity, 3.18 salvage charges, 3.19 Salvage Convention 1989, 3.22 , 3.35 – 3.36 , 7.37 shipowners, 3.19 special compensation, 3.36 York-Antwerp Rules 1994, 3.22 – 3.36 , 3.38 – 3.39 Salvage liability, 3.21 , 3.25 – 3.34 Scuttling, 1.12 Seaworthiness due diligence, 4.25 exclusion of liability, 4.21 , 4.23 , 4.25 fault, 4.3 , 4.9 – 4.11 Security cash deposits, 5.19 – 5.23 , 5.30 general average acts, effect of, 5.12 – 5.26 see also Average bonds; Guarantees; Liens Settlement of claims abroad, App 5 Ships, value of, 6.44 – 6.48 bunkers, 6.42 common law, 6.42 , 6.48 containers, 6.42 contributory value, 6.42 indemnities, 6.45 Marine Insurance Act 1906, 6.42 – 6.45 place of termination of common adventure, 6.42 repairs, cost of, 6.46 – 6.48 sale of ships, 6.42 temporary repairs, 6.47 total loss, 6.45 wireless and navigational equipment, 6.42 York-Antwerp Rules, 6.45 – 6.48 Single interests danger to a common adventure, 2.28 , 2.34 , 2.62 division of, 2.17 Single vessel, interests not at risk on a, 2.18 slavery, 2.7 Small losses, recovery of, 7.20 – 7.21 Smoke damage, 4.32 Spare parts, air freighting, 3.66 Specific time-bar, 5.42 Storage, reloading and stowage expenses, 3.50 Stores, 1.12 , 3.53 Stranding, 1.6 , 1.12 , 2.89 , 3.42 Subject-matter, 2.3 – 2.6 cargo, 2.4 conditions of general average, 2.3 – 2.6 destination, brought safely to, 2.82 – 2.86 freight, 2.5 human lives, 2.6 insurers’ liability, 7.10 – 7.14 Page 323 Subrogation, 7.21 , 7.23 , 7.25 Subsequent expenses, 5.16 Substitute vessels, use of, 6.11 Substituted expenses Association of Average Adjusters, 3.66 common law, 3.64 – 3.65 custom, 3.65 drydocking with cargo on board, 3.66 forwarding cargo, 3.66 fuel, additional, 3.64 losses, 3.70 marine insurance, avoidance or minimisation of insured loss and, 3.64 reasonableness, 3.64 spare parts, air freighting of, 3.66 temporary repairs, 3.64 , 3.66 , 3.71 , 3.73 – 3.76 towage services, 3.66 York-Antwerp Rules, 3.65 – 3.70 Success of act, 2.74 – 2.92 common adventure, acts for the purpose of the, 2.87 compensation, 2.78 conditions of general average, 2.63 – 2.92 destination, SUB:ject-matter brought safely to the, 2.82 – 2.86 excluding the requirement of success, 2.91 expenditure, 2.79 – 2.81 extinguishment of requirement, 2.91 extraordinary sacrifice, 2.78 failure, 2.92 general average act, success not resulting from, 2.87 – 2.88 jettison, 2.88 liens, 2.81 – 2.82 , 2.85 limitation period, 2.82 particular average, 2.92 period of liability, 2.82 – 2.86 place of safety, arrival at a, 2.82 preservation of ship, 2.89 – 2.90 sacrifice, 2.78 , 2.81 terminal value, 2.75 – 2.78 , 2.81 – 2.88 unjust enrichment, 2.87 York-Antwerp Rules, 2.81 , 2.86 Sue and labour, 1.9 , 1.11 , 7.4 Superior orders, loss as result of, 2.44 Supreme Court Act 1981, text of, App 2 Temporary repairs affreightment, contracts of, 3.71 permanent repairs, costs of, 3.74 – 3.76 ships, value of, 6.47 substituted expenses, 3.64 , 3.66 , 3.71 , 3.73 – 3.76 York-Antwerp Rules, 3.71 – 3.76 Termination of voyage value adjustment, 6.2 – 6.7 common law, 2.76 , 6.7 contributory interest must be of value at end of voyage, 2.75 – 2.78 contributory value, place of assessment of, 6.9 – 6.18 crystallised liability, 2.86 diminution in value, 2.86 early termination, 6.9 – 6.10 extraordinary expenditure, 2.79 – 2.80 extraordinary sacrifices, 2.78 necessitous intervention, 2.77 place of termination, 6.4 – 6.5 , 6.9 – 6.19 port of refuge expenses, 2.76 restitution, 2.77 salvage, 2.77 ships, 6.42 success of act, 2.75 – 2.78 , 2.81 – 2.88 York-Antwerp Rules, 2.75 – 2.77 , 6.4 , 6.8 Third parties absorption clauses, 7.22 – 7.23 economic loss, 5.34 fault prejudicing, 4.27 insurance contracts, 7.24 – 7.25 negligence, 3.16 privity of contract, 1.24 property damage, 1.12 qualifying losses, 3.15 – 3.17 torts of, 5.34 Through bills of lading, 2.8 , 2.11 Time limits see Limitation of actions Tortious liability, 1.12 , 4.11 , 4.13 , 5.34 ; see also Negligence Total loss, 1.6 , 2.30 , 6.45 Towage employment of services, 1.12 port charges, 3.56 – 3.60 reasonableness, 2.70 substituted expenses, 3.66 Standard Conditions, 2.70 UK Standard Conditions for Towage, 2.70 Under-insurance, 7.16 – 7.17 , 7.31 , 7.44 Uniformity, 1.25 – 1.27 Unjust enrichment contribution, 5.9 governing rules, 1.23 insurance contracts, 7.8 , 7.24 restitution, 1.19 , 1.23 success of act, 2.87 Unseaworthiness see Seaworthiness Page 324 Value absorption clauses, 7.19 adjustment, 5.33 , 6.2 – 6.19 , 6.38 – 6.66 allowances, amount of, 6.38 bunkers, 6.62 cargo, 6.42 , 6.49 – 6.58 containers, 6.62 contributory values, 5.5 , 5.9 – 5.11 , 6.38 , 6.40 – 6.41 , 6.49 , 6.54 diminution in value, 5.9 – 5.11 disbursements, 6.38 , 6.63 – 6.65 effect of adjustment, 6.65 form, copy of, App 8 freight, 6.59 – 6.60 general average expenditure, 6.38 general rule, 6.40 – 6.42 hire, 6.61 insurance contracts, 7.41 , 7.43 insured, 7.15 – 7.17 , 7.41 , 7.44 liens, 5.12 lightered cargo, 2.90 limitation of actions, 5.35 – 5.42 market, 6.49 sacrifices, expenditures and contributory interests, 6.7 – 6.8 time and place of valuation, 6.3 – 6.19 wireless and navigational equipment, 6.62 York-Antwerp Rules 2004, 6.41 see also Contributory value; Ships, value of; Termination of voyage value Variation by contract, 1.24 – 1.25 Voyage, maritime adventure in the nature of a, 2.8 – 2.11 air, carriage by, 2.9 conditions of general average, 2.8 – 2.11 inland waters, voyages on, 2.11 land, goods on, 2.8 – 2.9 loading onto another ship, goods, 2.8 , 2.11 marine and maritime, definition of, 2.9 Marine Insurance Act 1906, 2.9 marine insurance contracts, 2.9 navigation, vessels used in, 2.10 port, voyages within the confines of a, 2.11 railway, goods transferred to the, 2.8 through bills of lading, 2.8 , 2.11 warehouses floating, 2.8 , 2.10 goods stored in, 2.8 Wages and maintenance contributory value, place of assessment of, 6.18 increase in, 2.55 overtime, 3.50 port of refuge expenses, 3.43 – 3.46 , 3.48 – 3.51 York-Antwerp Rules, 3.48 – 3.52 Warehouses, 2.8 , 2.11 , 2.24 – 2.25 Wireless and navigational equipment, value of, 6.42 , 6.62 Wreck, part of superstructure in state of, 2.60 York-Antwerp Rules, 1.20 , 2.66 absorption clauses, 7.20 adjustment, 7.50 – 7.51 cargo damage whilst discharging to, 3.13 deck, 4.1 value of, 6.58 – 6.59 cash deposits, 5.19 – 5.23 common adventure, 2.19 , 2.32 comparative table, App 9 contents, 1.30 contract, 5.29 contribution, 5.4 , 5.9 , 5.12 contributory value, place of assessment of, 6.9 , 6.14 – 6.17 danger common adventure, to, 2.32 existence of real, 2.13 – 2.15 deck cargo, 4.1 definition of general average, 1.3 , 1.5 delay, 3.7 demurrage, 3.7 disbursements, 6.65 duration of common adventure, 2.22 editions of, 1.27 – 1.29 exemption clauses, 4.31 – 4.36 fault, 4.8 , 4.12 fire, extinguishing, 3.9 force of, 1.26 , 1.30 freight, 6.59 governing law and practice, 6.37 governing rules, 1.26 – 1.31 hatches, water in the, 3.8 human lives, preservation of, 2.6 incorporation of, 1.26 insurance, 7.33 , 7.35 , 7.37 , 7.50 – 7.51 lettered rules, 1.30 lightening a ship when ashore, expenses of, 3.38 machinery and boilers, damage during refloating to, 3.11 market, loss of, 3.7 negligence, 3.16 – 3.17 numbered rules, 1.30 partial loss, 1.11 port charges, 3.54 – 3.60 Page 325 port of refuge expenses, 2.26 , 3.44 – 3.50 preservation of ship, 2.89 purpose of, 1.26 qualifying losses, 3.6 – 3.13 reasonableness, 1.30 revised, 1.26 – 1.29 Rule of Interpretation, 1.30 Rule Paramount, 1.30 Rules of Practice of the Association of Average Adjusters, 1.30 ships, value of, 6.45 – 6.48 standard forms, 1.26 , 1.29 updating mechanisms, drafting with, 1.29 substituted expenses, 3.65 – 3.70 success of act, 2.81 , 2.86 temporary repairs, 3.71 , 3.74 termination of voyage value, 2.75 – 2.77 , 6.4 , 6.8 uniformity, 1.26 – 1.27 value, 6.41 , 6.58 – 6.59 voluntary stranding, 3.10 wages and maintenance, 3.48 – 3.52 see also York-Antwerp Rules 1994; York Antwerp Rules 2004 York-Antwerp Rules 1994 cargo, value of, 6.55 – 6.59 comparative table, App 9 contributory value, place of assessment of, 6.14 – 6.15 environmental pollution, 3.16 , 3.22 – 3.23 , 3.35 – 3.36 , 3.39 insurance contracts, 7.37 interest, 5.46 limitation of actions, 5.35 – 5.42 salvage, 3.17 , 3.22 – 3.23 , 3.35 – 3.36 , 3.39 voyage, damage outside the, 3.59 wages and maintenance, 3.49 York-Antwerp Rules 2004, 1.26 , 1.28 cargo, 2.4 damage during discharging to, 3.13 value, of, 6.49 , 6.55 , 6.57 comparative table, App 9 contributory value, place of assessment of, 6.14 – 6.15 definition of general average, 1.5 environmental pollution, 3.16 , 3.22 , 3.24 – 3.35 , 3.38 freight, 2.5 fuel, 3.12 , 3.53 interest, 5.44 – 5.47 lightening, lighter hire and reshipping costs, 3.12 lightening a ship when ashore, expenses of, 3.38 limitation of actions, 5.36 – 5.42 partial loss, 1.11 port of refuge expenses, 3.47 reloading, 3.62 sacrifice or expenditure, 2.52 , 2.57 – 2.58 , 2.60 salvage, lightening and the environment, 3.22 , 3.24 – 3.35 , 3.38 storage expenses, 3.62 stores, 3.12 , 3.53 stowage, 3.62 temporary repairs, 3.71 – 3.76 wages and maintenance, 3.51 – 3.52 Zong massacre, 2.7 Page 326

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