We use cookies to improve your website experience. To learn about our use of cookies and how you can manage your cookie settings, please see our Cookie Policy. By continuing to use the website, you consent to our use of cookies. Close

Index

Shipping and the Environment

Index

Index

  • A Turtle
  • Abnormally dangerous activities, 240241, 493, 965
  • Access to places of refuge. See Places of refuge for ships
  • Access to territorial seas and ports, 905920
  • Acts of God
    • CERCLA (United States), 310311, 669
    • definition, 310
    • international compensation Conventions. See Natural phenomenon
    • Oil Pollution Act 1990 (United States), 201203, 669
  • Acts of war
    • CERCLA (United States), 310311, 669
    • Oil Pollution Act 1990 (United States), 201, 203, 669
  • Acts or omissions
    • CERCLA (United States), 310312, 669
    • charterers, 625, 628
    • claimants
      • Civil Liability Conventions, 9294
      • Fund Conventions, 146, 153
      • Hazardous and Noxious Substances Convention 1996, 281283, 285
    • limitation of liability, 109, 119
    • navigational aids, 104105
    • Oil Pollution Act 1990 (United States), 193194, 201, 203204, 207208
    • ship management, 653654
  • Actual fault or privity. See also Privity and knowledge
    • “actual fault”, 792793
    • arrest of ships, 134
    • burden of proof, 794
    • Civil Liability Convention 1969, 116
    • compensation, 116117
    • definition, 792793
    • limitation of liability, 116117
    • Limitation of Liability Convention 1957, 116, 791794
    • masters, 793
    • national laws, 794
    • non-delegable duty, 793
    • P&I Clubs, 116117
    • “pay to be paid”, 116
    • “privity”, 793
    • ship managers, 792
    • Torrey Canyon, 11
  • Actual loss, 775
  • Admiralty jurisdiction
    • Admiralty Extension Act (United States), 179180
    • maritime liens, 178179
    • tort, 180
    • United States, 177180
  • Admittance to ports, 584, 758759, 767768, 908913
  • Advertisements, OPA–90 claims procedure, 217
  • Aegean Captain, 542, 667, 906
  • Aegean Sea, 7273
    • act or omission of claimant, 104105
    • charterers, 637
    • criteria for admissibility of claims, background to, 366, 438
    • economic loss. See under Economic loss
    • employees, 473
    • fishing and related industries, claims by, 448, 452, 455, 458
    • limit of liability, 1992 Fund, 72
    • limitation of liability under 1976 Convention,
      • charterers, 637
      • claims subject to limitation, 796797
    • negligence, 104105, 695
    • pilot, contributory negligence of, 104105, 695
    • ports, claims relating to, 469470
    • preventive measures, loss caused by, 390391
    • salvage and related operations, 403404
    • shipping claims related to, 469470
    • social security payments, 474
    • special compensation, claimed as cost of preventive measures, 403404
    • tourism, 460, 464
    • unlicensed activities, 474
  • Agip Abruzzo, 400402
  • Agriculture, effect of oil spill on, 470, 471
  • Air pollution
    • Clean Air Act (United States), 883889
    • compensation under international conventions
    • criminal liability (United States), 11371138
    • prevention (MARPOL), 840847
  • Al Jaziah 1
    • recourse action by 1971 Fund, 138
    • “ship”, CLC 92, 87
  • Alambra
    • claim for fine or penalty outside scope of CLC 92, 483484, 486
    • claims outstanding against 1971 Fund, 138
  • Alcohol testing, 864865, 1146
  • Alter egos
  • American Trader
    • economic loss claims, Californian state law, 436
    • liability of time charterer, 611612
    • Oil Pollution Act 1990 (United States), provided impetus for, 52
    • Trans-Alaska Pipeline Authorization Act (United States), 4344
  • Amoco Cadiz, 2728
    • 1984 Protocols, led to, 29
    • alter egos, liability of, 662663
    • associated parties, liability of, 662663
    • Civil Liability Conventions
      • application of incident to CLC 69, 2728, 108
      • channelling provisions, 107111
      • claims in non-CLC states, 112113
      • parties other than shipowner, claims against, 107, 652654
      • “servants or agents” of shipowner, 107108, 652654
    • common law, liability at, 656657
    • economic loss, 430
    • fixed costs
      • “committed costs”, 384
      • equipment on standby, 387388
      • overheads, 387
      • salaries and equipment, 385386
    • intervention, 903904
    • litigation in United States, summary, 2728
    • managers, liability of, 652654
    • negligence, 112, 657
    • operators, liability of, 652654
    • parent company, liability of, 662663
    • salvage
      • changes in law, led to, 542543
      • claims against salvors, 543, 592
  • Amorgos
    • detention of officers and crew, 1107
    • Taiwan Association for Human Rights, 1104
  • Andros Patria, 908909
  • Angling clubs, 471, 472
  • Anti-fouling systems, 847850
  • Antonio Gramsci
    • first incident (1979), 151, 481
    • second incident (1987), 483
  • Aquacultural stocks, 408, 410, 415, 446452
  • Aquatic invasive species, 887889
  • Arbitration
  • Area Contingency Plans, 66, 929, 933, 944947
  • Area exercises, 986987
  • Argana, 1100
  • Argo Merchant, 4748, 514, 858, 931
  • Ariadne, 271
  • Arrest of ships
    • actual fault or privity, 132133
    • alter egos, 658
    • burden of proof, 135
    • Civil Liability Convention 1969, 131, 132134
    • Civil Liability Convention 1992, 133134, 135
    • conduct, 135
    • counter-productive, 131
    • Fund Conventions, 132, 133134
    • limitation funds, 132134
    • limitation of liability, 133135
    • Limitation of Liability Convention 1957, 134, 135
    • Limitation of Liability Convention 1976, 134
    • national laws, 132
    • Nissos Amorgos, 136
    • P&I Clubs, 136
    • public authorities, 136
    • release, 134, 135136
    • Seki, 136
    • sister, 657
    • Wladyslaw Lokietek, 134, 135
  • Arvak Ltd, 61
  • Asset Conservation Act (United States), 722725
  • Assignment
    • charterers, 641, 642
    • Fund Conventions, rights under, 168
  • Athos I
    • charterer, potential liability, 610
    • funding of clean-up, 211
    • incident, 67
    • limit of liability
      • concerns about adequacy, 67
    • legislation to increase, 207
    • NPFC claim procedures, 216
    • nuisance claims, 239
    • terminal operator, potential liability, 617
  • Atlantic Empress, 542, 906
  • Autopilots, 873874
  • Average. See General average, Particular average
  • Averity, 1103
  • Bahamas, 1011
  • Ballast
    • bunker spills, 257
    • Civil Liability Convention 1969, 8892
    • Civil Liability Convention 1992, 72, 8892
    • emissions, 884
    • double hulls, 867
    • Fund Convention 1992, 72
    • Hazardous and Noxious Substances Convention 1996, 275
    • MARPOL 73/78, 824, 825
    • OILPOL 54, 821823
    • segregated ballast tanks, 823, 824
  • Ballast Water and Sediments Management Convention, 850853. See also under International rules to prevent pollution
  • Ballast water management in US, 887889
  • Baltic Carrier
    • “incident”, CLC 92, 93
    • environmental impact studies, costs, 489490
    • oil contaminating colliding ship, 669
  • Ban Ann, 1088
  • Bareboat charters
  • Barges, 8788, 971
  • Basel Convention on Transboundary Movements of Waste, 10171022. See also Shipment of waste
    • civil liability and compensation, 1022
    • control of movements between contracting states, 10201021
    • criminal liability and public law obligations, 1021
    • dismantling of vessels, 10301049, passim. See also Dismantling of vessels
    • movements permissible subject to controls, 1021
    • non-compliance with, 10211022
    • prohibition of movements, 1020
    • scope, 10181019
    • “wastes”, meaning, 1019
  • Betelgeuse, 270
  • Bilge water
    • CERCLA (United States), 347348
    • hazardous waste, 347348
    • MARPOL 73/78, 766
  • Birds
    • clean-up, 379
    • criminal offences, 10301031
    • Migratory Bird Treaty Act (United States), 10301031
  • Blue cards, 126
  • Blue Lady, 10371039
    • beaching irreversible, 1033
    • Supreme Court of India, judgment, 1027, 1036
  • Braer, 7273
    • agriculture, effect on, 470472
    • criteria for admissibility of claims, background to, 366, 438
    • dispersal of oil, 361
    • economic loss. See under Economic loss
    • employees, 472474
    • environmental impact studies, funding of, 488490
    • fishing and related industries, claims by, 447450, 452456, 472474
    • health, effect on, 357
    • Landcatch claim, 442444, 456457
    • oil spilt, type of, 360
    • property damage, 409
    • real estate, loss of market value, 409
    • recourse against P&I Clubs by IOPC Fund, 731
    • salvage and related operations
      • primary purpose test, 398
      • special compensation, claimed as cost of preventive measures, 403404
    • tourism promotion, 468
    • unlicensed activities, 474475
    • windblown oil spray, 409, 470472
  • Brent Spar, 1008, 1013
  • Bridge-to-Bridge Radio Telephone Act 1971 (United States), 877
  • Brussels Collision Convention. See Colliding ships
  • Brussels Conference 1969, 1417
  • Brussels Conference 1971, 1718
  • Bulk carriers, 89, 255
  • Bunker emission clauses, 645646
  • Bunker spills, 255266. See also Bunkers Convention, Double bottoms
  • Bunkers Convention 2001
    • background, 76, 258
    • certification, 264
    • channelling provisions, absence of, 260262, 594, 609
    • charterers, 262, 609
    • compulsory insurance, 264
    • geographical scope, 259
    • insurer, 264
    • judgments, recognition and enforcement, 265
    • jurisdiction of courts, 265
    • liability
      • incurred independently of Convention
        • by shipowner, 261
        • other parties, 262
      • insurer, 264
      • limitation, 262264
      • parties liable under Convention, 260
      • scope of, 259
    • limitation of liability, 262264
      • claims subject to limitation, 263
    • parties liable, 260
    • responder immunity, absence of, 260262, 594
    • salvors, 594
    • scope of liability, 259
    • “ship”, 265
    • time limit for claims, 265
  • Business interruption, 469
  • California
    • financial responsibility requirements, 60
  • Camp sites, 461
  • Canada
    • Fund Convention 1971, 8788
    • Irish Stardust, 103
    • navigational aids, 103104
    • Oil Pollution Act 1990 (United States), 55
    • response measures in the United States, 962
  • Carbon dioxide emissions, 845846
  • Carbon monoxide, 883, 885
  • Cargo. See also Cargo interests
    • bunker spills, 88
    • collision, 780
    • contamination, 781
    • destruction, 778
    • general average, 768
    • insurance, 771774, 778
    • lightering, 875876
    • special compensation, 558
    • total loss, 778
  • Cargo interests, 607649
  • Carriage by sea
    • Hazardous and Noxious Substances Convention 1996, 276
    • US hazardous and noxious substances, 296, 300
  • Castillo de Bellver, 1012
  • Castor
    • “damage to the environment”, Salvage Convention, no substantial threat, 552
    • contact points, coastal states, 894
    • places of refuge
      • search for, 910911
      • IMO Guidelines, led to, 916
  • Catastrophe losses, effect on reinsurance of P&I risks, 731
  • Causation. See also Proximate cause
    • CERCLA (United States), 339340
    • charterers, 635
    • claims, 356
    • clean-up, 391
    • Clean Water Act (United States), 177
    • economic loss, 438440, 441
    • natural resources, 493
    • negligence, 237238
    • Oil Pollution Act 1990 (United States), 206
    • tourism, 460
    • United States, 237238
  • Causes of action
    • Clean Water Act (United States), 35
    • Oil Pollution Act 1990 (United States), 177
    • Refuse Act (United States), 182183
    • United States, 234241
  • CERCLA (United States), 47, 55, 59, 303352
  • Certificates of Financial Responsibility
    • Arvak Ltd, 61
    • CERCLA (United States), 220221
    • First Line, 61
    • fleet, 224
    • Florida, 613
    • insurance, 750
    • lightering, 875
    • Mobil, 62
    • Oil Pollution Act 1990 (United States), 57, 220
    • P&I Clubs, 57
    • Shoreline Mutual Insurance Association, 61
    • Sigco, 61
    • Water Quality Insurance Syndicate (WQIS), 61
  • Certification. See also Certificates of Financial Responsibility
    • bunker spills, 264265
    • Civil Liability Conventions, 125127
    • container packing certificate, 882
    • double hulls, alternatives to, 870
    • Hazardous and Noxious Substances Convention 1996, compulsory insurance, 286
    • hazardous and noxious substances, packing, 881
    • manning, 864865
    • Oil Pollution Act 1990 (United States), 864865
    • insurance, 749750
    • International Oil Pollution Prevention Certificate, 870, 896
    • MARPOL 73/78, 823, 841, 863864
    • Standards, 1053
    • vessel response plans, 896
  • Charlotte, 792
  • Charterers, 607649. See also Bareboat charters
  • Charterparty clauses, 643647
    • bunker emission clauses, 645646
    • cost of additional insurance, 647
    • oil major approval clauses, 644
    • payment for insurance, 646647
    • response measures
      • oil company clauses, 643644
      • TOVALOP Charterparty Clause, 643
    • vetting clauses, 645
  • Charts, 104
  • Chemicals
    • CERCLA (United States), 347348
    • Hazardous and Noxious Substances Convention 1996, 269293
    • hazardous waste, 349350
    • National Contingency Plan, 958959
  • Civil Liability Conventions 1969 and 1992, 3, 80136
    • act of God. See natural phenomenon
    • acts or omissions of claimants, 104105
    • actual fault or privity, 793
    • agents of shipowner, liability excluded by, 107108
    • alter egos, 119, 657658, 791792
    • arrest, 121, 132136
    • background
    • bareboat charters, 629
    • Brussels Conference 1969, 1417
    • builder, liability not excluded by, 109
    • bunker spills, 4, 86, 88, 244245, 256258, 263264
    • cases covered by CLC 92 but not by CLC 69, 6
    • cases not covered by Conventions, 56
    • causation, 356357
    • certification, 15, 125127
    • channelling provisions, 107113
    • charterers
      • claims by, 641
      • exclusion of liability
      • recourse action against
        • by shipowner, 627628
        • limitation of liability, 637638
      • TOVALOP Charterparty Clause, 643
    • charts, 104
    • claims
      • admissibility and assessment
        • clean-up operations and preventive measures, 371406
        • criteria. See Criteria for admissibility of claims (IOPC Funds)
        • economic loss, 415417, 437475
        • general principles, 105107, 355369
        • marine environment, damage to, 477490
        • property damage, 407412
        • non-CLC states, 112113
    • classification societies, 111
    • clean-up operations,
      • generally, 357, 371372
      • loss or damage caused by, 390391
      • persons taking measures, 372374
      • reasonableness of measures, 375379
      • technical problems, 362
    • colliding ship, owner of, 109
    • collision, 109, 779
    • combination carriers, 8991
    • Comité Maritime International,
      • CLC 69, preparatory work, 1213, 1416
      • CMI Guidelines on Oil Pollution Damage, 369
    • compensation
      • general framework, 3, 8182
      • limits
      • supplemental, under Fund Convention, 3, 8182, 131134
    • conduct of owner
      • barring limitation
        • CLC 69, 116117
        • CLC 92, 72, 119
        • guarantor’s liability, no effect on, 127
        • wilful misconduct
          • guarantor’s liability, effect on, 127
      • contamination. See also Environmental damage
      • clean-up operations, 375379
      • damage not caused by, 412
      • escape or discharge oil,
        • contamination resulting from, 346357, 412
        • contamination not resulting from, 412
      • fisheries. See also Fishing industry and related industries
        • equipment, 452
        • fish farms, 446
        • sampling, 449
        • wild fish and other seafood, 449451
      • loss or damage, cause of, 356357
      • property damage, 408409
      • technical considerations, 359363
      • water supplies, 452
    • corporate veil, 85
    • costs of clean-up operations and preventive measures
    • criteria for admissibility of claims. See claims, Criteria for admissibility of claims (IOPC Funds)
    • default in maintenance of navigational aids. See maintenance of navigational aids definitions, 8598
    • denunciation of CLC 69, 19, 81
    • direct action against insurer, 131132, 749750
    • economic loss. See also Economic loss
    • enforcement of judgments, 131136
    • entry into force
    • exclusive economic zones, 5, 72, 83, 84, 144
    • fault, 15, 98
    • financial limits
    • fisheries. See under contamination, and also Fishing and related industries
    • Fund Conventions, relationship with, 34, 1719, 8182, 137138, 144145
    • general average, relationship with, 760, 763, 765
    • geographical scope, 5, 72, 8385
      • contracting states, 10001004
      • exclusive economic zones, 5, 72, 84
    • guarantors, 127, 131132, 749
    • health claims, 357
    • incident
    • indemnity, insurer’s right of against shipowner, 127128
    • insurance
    • insurer. See also insurance
    • interim payments, 112, 122124, 160164
    • International Maritime Organization, 71
    • intervention
      • by IOPC Funds in proceedings under CLC, 165
      • state intervention, costs of, 903904
    • IOPC Funds, see IOPC Funds
    • joint and several liability, 95
    • judgments
      • enforcement, 131136
      • mutual recognition and enforcement, 132
      • recognition, 131132
      • IOPC Funds, effect on, 165
    • jurisdiction, 15, 112, 128131
    • lender liability, 710712
    • liability, 15, 72, 85, 98
      • basis for, 15, 98
      • exceptions, 98105
      • guarantors, 127
      • insurers, 127
      • limitation of. See limitation of liability
      • pollution damage, other than for, 106107, 112
    • lights, 104
    • Limitation Convention 1976
    • limitation funds
      • distribution of fund, 122125
        • interim distribution, 122124
        • owner’s expenses, 124125
        • reserve for outstanding claims, 122123
        • subrogation claims against fund, 123124
      • establishment of fund, 120122
        • jurisdiction, 121
        • conversion into national currency, 121
        • interest on, 121122
    • limitation of actions, 128
    • limitation of liability
    • limitation tonnage
    • loss of profit. See also Economic loss
      • in revised definition of “pollution damage”, 358
    • maintenance of navigational aids, default in, 101104
      • “maintenance”, meaning, 103104
      • “navigational aids”, meaning, 104
      • alternative remedy, whether necessary, 102103
    • malicious act, 101
    • marine environment, claim for damage to,
    • mobile offshore units, 91, 243, 248
    • natural phenomenon, 99100
    • natural resources. See marine environment
    • navigational aids. See maintenance of
    • negligence, 102103, 104105, 112113
    • occurrence
      • incident, meaning, 92
      • time limit for claims, 128
    • oil, definition, 9698
    • oil barges, 8788
    • owner, definition, 8586
    • P&I Clubs, 125, 126, 127128, 750751
    • parties liable under, 67
    • persistent oil, definition, 96
    • personal injury, 357
    • piercing the corporate veil, 85
    • pilots, 104, 105, 111, 147
    • pollution damage
    • port state control, 15, 125
    • preventive measures, 15, 72, 8485, 90, 92, 94, 105106, 108, 124, 129, 356357, 371406
    • property damage, 106, 407412
    • Protocol 1976, 113, 121
    • Protocol 1984, 2930, 71
      • United States, decision not to ratify, 52, 55
    • Protocol 1992, 7173, 81, 137138, 482
    • proximate cause
      • war risks exclusion, 99
    • proximity
      • between contamination and economic loss
    • public authorities. See also clean-up operations, Clean-up, Clean-up costs
      • act or omission of, 104105
      • default in maintenance of navigational aids, 101104
    • pure economic loss. See Economic loss
    • “pure threat” situation. See incident, pre-spill costs
    • ratification, 1992
    • Protocol, 7273
    • recognition of judgments, 131136
    • recourse, owner’s rights of, 107, 166
    • registered owner, 8586
    • relationship between conventions
    • remedies
    • revision, 1415, 3132
    • sale and leaseback, liability of owner, 86
    • salvage. See salvors, Salvage
    • salvors
      • claims by, 587590
      • liability for pollution, exclusion of, 108, 590594
      • payments to, claims for, 396404
    • scope of, 8298
    • ship
      • definitions, 8692, 95
      • incident involving two or more, 95
      • small, 30, 131
      • tanker in ballast, 8889
      • warships, 105
    • ship builders, 109
    • ship financiers, 710712
    • ship managers, 651655
    • shipowners
      • definition, 8586
      • exceptions to liability of, 98105
      • servants or agents, liability of
      • strict liability of, 15, 98
    • small tankers, 30, 131
    • state immunity, 102, 105
    • state-owned ships, 9192
    • status in contracting states, 9991004
    • strict liability, 15, 81, 85, 98
      • exceptions to shipowner’s, 98105
    • sunken wrecks
      • contact with, 356
      • time limit for claims, 128
    • tankers, 95
      • bunker spills, 256258
      • in ballast, 88
    • terminal operators, 109
    • territorial sea, 5, 8384
    • tonnage, 14, 81
    • TOVALOP, 1415, 26, 30
    • transitional period, 71, 131, 383
    • two or more ships, 95
    • two-tier system, 1718, 81
    • war risks, 99
    • warships, 105
    • wilful misconduct
      • effect on liability of guarantor, 127
    • wrecks
      • contact with, 356
      • time limit for claims, 128
  • Claims. See also Damages, Legal proceedings
  • Class actions
    • Deepwater Port Act, 45
    • Oil Pollution Act 1990 (United States), 226
  • Classification societies
    • charterers, 622
    • controls on ship safety standards, 10671068
    • International Association of Classification Societies, 63, 10671068
    • liability for pollution, 109
    • Oil Pollution Act 1990 (United States), 63
    • ships, vetting programmes, 622
    • standards, 63, 1054, 10671068
  • CLC. See Civil Liability Conventions 1969 and 1992
  • Clean Air Act (United States), 883887, 11371138
    • criminal liability for violations, 11371138
    • emission standards
      • ocean-going vessels, 885887
  • Clean-up. See also Clean-up costs
    • birds, 379
    • bulk oil, 378
    • bunker spills, 372
    • causation, 391
    • Civil Liability Conventions, 372, 391392
    • contamination, 390
    • “damage”, 392
    • dispersants, 376, 377378
    • economic loss, 391
    • Exxon Valdez, 379
    • Fund Conventions, 372, 391392
    • hazardous and noxious substances, 392
    • Hazardous and Noxious Substances Convention, 372, 392
    • IOPC Funds, 382, 391
    • law and practice, 382383
    • limitation of liability, 24
    • loss or damage, 390391
    • onshore operations, 378379
    • offshore operations, 376378
    • P&I Clubs, 382, 733734
    • personal injuries, 391
    • pre-existing conditions, 378
    • pre-spill costs, 372, 404406
    • preventive measures, 371372
    • public authorities, 372, 376
    • publicity, 372, 376
    • purpose of measures, 391392
    • reasonableness, 375383
    • recovery of oil at sea, 377
    • repairs, 390
    • response measures in the United States, 962963
    • restoration, 371, 531
    • salvage, 392404
    • shipowners, 379
    • ships
      • escape from, 379
    • technical issues, 362, 372, 376, 378
      • ITOPF paper, Preventive Measures and Property Damage, 359, 362, 376
    • threat removal, 392
    • Torrey Canyon, 371, 375376
    • transshipment, 392
    • United States, 372
    • wildlife rehabilitation, 379
  • Clean-up costs, 7, 9
  • Clean Water Act (United States), 89, 20, 21, 23, 3240, 184192
  • Clémenceau, 10351037, 1044
    • recycling in the UK, 1042
  • CMA Djakarta
    • charterer, right to limit liability, 638, 790
    • “consequential loss”, LLMC Art. 2.1(a), 677
    • dangerous goods, shipment, 634
    • “property”, LLMC Art. 2.1(a), 799
  • CMI. See Comité Maritime International
  • Coal, 275, 636
  • Coastal Express, 1012
  • Coastal state control, 10621067
  • Coastal states
  • COFR. See Certificates of financial responsibility
  • Colliding ships, 667690
    • admissibility of pollution claims
      • by parties suffering pollution damage, 681682
      • by the owners of the other ship, 675676
    • Agip Abruzzo, collision with Moby Prince, 667. See also Agip Abruzzo
    • Atlantic Empress, collision with Aegean Captain, 667. See also Atlantic Empress
    • Baltic Carrier, collision with Tern, 669. See also Baltic Carrier
    • Collision Convention
      • apportionment of blame, 670674
      • background to, 671
      • non-contracting states, application in, 671
    • compulsory insurance
      • direct rights against insurers, 675
    • Estrella Pampeana, collision with Sea Parana, 608, 667
    • Ever Decent, collision with Norwegian Dream, 667, 915916
    • Evoikos, collision with Orapin Global, 667. See also Evoikos
    • Hebei Spirit, struck by crane barge Samsung No. 1, 667. See also Hebei Spirit
    • Independenta, collision with Evrialy, 667. See also Independenta
    • innocent cargo rule, 672, 674, 681, 686
    • insurance of liabilities, 689690, 779781
    • liability for claims
      • by parties suffering pollution damage
        • apportionment of blame, 670674
        • Brussels Collision Convention, 670673
        • domestic laws
        • limitation of liability, 677678
        • time limit, 674675
      • by owners of colliding ship
        • contribution claims, 678688
          • admissibility of claims, 681682
          • Brussels Collision Convention, 680685
          • liability to pay contribution, 67986
          • limitation of liability, 687
          • restrictions on claim for contribution, 682685
          • domestic laws
            • United Kingdom, 685
            • United States, 686
          • time limit, 686687
    • limitation of liability
      • to parties suffering pollution damage, 677678
      • to owners of colliding ship (contribution claim), 687
      • to compensation bodies bringing recourse claims, 688689
    • Maritime Conventions Act 1911 (UK), 672, 680, 683
    • Mont Louis, collision with Olau Britannia, 270, 667
    • Nagasaki Spirit, collision with Ocean Blessing, 667. See also Nagasaki Spirit
    • parties suffering pollution damage, 668678
      • limitation of liability to, 677678
    • pollution caused by both ships, 678
    • recourse claims by compensation bodies, 688689
    • Running Down Clause (RDC), 689690, 779781
    • spilling and non-spilling ships, 668670
    • Tarpenbek, collision with Sir Geraint, 669. See also Tarpenbek
    • time limits
      • claims by parties suffering pollution damage, 674675
      • claims by owners of colliding ship (contribution claims), 686687
  • Collision Convention. See Colliding ships
  • Collision insurance, 779781
    • cargo, 780781
    • Civil Liability Conventions, 779
    • contamination of other ship, 781
    • costs of pollution preventive measures, 780
    • expenses, 779, 781
    • general average, 781
    • hull insurance, 779781
    • IOPC Funds, subrogation rights arising from, 167
    • liability, 779781
    • Oil Pollution Act 1990 (United States), 193
    • pollution
      • liability to owners of other ship, 780
        • for contamination of the other ship or her cargo, 781
        • for expenses relating to pollution, 781
        • for liabilities incurred in respect of pollution, 780
      • liability to third parties, 781
    • preventive measures (pollution), 781
    • remedies, 779
    • Running Down Clause, 779
    • shipowners, 780781
    • special compensation, 781
    • strict liability for pollution, 779
    • third parties, 781
  • Combination carriers, 89, 90, 246, 247, 248
  • Comité Maritime International (CMI), 1213
    • Civil Liability Convention 1969, 1213, 1415
    • Colloquium, Genoa (1992), 369
    • comparative law study, 369
    • Conferences
      • (1969), Tokyo
        • Draft Civil Liability Convention, 1213, 1415
      • (1981), Montreal
        • Draft HNS Convention, 270
        • Draft Salvage Convention, 546547
      • (1990), Paris
        • amendment of York-Antwerp Rules 1974, 756, 756758
      • (1994), Sydney
        • CMI Guidelines on Oil Pollution Damage, 364, 369
        • York-Antwerp Rules 1994, 755771
    • details of, 1213
    • Guidelines on Oil Pollution Damage, 364, 369
    • Hazardous and Noxious Substances Convention 1996, 270
    • Maritime Law Associations, 12, 369
    • Salvage Convention 1989, 546547
    • York-Antwerp Rules
  • Communications equipment, 877
  • Companies
  • Compensation. See also Civil Liability Conventions, Damages, Fund Conventions, Interim payments, IOPC Funds, Liability funds, Special compensation
    • Amoco Cadiz, 2728
    • calculation, 358
    • charterers, 640641
    • Civil Liability Conventions. See under Civil Liability Conventions
    • claims, 364
    • Comité Maritime International, 369
    • economic loss. See Economic loss
    • Fund Conventions. See under Fund Conventions
    • Hazardous and Noxious Substances Convention 1996, 269293
    • intervention, 903
    • marine environment, damage to. See Marine environment
    • National Contingency Plan, 958
    • natural resources, 478
    • Oil Pollution Act 1990 (United States), 32, 55, 62, 68, 197, 198200, 213, 228229, 231, 234, 434, 515
    • preventive measures, costs, 371406 passim
    • salvage, 536, 604604. See also Special compensation
    • supplementary, 29, 161, 169, 257
    • Tanio, 2829, 154, 360, 438, 461
    • Torrey Canyon, 1112, 269, 270
    • workers, 22, 270, 278, 387, 435
  • Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act 1980 (United States). See CERCLA
  • Compromise. See Settlements
  • Conciliation, 903, 999
  • Conduct. See also Human error, Wilful misconduct
    • arrest of ships, 135
    • barring limitation
      • Civil Liability Convention 1969, 116, 130, 285
      • Civil Liability Convention 1992, 113, 119, 130, 135, 285
      • guarantor, effect on, 127
      • Hazardous and Noxious Substances Convention 1996, 285
      • IOPC Funds, 149
      • London Convention 1976, 113, 116, 119, 801803
    • insurance, 127
    • jurisdiction, 130
    • limitation of liability, 116117, 119, 130, 149
    • Oil Pollution Act 1990 (United States), 210
  • Confiscation of ship, 737738
    • P & I cover, 738
  • Conflict of laws, 43, 178, 232, 11141117, 11211124
  • Consequential loss
  • Constructive total loss, 746, 775, 777, 778
    • wrecks and dumping, 989
  • Containers
    • certification, 882
    • hazardous and noxious substances, 633, 881882
    • Hazardous and Noxious Substances Convention 1996, 282
    • labelling, 634
  • Contaminated sites, 337
  • Contiguous zones
    • criminal offences, 1132
    • definition, 1132
    • United States, 181
  • Continental Shelf
    • Oil Pollution Act 1990 (Untied States), 207
    • Outer Continental Shelf Lands Act Amendments (United States), 32, 4041
  • Contingency fees, 365
  • Contingency plans. See also National Contingency Plan
    • clean-up costs, 384
    • equipment, 384
    • negligence, 238
    • OPRC 1990, 924925
    • public authorities, 892
    • response measures in the United States, 932959
    • Salvage Convention 1989, 909
    • sheltered waters, 910
    • shipboard oil pollution emergency plans, 833
    • United States, 238
  • Contractors
    • claims for costs of clean-up and preventive measures taken by, 373374, 385, 587590
  • Contracts. See also Contractors, Privity of contract
    • carriage
    • CERCLA (United States), 312, 318
    • economic loss, 422, 471
    • interference with, 422
    • P&I Clubs, 729, 746747
    • salvage, see Salvage
    • ship management, 656
  • Contributions
    • CERCLA (United States), 317319
    • general average, 770774
    • IOPC Funds, to, see IOPC Funds
    • Oil Pollution Act 1990 (United States), 212214, 233
    • United States, 20, 236
  • Contributory negligence
    • Civil Liability Conventions, 101, 104
    • economic loss, 441
    • Hazardous and Noxious Substances Convention 1996, 282
    • navigational aids, 101, 104
  • Control of Harmful Anti-fouling Systems on Ships, 847850
  • Convention. See Treaties and conventions
  • Cosco Busan, 6869
    • bunker fuel
      • carriage alleged to be “ultrahazardous activity” under California State law, 493
      • notable spillage, 256
    • charterers, potential liability highlighted, 610
    • common law claims, 235
    • criminal charges
      • false statements, 1139
      • navigational errors, 1134
    • non-tank vessel response plans, change of policy, 599, 981
  • Costs. See Clean-up costs
  • Crew. See Manning
  • Criminal liability, 10731154
    • air pollution, 1090
    • bail
      • to release individuals
      • to release ships, 1083
    • custodial penalties, restrictions on, 10971099
    • defendants, 1087
    • detention of seafarers
    • discharge of garbage, 10891090
    • discharge of harmful substances in packaged form, 10881089
    • discharge of noxious liquid substances, 1075, 10831084, 1088
    • discharge of oil, 10731153 passim
    • discharge of sewage, 1089
    • domestic laws, 11141127 passim
      • relationship with international law, 11141127
      • Erika, 11161117
      • EU Directive on Criminal Sanctions for Ship-source Pollution, 11171127
      • exclusive economic zone, 1123
      • French legislation, 11161117
      • INTERTANKO case (ECJ), 11221127
      • MARPOL 1973 Conference records, 11251127
      • territorial sea, 11241127
      • UNCLOS, 11141127, passim
    • dumping of waste, 10901091
    • Erika, 11161117
    • EU Directive on Criminal Sanctions for Ship-source Pollution, 11171127
    • evidence, 10911096
    • fair treatment of defendants, 11031114
    • French legislation, 11161117
    • imprisonment, restrictions on, 10971099
    • London Dumping Convention 1972, under, 1090
    • MARPOL and domestic laws, 1115
    • MARPOL Annexes I and II, under, 10751088
    • MARPOL Annexes III–VI, under, 10881090
    • national laws. See domestic laws
    • penalties, 10961103
      • aggravating and mitigating factors, 10991103
        • ability to pay fine, 11021103
        • action to prevent recurrence, 1101
        • amount spilt, 1101
        • cause of violation, 1101
        • clean-up, 1101
        • co-operation with authorities, 1102
        • extent of damage, 11011102
        • guilty plea, 1102
        • intent, 1100
        • motive, 1100
        • onus of proof, 1100
        • previous convictions, 1103
        • regret expressed, 1102
        • response measures, 1099
      • custodial penalties, restrictions on, 10971099
      • false statements, 10981099
      • imprisonment, restrictions on, 10971099
      • internal waters, offences in, 1098
      • level, 10991103
      • mitigating factors, 10991103, and see aggravating and mitigating factors
      • maritime safety issues, 1098
      • obstruction of justice, 10981099
      • types, 10971099
      • violation of laws other than for prevention of pollution, 10981099
    • regional laws. See domestic laws
    • SOLAS, under, 1090
    • United States, 10811082. See also Criminal liability (United States)
  • Criminal liability (United States)
  • Criminalization
    • fair treatment of defendants, 11031114
  • CRISTAL, 17
    • background, 17
    • cargo interests, 17, 26
    • Contract, 32
    • Cristal Ltd, 31
    • extension, 2526, 3032, 7374
    • Fund Conventions,
      • comparison with, 17
    • introduction of, 17
    • membership, 17
    • negotiations leading to, 27
    • OCIMF, 17
    • PLATO, 31
    • purpose, 17
    • revision, 2526, 3032
    • small tankers, 26
    • termination, 7374
    • threat removal measures, 405406
    • tonnage, 31
    • TOVALOP, 3132
      • differences between, 17
    • TOVALOP Supplement
      • relationship with, 3132
  • Criteria for admissibility of claims (IOPC Funds)
    • adoption of, 366367
    • background to, 366367
    • clean-up operations and preventive measures
      • cost of measures, 383384
      • fixed costs, 388389
      • reasonableness of measures, 382383
    • damage to marine environment
      • exclusion of claims other than for costs of reasonable measures of reinstatement, 481482
      • funding of studies, 488
      • reinstatement measures, 487488
    • economic loss
      • decided cases, 446475
      • general criteria, 437440
      • measures to prevent or minimise economic loss, 440441
    • legal status of, 367368
  • Crude oil washing, 824, 868
  • Crystal Rubino, 1083
  • “Damage” (Hazardous and Noxious Substances Convention 1996), definition, 276277
  • Damage to property. See Property damage
  • “Damage to the environment” (Salvage Convention 1989). See also Salvage
    • definition, 550
    • location of damage, 552553
    • mid-ocean casualty, 552553
    • nature of damage, 550551
      • economic loss, 550
    • scale of damage, 551552
    • substantial, 551552
    • threat of damage
      • apprehension of danger, 558559
      • degree of risk, 558
      • source of threat, 558
  • Damages
  • Dangerous goods. See also Hazardous and noxious substances
    • charterer’s liability, 633
  • Darling, Gerald, 543
  • De minimis provisions, 313
  • Declarations, 316317
  • Deepwater Port Act (United States), 32, 4446
    • class actions, 45
    • clean-up costs, 46
    • Coast Guard, 4546
    • damages, 4546
    • Deepwater Port Liability Fund, 46
    • “deepwater ports”, definition of, 4445
    • defences, 46
    • financial responsibility, 46
    • fines, 4546
    • joint and several liability, 45
    • jurisdiction, 45
    • licensing, 45, 46
    • limitation of liability, 45, 46
    • Louisiana Offshore Oil Port (LOOP), 45
    • marine environment, 45
    • natural resources, 45, 497498
    • negligence, 4546
    • Oil Pollution Act 1990, 44, 193194, 211212
    • penalties, 45
    • privity and knowledge, 4546
    • strict liability, 46
    • subrogation, 46
    • wilful misconduct, 45, 46
  • Delay
  • Demise charters. See Bareboat charters
  • Department of Homeland Security, 934, 952
  • Desalination plants, 407, 408
  • Detention of ships
  • Director of IOPC Funds. See under IOPC Funds
  • Directors, criminal liability, 11411144
  • Dismantling of vessels, 1026, 10291049
  • Dispersal, natural, see Dissipation
  • Dispersants, use of, 377378, 958959, 973
  • Dissipation, natural, 295, 359361
  • Dissolved corporations, 665
  • Diversion of ships, 470
  • Dobrudja, 1100
  • Documentary credits, 219, 222
  • Documentary sources, 11611162
  • Dolly
    • claim for cost of removing cargo of bitumen from sunken wreck, 380
    • vessel adapted for carriage of oil, 89
  • Domestic laws. See National laws
  • Double bottoms. See also Bunker spills, Double hulls
    • damaged double bottoms, cost of measures to prevent escape of bunkers,
  • Double hulls, 829831
    • alternatives, 869870
    • application, 867868
    • benefits, 870
    • certification, 870
    • definition, 868
    • dimensions, 870
    • double bottoms, 870
    • hydrostatic balancing load, 869
    • Intermediate Oil Tight Deck with Double Sides, 869
    • International Maritime Organization, 867, 869870
    • lightering, 875, 876
    • MARPOL, 870
    • Oil Pollution Act 1990 (United States), 866870
    • segregated ballast tanks, 868
    • standards, 866867
    • timetable, 866869
    • US Coast Guard, 866870
    • washing, 868
  • Drills, 985986
  • Drugs, 865, 1142, 11461147
  • Dry cargo vessels, 56, 66, 67, 980
  • Due diligence
  • Dumping at sea, 989, 10001014
    • controls, 10051013
      • alternative means of disposal, 10081009
      • criteria governing the issue of permits, 10071009
      • emergencies, 10091010
      • force majeure and emergencies, 10091010
      • general permits, 1007
      • prohibitions (black list), 10061007
      • reasons of health or safety of life, 10101012
      • special permits (grey list), 1007
    • legal framework, 10001001
    • London Dumping Convention 1972, 10011013. See also London Dumping Convention 1972
    • Stockholm Declaration, 1001
    • UNCLOS, 1000
  • Ecological damage. See Environmental damage
  • Economic loss, 415475
    • Aegean Sea,
      • contamination of water supplies, 452
      • destruction of shellfish stocks, 447449
      • employees, 473475
      • ferry operators, 464
      • fish porters, 455456
      • general principles, 438440
      • government orders, 447449
      • net repairers, 455
      • ports, claims relating to, 469470
      • preventive measures, economic loss caused by, 402404
      • price, reduction in, 458
      • shipping, effect of oil spill on
        • delay, 469
        • diversion of, 470
        • ferry operators, 470
      • social security payments, 474
      • university study, claim reliant on, 441
      • unlicensed activities, 474475
    • angling clubs, 471, 472
    • agriculture, 470472
    • aquaculture, 415, 446457
    • Braer
      • agriculture, effect on, 470472
      • box manufacturer, 456
      • Burra Haaf claims, 449, 450
      • commercial decisions, claims resulting from, 452453
      • consequential loss, 471472
      • damage to stocks, 451
      • diver, 455
      • employees, 472474
      • fish processors, reduced supplies, 453455
      • fish trader, reduced supplies
        • Billingsgate, 454
        • Norway, 455
      • general principles, 438
      • haulage companies, 456457
      • ice factory, 456
      • Landcatch claim, 442445, 456
      • loss of market, 457458
      • marketing campaigns, 458459
      • net makers and repairers, 455
      • offal collector, 456
      • prices and sales reduction, 457458
      • salmon farms
      • smolt suppliers, 442445, 456
      • tourism promotion, 467469
      • unlicensed activities, 474475
      • wild fish, reduced catches, 449451
    • bright line rule, 423, 430
    • bunker spills, 797799
    • business interruption, 469470
    • causation, 439, 441
    • CERCLA (United States), 416, 430432
    • charterers of ships, 469470
    • civil law, 416, 441447
    • Civil Liability Convention 1969, 105, 113, 440441, 444
    • claims, 357, 365366, 415, 417, 438440, 441, 446, 457, 470472
    • clean-up, 372
    • clean-up costs, 371
    • commercial fishermen in United States, 424426
    • common law, 416430, 442446
    • compensation, 444
    • consequential, 416, 448, 471472
    • contamination, 415, 425, 438440, 441446
    • contracts, 422, 471
    • contributory negligence, 441
    • costs, 437, 440441
    • damages, 435
    • decided cases, 446475
    • definition, 432
    • delay to ships, 469470
    • diversion of shipping, 470
    • employees, 459460, 472474
    • Erika
      • car ferry operators, 464
      • causation, 461, 468, 471
      • establishments outside polluted area, 462
      • marketing campaigns, 440, 459
      • measures to correct inaccurate reporting, 468
      • reasonableness of costs, 468469
      • millennium party cancelled, 461
      • pure economic loss, 368, 454, 461
      • salt production, loss of, 471
      • “second degree” tourism claims, 368, 442, 462
      • tax revenue, loss of, 466, 467
      • tour operators, 462
    • Exxon Valdez
      • Alaskan state law, 436
      • commercial fishermen, 425
      • media coverage, effect on tourism, 363
      • native corporations, 425
    • false invoices, 475
    • ferry operators, 469470
    • fishing and related industries
      • aquacultural establishments, 446449, 451452, 457458
      • box manufacturer, 456
      • buyers, 453455
      • cessation or reduction of activities, 452
      • commercial fishermen in United States, 424426
      • contamination of equipment, 452
      • contamination of stocks
      • contamination of water supplies, 452
      • depuration, 447449
      • destruction of stocks, 447, 448449
      • diver, 455
      • employees
        • claims by, 459, 473
        • claims by employers, 459, 472
        • social security payments, 474
      • equipment, contamination of, 452
      • exclusion zones
      • false invoices, 475
      • feed suppliers, 456
      • fish buyers, 453455
      • fish farms, 447449, 451452, 457458
      • fish porters, 455
      • fish processors
        • loss of market, 457458
        • reduced supplies of fish, 453
      • fish selling agents, 453455
      • fish traders, 453455
      • fishermen, 424426, 446452, 457458
      • fishing bans
      • fishing industry and related claims, 446459
      • future income, loss of, 451
      • government orders, 447449, 451452
      • harvesting restrictions
      • haulage and transport companies, 456457
      • ice factory, 456
      • interruption, 451452
      • invoices, 475
      • loss of market, 457
      • marketing campaigns, 440441, 458460
      • net makers and repairers, 455
      • offal collector, 456
      • porters, 455456
      • price reduction, 457
      • processors
        • loss of market, 457458
        • reduced supplies of fish, 453455
      • proof
        • technical issues
          • university study, claim reliant on, 441
      • public confidence, 447449
      • public perceptions, 363. See also publicity reduced catches, 449451
      • reduced demand for goods or services, 455457
      • reduction in prices and/or sales, 457
      • sales reduction, 457
      • salmon, farming methods, 447
      • sampling, 448449
      • selling agents, 453455
      • slaughter of produce, 447, 448
      • smolt suppliers, 442, 456
      • stocks, contamination of
        • fish farms, 446
        • wild fish and other sea food, 449451
      • testing, 448
      • traders, 453455
      • university study, claim reliant on, 441
      • unlicensed activities, 474
      • water supplies, contamination of, 452
      • wild fish and other sea food, 449451
    • foreseeability, 417, 419, 432
    • France, 430
    • Fund Conventions, 440441
    • future income, loss of, 451
    • Haven
      • criteria for admissibility of claims, background to, 366, 438
      • tourism
        • beach facilities, operators of, 463
        • establishments at uncontaminated locations in polluted area, 461
        • establishments outside polluted area, 461462
        • general principles, 460
        • hotels, 461
        • locations not dependent on, 461
        • multiple claims, equal treatment at same locality, 461
        • promotion campaigns, 467469
        • retailers, 462
        • Savona claims, 461
        • “touristic image”, loss of, 467
        • travel agents, 463
      • yacht flooring fees, 472
    • insurance, 437, 472
    • interference with contractual claims, 422
    • invoices, 475
    • IOPC Funds, 437441, 446475
    • limitation of liability, 431
    • Lloyd’s Open Form, 543
    • loss of income, 474475
    • loss of market, 457458
    • loss of use or enjoyment, 472
    • Louisiana, 435, 436
    • marketing, 440441, 458
    • media coverage, adverse effects of, 363, 440441, 458, 467469
    • miscellaneous types of claim, 470471
    • national courts, 437, 441446
    • national laws, 417430
    • natural resources, 484, 485, 491, 498
    • negligence, 237, 417, 422, 429, 435
    • nuisance, 435
    • Oil Pollution Act 1990 (United States), 197, 200, 407, 416, 417, 426, 432434
    • Outer Continental Shelf Lands Act Amendments (United States), 40
    • outline of problems, 415
    • physical damage, 416418, 420, 422424, 431
    • pollution, 424429
    • pollution damage, 437, 442, 444
    • ports, 469470
    • prevention, 372, 440441
    • private actions, 430432
    • property damage, 407, 471472
    • proprietary rights, 430, 433
    • proximate cause, 433
    • proximity, 429, 432, 438, 442443
    • public perceptions, 363. See also publicity
    • publicity, 363, 440441, 457458, 458459, 462, 467469
    • pure, 416419, 423, 429430, 432, 433, 438, 446
    • Robins rule, 420422, 423, 425, 427, 431434, 436437
    • Salvage Convention 1989
      • “damage to the environment”, 550
    • Sea Empress
      • angling clubs, 471, 472
      • bed-and-breakfast accommodation, 461
      • civil engineering contractor, 471
      • exclusion zone, imposition of, 451
      • false invoices, 475
      • fish processors, 452453
      • fish sales companies, 453455
      • fishing ban
        • imposition of, 451
        • losses sustained after lifting of, 452
      • goods and services, suppliers of, 465466
      • harvesting restrictions, imposition of, 451452
      • haulage companies, 456
      • hotels, 461
      • ice-cream and frozen foods suppliers, 466
      • invoices, 475
      • medical practice, 464
      • polluted area, tourist establishments outside, 461462
      • postcard manufacturer, 466
      • self-catering accommodation, 461
      • tourism promotion campaign, 467469
      • tourism, effect on, 460
      • transport companies, 456457
      • unlicensed activities, 474475
      • wholesaler, 465
    • shipping, 469470
    • social security, 474
    • state law, 434437
    • strict liability, 416, 436
    • technical issues, 363
    • tourism
      • beaches, operators of facilities on, 463
      • bed-and-breakfast accommodation, 461
      • camp sites, 461
      • car ferry operators, 464
      • cash-and-carry wholesaler, 465
      • establishments at uncontaminated locations in polluted areas, 461
      • establishments outside polluted area, 461462
      • ferry operators, 464, 470
      • general principles, 460
      • goods and services, suppliers of, 463464, 464466
      • hotels, 461462
      • image, loss of, 467
      • laundry services, 466
      • medical practice, 464
      • postcard manufacturer, 466
      • promotion campaigns, 467
      • public bodies, 466467
      • public perceptions, 363. See also Media reports, Public expectations
      • restaurants, 461462
      • retailers, 462463
      • “second degree” claims, 368, 442, 462
      • self-catering accommodation, 461
      • tax revenue, 466467
      • tour operators, 462
      • tourism promotion campaigns, 467
      • “touristic image”, loss of, 467
      • travel agents, 463
      • wholesale suppliers, 465
    • traditional principles, 416
    • treaties and conventions, 437475
    • United Kingdom, 418419
    • United States, 237, 241, 417, 419429, 430437
    • unlicensed activities, 474475
    • yachts, 472
  • Eleni V
    • dispersants, use of, 377378
    • State intervention, 904905
  • Emergencies. See also Contingency plans
    • National Contingency Plan, 943945
    • Oil Spill Liability Trust Fund, 214215
    • OPRC 1990, 921922
    • response, 891
    • salvage, 891
    • shipboard marine pollution emergency plans, 837, 896898
    • shipboard oil pollution emergency plans, 833, 896898, 922923
  • Emissions, 840844, 883887, 11371138
  • Employees. See also Manning
  • Enforcement. See also Enforcement of Judgments alcohol testing, 1146
  • Enforcement of judgments
    • Civil Liability Conventions 1971 and 1992, 128, 131136
    • Fund Conventions 1971 and 1992, relevance to, 132
    • Hazardous and Noxious Substances Convention 1996, 293
    • Oil Pollution Act 1990 (United States), 225226
  • Environmental damage. See also Marine environment, Natural resources
    • assessment. See Natural resources bunker spills, 255
    • compensation. See Marine environment, Natural resources
    • “damage to the environment” (Salvage Convention 1989)
      • definition, 550553
      • location of damage, 552553
      • mid-ocean casualty, 552
      • nature of damage, 550551
        • economic loss, 550
      • scale of damage, 551552
      • substantial, 551
      • threat of damage
        • apprehension of danger, 558559
        • degree of risk, 558
        • source of threat, 558
    • damages. See Natural resources
    • Hazardous and Noxious Substances Convention 1996
      • “damage”, definition, 276277
    • Ports and Waterways Safety Act (United States), 856
    • salvors. See also Salvage
      • duties of salvor, 553554
      • duties of shipowner and other parties, 554555
      • efforts to prevent or minimise pollution damage
        • compensation outside the law of salvage, 587590
        • remuneration in the law of salvage
          • legal framework, 536537
          • Lloyd’s Open Form 1980, 543546
          • Lloyd’s Open Form 1990, 547548
          • Lloyd’s Open Form 1995, 548549
          • modern law and practice, development of, 542549
          • Salvage Convention 1989, 546547, 549551
            • “damage to the environment”, definition. See above
            • enhanced awards (Art. 13), 555556
            • special compensation (Art. 14), 556567
          • traditional principles, 537542
      • liability for pollution damage, 590594
      • United States
        • National Research Council (NRC) reassessment, 603604
        • Oil Pollution Act 1990, 599601
        • remuneration, 596599
    • Tank Vessel Act 1936 (United States), 858
    • technical issues, 359362, 478479
      • ITOPF paper, Environmental Damage, 359, 478
  • Environmental Protection Agency (United States) CERCLA (United States), 307, 314, 315, 322323, 327330, 334, 341342, 345352, 721725
  • Equipment, 384, 387390, 455, 565, 603, 877878, 976977
  • Erika
    • bibliography, 74
    • cargo owner, liability for pollution, 610, 615, 620621
    • changes in law and practice, led to
      • Bunkers Convention, 76
      • coastal state control, 1065
      • EU Directive on Criminal Sanctions for Shipsource Pollution, 1118
      • increase in compensation limits, 72, 118, 153
      • Maritime Assistance Services (MAS), 894
      • measures of disputed validity in international law, 1120
      • quality shipping, measures to promote, 1068
      • single hull tankers
        • accelerated phase-out, 830
        • ban on carriage of heavy grades of oil, 830
      • Special Coastal Maritime Court, 1083
      • STOPIA and TOPIA, 168
      • Supplementary Fund, 168
      • unilateral measures, 816
    • charterer, liability for pollution
      • channelling provisions, 625626
      • vetting procedures, 620621, 624
      • waste, disposal of, 623
    • CLC 92 and Fund Convention 1992
      • admissibility of claims
        • car ferry operators, 464
        • causation, 461, 468, 471
        • damage to the environment, 487
        • marketing campaigns, 440, 459
          • measures to correct inaccurate reporting, 468
          • reasonableness of costs, 468469
        • millennium party cancelled, 461
        • moral damages, 487
          • pure economic loss, 368, 454, 461
          • salt production, loss of, 471
          • tax revenue, loss of, 466, 467
          • tour operators, 462
        • channelling provisions
        • claims for compensation, number of, 133, 365, 461
        • interim payments, restrictions on, 161
        • major oil company, standing last in queue for compensation, 639640
        • maximum amount of compensation date of conversion into national currency, 155
      • criminal proceedings
        • civil claims, relationship with, 1106
        • French legislation, 11161117
        • international law, relationship with, 11161117
        • Paris High Court, 109111, 1068, 11161117
        • delay before trial, 11061107
        • detention of master, 1106
        • disposal of waste, 623
        • economic loss
          • car ferry operators, 464
          • causation, 461, 468
          • criteria of IOPC Fund
          • decisions of French courts
            • “second degree” tourism claims, 368, 442, 462
            • establishments outside polluted area, 462
            • marketing campaigns, 440, 459
            • millennium party cancelled, 461
            • tax revenue, loss of, 466, 467
            • tour operators, 462
  • Erika I, 75
  • Erika II, 75, 920
  • Erika III, 78, 916, 921
  • EU maritime policy, effect on, 79
  • EU Waste Framework Directive, liability under, 623
  • fair treatment of defendants, 11061107
  • French courts
    • civil law approach, 369, 442
    • decisions, 442
      • admissibility of claims
        • car ferry operators, 464
        • causation, 461, 468, 471
        • damage to the environment, 487
        • marketing campaigns, 440, 459
        • measures to correct inaccurate reporting, 468
        • reasonableness of costs, 468469
      • millennium party cancelled, 461
      • moral damages, 487
      • pure economic loss, 368, 454, 461
      • salt production, loss of, 471
      • tax revenue, loss of, 466, 467
      • tour operators, 462
    • IOPC Fund’s criteria, status, 368, 369
    • number of courts competent to deal with pollution claims, 129
    • heavy fuel oil, 76, 360
    • incident, 74
    • major oil company
      • approval clauses, 644
      • approval of ship, liability for, 615, 620621
      • channelling provisions, denied benefit, 625626
      • response costs, 639640
      • standing last in queue for compensation, 639640
    • Third Intersessional Working Group, 1992 Fund, 7576, 172
    • vetting procedures, 615, 620621, 624
    • waste, disposal, 623
  • Escort vessels, 876877
  • Estrella Pampeana
    • collision with Sea Parana, 667
    • waste, liability of cargo owner to remove spilt oil, 608
  • EU Directive on Criminal Sanctions for Ship-source Pollution, 11171127
  • European Waste Shipment Regulation, 10241026
    • classification of shipments, 1026
    • export of waste for disposal, 1024
    • export of waste for recovery, 10241026
    • “waste”, meaning, 1024
  • Eurysthenes, 741742
  • Ever Decent
    • collision with Norwegian Dream, 667
    • SOSREP, 915916
  • Evoikos
    • collision with Orapin Global, 667, 788
    • pollution
      • affecting more than one state, 114
      • claims against colliding vessel, 779
      • claims outstanding against 1971 Fund, 138
  • Exclusive economic zones (EEZ)
    • Civil Liability Convention 1992, 5, 72, 84
    • Clean Water Act (United States), 302
    • establishment, notification, 84
    • financial responsibility, 218219
    • fisheries, 181
    • Fund Convention 1992, 5, 72, 84, 144
    • Hazardous and Noxious Substances Convention 1996, 272273, 280
    • intervention, 900901
    • IOPC Funds, 144
    • lightering, 876
    • Oil Pollution Act 1990 (United States), 177, 196, 866
    • P&I Clubs
      • scope of geographical exclusion, United States, 745
    • pollution preventive standards
      • enforcement in EEZ by port and coastal states, 10631066
      • regulation in EEZ by port and coastal states, 1063
    • standards. See above, pollution preventive standards
    • state intervention, 900
    • transshipment, 876
    • United States, 181
  • Exercises, 969, 985988
  • Expenses. See also Costs, Clean-up costs, Preventive measures
    • charterers, 639642
    • clean-up costs, 372373, 375, 383, 404
    • collision, 779, 780
    • general average, 755, 768770
    • limitation funds, 124
    • Lloyd’s Open Form 1980, 545
    • OPRC 1990, 925926
    • owner’s expenses
      • HNS Fund, payable by, 289290
      • IOPC Funds, payable by, 124125, 375
      • Limitation Convention 1976, not ranking as claim against fund, 798799, 375
      • national laws, 375
      • ranking as claim against limitation fund Civil Liability Conventions, 124, 373
        • Hazardous and Noxious Substances Convention 1996, 286
      • salvage and related operations, 392405
    • P&I cover, 732740, 745746
    • Salvage Convention 1989, 402404, 555, 556, 561562, 564565
    • shipowner’s. See owner’s expenses
    • special compensation, 564566
    • sue and labour, 738740
  • Explosions
    • Hazardous and Noxious Substances Convention 1996, 269270, 276, 276
    • special compensation, 558
  • Export controls on waste shipments, 10231026
  • Extraterritoriality
    • United States, 45
  • Exxon Valdez, 4852
    • alter ego, 664
    • charterers, 639
    • clean-up, 379
    • clean-up costs, 4849
    • criminal charges, 48, 1127, 1129, 1148
    • damages, 4849
      • punitive, 49
    • economic loss, 425426, 427
    • fines, 4849
    • habitats, 48
    • indigenous people, 48, 49
    • inquiries, 5152
    • insurance, 5051
    • legal proceedings, 4850
    • “loss of image” claims, 51, 363
    • manning, 873
    • marine environment, 48
    • National Contingency Plan, 51
    • natural resources, 477
    • negligence, 1148
    • Oil Pollution Act 1990 (United States), 5253, 54
    • OPRC 1990, 921
  • P&I Clubs, 739, 745
    • property damage, 49
    • publicity, 51, 363
    • response, 51
    • salvage, 393
    • seaworthiness, 51
    • Tank Vessel Act 1936 (United States), 859
    • technical issues, 363
    • wilful misconduct, 51
  • Facilities
  • Fair treatment of defendants, 11031114. See also Criminal liability
  • False invoices, 475
  • Fanti, 751
  • Fast Independence, 1059
  • Federal Water Pollution Control Act (United States). See Clean Water Act
  • Ferries, 464, 469, 470
  • Finance. See Ship finance
  • Financial responsibility. See also Certificates of Financial Responsibility
  • Financial security. See Arrest, Guarantors, Security
  • Fines
    • CERCLA (United States), 314, 323324, 351352
    • clean-up costs, 1140
    • Clean Water Act (United States), 3940, 188191
    • criminal offences, 1128, 1130, 11331136, 11371139
    • Deepwater Port Act (United States), 45
    • Federal Sentencing Guidelines, 1140
    • financial responsibility, 218
    • guidance, 11391140
    • hazardous waste, 351352
    • loss doubling, 1135
    • New York and Other Harbors Deposit of Refuse Prohibition Act 1888 (United States), 182
    • Oil Pollution Act 1990 (United States), 54
    • Oil Spill Liability Trust Fund, 228
    • Outer Continental Shelf Lands Act Amendments (United States), 41
    • P&I Club cover, 737738
    • Refuse Act (United States), 183
    • Sentencing Reform Act 1984 (United States), 1139
    • United States, 89
    • wrecks, 184
  • Fires
    • Hazardous and Noxious Substances Convention 1996, 269270, 274, 276277
    • property damage, 412, 413
    • salvage, 604
    • special compensation, 558
  • Fishing and related industries. See also Fishing vessels
  • Fishing vessels
    • bunker spills, 258
    • Outer Continental Shelf Lands Act Amendments (United States), 40
  • Flag state control, 10521055
    • administration, 10531055
      • enhancement of flag state control, 10541055
      • guidelines on flag state performance, 10541055
      • IMO Member State Audit Scheme, 1054
    • international law, 10521053
      • casualty inquiries, 1053
      • investigation and prosecution of violations, 1052
      • survey and certification of ships, 1052
  • Fleet Factors, 719721
  • Floating production, storage and offloading units, 91
  • Floating storage units, 91
  • Florida
    • cargo owners, 613
    • certificates of financial responsibility, 613
    • strict liability, 2223
  • “Flying Dutchmen”, 909, 910
  • Foreseeability
    • economic loss, 417, 419, 432
    • fisheries, 453
    • hazardous and noxious substances, 300
    • negligence, 236237
    • United States, 236237, 300
    • US hazardous and noxious substances, 300
  • Forum non conveniens, 436
  • FPSOs. See Offshore craft
  • France
    • Amoco Cadiz, 2728
    • Civil Liability Convention 1969, 2728
    • criminal liability, 11161117
    • Erika. See Erika
    • limitation of liability, 11
    • Tanio 2829
    • Torrey Canyon, 1112
  • Frances Hammer, 1149
  • Frixos, 1094
  • FSUs. See Offshore craft
  • Fukkol Maru No. 12, 410
  • Fund Conventions 1971 and 1992, 4, 1719, 7173, 137139. See also Civil Liability Conventions 1969 and 1992, IOPC Funds
    • arrest of ships, relevance to, 133, 135
    • Brussels conference 1971, 17
    • bunker spills, 4, 256258. See also under Civil Liability Conventions 1969 and 1992
    • cases not covered by, 57
    • charterers
      • claims by, 640641, 642
      • recourse action against
        • by shipowner, 627628
        • limitation of liability, 637638
    • Civil Liability Conventions, relationship with, 34, 1719, 8182, 137138
    • claims
      • admissibility and assessment, 150151. See also claims under Civil Liability Conventions 1971 and 1992, Criteria for admissibility of claims (IOPC Funds)
      • claim settlement procedures, 157165
      • determination and settlement, 159
      • legal proceedings, 164165
      • manuals, 151
        • provisional payments, 160
      • compensation
        • cases in which payable, 145151
          • damage exceeds liability limit under CLC, 149150
          • no liability under CLC, 145147
            • shipowner exonerated from liability, 146147
            • unidentified ship, 145146
            • shipowner financially incapable, 147149
              • assets insufficient, 149
              • compulsory insurance requirements
                • not applicable, 147149
                • not complied with, 149
              • insurance cover insufficient, 149
          • shipowner’s expenses, 150, 375
      • distribution, 155156
      • limits
        • amounts, 153
        • conversion into national currency, 155
        • interest awarded against shipowner, effect of, 154
        • interest paid or payable by IOPC Funds, 154
        • natural phenomenon, 153
        • unit of account, 155
  • contributions. See IOPC Funds
  • CRISTAL
    • comparison with, 17, 1920
  • criteria for admissibility of claims. See Criteria for admissibility of claims (IOPC Funds)
  • economic loss. See Economic loss enforcement of judgments against shipowners, 132
  • entry into force, 2729, 71, 7273, 7374
  • exclusive economic zones, 5, 144
  • financial limits. See limit of Funds’ liability
  • geographical scope, 5, 144
  • incident. See under Civil Liability Conventions
  • indemnification of shipowners
    • background to, 17, 18
    • subrogation against shipowner or guarantor, effect on, 165166
    • subrogation against third parties, 166
  • interest
    • payable by contributors to Funds, 142
    • payable by IOPC Funds to claimants, 151
      • effect on Funds’ liability limit, 155
    • payable by shipowner to claimants, 121122
      • effect on Funds’ liability limit
        • 1971 Convention, 154
        • 1992 Convention, 154
  • International Maritime Organization, 71
  • IOPC Funds. See IOPC Funds limit of Funds’ liability, 153155
    • amounts
      • 1992 Convention, 153
    • conversion into national currency 1992 Convention, 155
    • distribution of available compensation, 155156
    • natural phenomenon, 153
    • interest, effect of. See interest
    • unit of account
      • 1992 Convention, 155
  • limitation of actions. See time limit for proceedings
  • mobile offshore units, 91
  • natural resources. See Marine Environment
  • oil, 9597
  • oil barges, 8788
  • owner, definition, 8586
  • persistent oil, 96
  • pollution damage, definitions
  • preventive measures. See under Civil Liability Conventions
  • property damage, 407411
  • Protocol 1984, 2930, 47, 71
    • United States, decision not to ratify, 5256
    • Protocol 1992, 7173
    • purpose, 1719, 368
    • receivers of oil. See IOPC Funds
    • recourse, subrogation to rights of owner, 166, 627
    • relationship between Fund Conventions, 138139
    • salvage and related operations
    • ship
      • definitions, 8692, 95
      • incident involving two or more, 95
      • small, 30, 131
      • tanker in ballast, 88, 8991
      • warships, 9192
    • ship owners, definition. See owner
    • subrogation, 165168
    • time limits for proceedings
      • claim for compensation, 156
        • notification of proceedings under CLC, 156157
        • legal actions against Fund, 157
      • claim for indemnification under 1971 Convention, 151
    • transitional period, 71, 117
    • United States, 2930, 5255
    • Working Groups. See IOPC Funds, Intersessional Working Groups
  • Funding Agreement 1980, 396, 403, 546
  • Funding Agreement 1990, 548
  • Garbage, 839840, 864, 11291130
  • Gas industry. See Oil and gas industry
  • General average
  • General Excess Loss Reinsurance Contract, 731
  • Germany, 73
  • Geroi Sevastopolya, 910, 10641065
  • “Ghost Ships”, 10421045
  • Glacier Bay, 4243
    • economic loss, Alaskan state law, 436
  • Gold francs
    • liability limit, unit of account
      • Civil Liability Convention 1969, 1617, 114
        • Protocol 1976, 114, 121
        • conversion into national currency, 121
        • SDRs, replacement by, 114, 121
    • Fund Convention 1971, 1819
      • conversion into national currency, 155
      • Haven, 155
      • indemnification of shipowner, 18
        • Protocol 1976, 154
        • SDRs, replacement by, 155
  • Governing law
    • P&I cover, 729
  • Government authorities. See also Public
    • authorities access to territorial seas, 905911
    • admittance to ports, 554, 758759, 767768, 905921
    • enforcement. See Enforcement
    • international compensation Conventions
      • contributory negligence, 104105, 282
      • default in maintenance of navigational aids, 101104, 282
      • fishing and related industries
      • orders for destruction of produce, 448
    • marine environment, claims for damage to, 482490
    • oil spill response
      • fixed costs, 383389
      • offshore operations, 376378
        • use of dispersants, 377
      • onshore operations, 378
      • public expectations, 363, 376
    • salvage and related operations
      • purpose of measures, 394402
  • intervention. See Intervention Convention 1969
  • official orders, cost of complying with general average, admissibility in
      • York-Antwerp Rules 1974, 760
      • York-Antwerp Rules 1994, 764768
    • P&I cover, 733
    • particular average, 776
  • Pollution Hazard Clause, 777
  • preparedness, response and co-operation. See OPRC 1990
  • report of incident to, 892894
  • United States
    • control of salvage operations, 600
    • response to an incident, 891927
  • Grandcamp
    • dangerous cargo, liability for shipping, 634
    • Texas City Disaster 1947, 269270
    • third party liability, 300302
  • Greenhouse gases, 845847
  • Group actions. See Class actions
  • Guarantees. See also Guarantors
    • condition of entry into port
    • limitation fund, establishment of by
      • Civil Liability Conventions, 120
      • Hazardous and Noxious Substances Convention 1996, 298
    • parent company. See ship finance
    • special compensation, security for payment to salvor, 567
    • ship finance, security for, 707, 713
  • Guarantors. See also Guarantees cancellation, 224
    • CERCLA (United States), 336
    • Civil Liability Conventions
      • compulsory insurance, 125127
      • direct action against, rights of, 127, 588, 750751
      • enforcement of judgments, relevance to, 131132
      • IOPC Funds, liability to, 165
      • liability, 127, 750751
      • salvor, liability to, 588
    • International Group of P&I Clubs, 57
    • Oil Pollution Act 1990 (United States), 218228
    • P&I Clubs, 57, 750751
    • ship finance, security for, 707, 713
  • Guidelines
    • CMI Guidelines on Claims for Oil Pollution Damage, 364, 369
    • fines, 11391140
    • IMO Guidelines. See Table of International Instruments and Agreements
    • National Contingency Plan, 949
    • natural resources, 529530, 893894
    • OPRC 1990, 923, 927
    • penalties, 1144
    • report of incident
    • response measures in the United States, 985987
    • vessel response plans, 896897
  • Gulf of Mexico, 875876
  • Gulf War, 925
  • Gunny, 270
  • Habitats
    • Exxon Valdez, 48
    • Habitat Equivalency Analysis, 524
    • natural resources, 478, 524
  • Haven, 71
    • criteria for admissibility of claims, background to, 366, 438439
    • economic loss. See under Economic loss interest on CLC limitation fund, 121122, 154
    • limit of liability, 1971, Fund
      • conversion into national currency, 155
      • effect of interest awarded against owner, 154
      • effect of interest paid or payable by Fund, 154
    • marine environment, damage to, 483487
    • natural resources, 483487
    • tourism, 455468
    • yacht mooring fees, 472
  • Hazardous and noxious substances. See also Hazardous and Noxious Convention 1996, Hazardous waste, US hazardous and noxious substances
    • abnormally dangerous activities, 240241
    • Ariadne, 271
    • Betelgeuse, 270
    • CERCLA (United States), 220
    • certification, 882
    • charterers, 611, 627
    • clean-up, 382
    • clean-up costs, 375
    • Clean Water Act (United States), 184185, 187, 191
    • containers, 634, 882
    • Dangerous Cargo Manifest, 635
    • definition, 220
    • difficulties, 269
    • DOT Regulations, 881883
    • enforcement, 879880, 883
    • financial responsibility, 220221
    • fines, 883
    • Grandcamp, 269270
    • Hazardous Materials Transport Act 1975 (United States), 879883
    • Hazardous Materials Transportation Uniform Safety Act (United States), 879880
    • IMDG Code, 634, 882
    • Independenta, 285
    • injunctions, 191
    • knowledge, 883
    • labelling, 634
    • MARPOL, 881
    • Mont Louis, 270
    • natural resources, 507
    • non-persistent oil, 6
    • Oil Pollution Act 1990 (United States), 54, 635
    • OPRC 1990, 922
    • penalties, 883
    • Ports and Waterways Safety Act (United States), 857
    • property damage, 407
    • registration statement, 881
    • response measures in the United States, 931959, 976980, 984
    • salvage, 588, 604
    • standards, 880, 883
    • stowage, 633635, 882
    • Tank Vessel Act 1936 (United States), 860
    • terrorism, 295
    • Texas City Disaster, 269270
    • training, 881883
    • transport, 879883
    • uniformity, 883
    • United States, 21, 47, 240, 635, 855, 879883
    • waste, 338340, 344352
  • Hazardous and Noxious Substances Convention 1996. See also Hazardous and noxious substances
  • Hazardous waste
    • petroleum exclusion, 341344
    • recycling, 346, 351
    • Resource Conservation and Recovery Act 1976 (United States), 338352
    • shipowners, 338352
    • ships for scrapping, 1015, 10291049 passim. See also Dismantling of ships
    • solid waste, 344346, 349
    • state law, 348349
    • Superfund, 303304
    • Toxicity Characteristics, 349350
    • transboundary movement, 10151029 passim. See also Shipment of waste
    • treatment, storage or disposal facilities, 349350
    • transporter provisions, 351352
    • used oil, 344349
  • Health and safety at work, 943944
  • Hebei Spirit
    • criminal proceedings, 11121113
    • date for conversion of compensation limit into national currency, Fund Convention, 155
    • emergency legislation, 124
    • interim payments
      • risk to shipowner of deposit of limitation fund still being required, 164
      • restrictions on, 161
    • struck by crane barge Samsung No. 1, 667
    • Web-based Claims Management System, 159
  • Historical overview of oil pollution regimes, 380
  • HNS. See Hazardous and noxious substances
  • HNS Fund, 280, 286293
    • administration, 286, 290
    • Assembly, 290
    • cases in which the HNS Fund pays compensation, 287290
    • charterers, 628
    • contributions, 286, 291292
    • exclusions, 290
    • funding, 291292
    • limit of liability, 290
    • organisation, 290
    • reports, 291292
    • Secretariat, 291
  • Hotels, 461464
  • Hull and cargo insurance, 753781
  • Ikan Tanda, 1011
  • IMCO. See Inter-Governmental Maritime Consultative Organization, International Maritime Organization
  • IMDG Code, 634, 882
  • Immunity. See also State immunity
    • Clean Water Act (United States), 188
    • criminal offences, 11481149
    • response measures in the United States, 964966
    • “use immunity”, 188
  • IMO. See International Maritime Organization
  • Import controls on waste shipments, 1022
  • Incident Command Center, 983985
  • Incineration, 843844
  • Indemnification under Fund Convention 1971, 151
    • background to, 17, 18
    • subrogation against shipowner or guarantor, effect on, 165166
    • subrogation against third parties, 166
    • time limit for claim, 156157
  • Indemnities
  • Indigenous persons, 48
  • Industry controls on ship safety standards, 10671071
  • Information
    • CERCLA (United States), 314
    • criminal offences, 1137
    • false, 1137
    • National Contingency Plan, 944
    • natural resources, 511514, 517, 522, 527529
    • OPRC 1990, 925
    • response measures in the United States, 966967, 971
    • vessel response plans, 898
  • Injunctions
    • CERCLA (United States), 352
    • Clean Water Act (United States), 191
    • hazardous and noxious substances, 191
    • hazardous waste, 352
  • Innocent passage, 874
  • Inspections
    • casualty investigations, 11441145
    • CERCLA (United States), 307, 314
    • charterers, 616
    • criminal offences, 1136, 11441145
    • lightering, 875
    • Oil Pollution Act 1990 (United States), 192
    • port state control, 10611062
    • response measures in the United States, 974975
    • ships, 620
    • standards, 10671068
    • Tank Vessel Act 1936 (United States), 861
    • towing vessels, 874875
  • Institute Clauses
  • Insurance. See also P&I Clubs, Self-insurance
    • additional, P&I premiums for US trading, 647
    • bareboat charters, 646
    • bunker spills, 264
    • cargo, 770774, 778
    • CERCLA (United States), 336337
    • certificates of financial responsibility, 750
    • certification. See compulsory insurance
    • charterers, obligation to arrange and pay for, 646647
    • collisions, pollution resulting from, 779781
    • compulsory
    • Exxon Valdez, 4950, 745
    • financial responsibility, 219, 222224, 749750
    • First Line, 61
    • general average, 770774
    • global corporate excess policies, 4951
    • guarantors, 127, 223224, 749750
    • Hazardous and Noxious Substances Convention 1996
    • hull
      • collisions, pollution resulting from, 779781
      • general average, 770774
      • particular average, 774778
      • Pollution Hazard Clause, 777
      • Running Down Clause (RDC), 779781
    • illegality, 747
    • Institute Clauses
    • legal proceedings, 210
    • lenders. See ship finance
    • liability insurance. See P&I Clubs
    • Marine Insurance Act 1906 (UK), exclusions and defences under, 740744
    • MEIF, 61
    • misrepresentation, 744
    • mortgagees. See ship finance
    • non-disclosure, 744
    • Oil Pollution Act 1990 (United States), 205, 647, 710
    • proximate cause, 99, 776
    • radioactive contamination, 748
    • salvage
      • enhanced awards to salvors, 540
      • Funding Agreement 1980, 546
      • Funding Agreement 1990, 396, 403, 548
    • scuttling, 742743
    • ship finance
      • Mortgagees’ Additional Perils (Pollution) Insurance, 709710
      • Mortgagees’ Interest Insurance, 708709
      • P&I cover
        • owner’s non-recovery under, 706
        • requirement of, 705706, 713
        • role of, 706
    • sue and labour expenses, 738740
    • United States, 20, 750
    • unseaworthiness, 740742
    • war risks, 99
    • wilful misconduct, 127, 742743
  • Insurance industry
    • controls on ship safety standards, 10681070
  • Interest
    • payable by contributors to IOPC Funds, 142
    • payable by IOPC Funds to claimants, 151
      • effect on Funds’ liability limit, 154
    • payable by shipowner to claimants, 121122
      • effect on Funds’ liability limit,
        • Fund Convention 1971, 154
        • Fund Convention 1992, 154
  • Interest groups. See Special interest groups Inter-Governmental Maritime Consultative Organization (IMCO). See also International Maritime Organization
  • Interim payments
    • Civil Liability Conventions, 113
    • IOPC Funds, 159164
  • Internal exercises, 985986
  • International Association of Classification Societies, 63, 10671068
  • International Association of Independent Tanker Owners. See INTERTANKO
  • International Chamber of Shipping Bridge Procedure Guide, 238
  • International Convention for the Prevention of Pollution from Ships. See MARPOL 73/78
  • International Convention for the Prevention of Pollution of the Sea by Oil 1954. See OILPOL
  • International Convention on Civil Liability for Bunker Oil Pollution Damage, 2001. See Bunkers Convention 2001
  • International Convention on Salvage 1989. See Salvage Convention 1989
  • International Convention on the Establishment of an International Fund for Compensation for Oil Pollution Damage. See Fund Convention 1971, Fund Convention 1992
  • International Convention on Tonnage Measurement of Ships 1969
    • Civil Liability Convention 1969, 114116
    • Civil Liability Convention 1992, 117
    • Hazardous and Noxious Substances Convention 1996, 284
  • International Convention Relating to the Intervention on the High Seas in Cases of Oil Pollution Casualties. See Intervention Convention 1969
  • International Group of P&I Clubs, 729732, 735, 745. See also P&I Clubs
    • cover provided by Group Clubs, 730732
    • financial responsibility of shipowner, 57
    • guarantors, 57
    • Hazardous and Noxious Substances Convention 1996, insurance capacity, 284
    • Memorandum of Understanding with IOPC Funds, 157158
    • Oil Pollution Act 1990 (United States), 5657
    • oil pollution risks, 732
    • Pollution Sub-Committee, 730
    • Pooling Agreement, 730731
    • reinsurance, 5657, 731732, 745
    • salvage
      • Funding Agreement 1980, 546
      • Funding Agreement 1990, 396, 403, 548
    • terrorist risks, 747748, 750
  • International Legal Conference on Marine Pollution Damage 1969 (Brussels), 1417
  • International Maritime Organization Civil Liability Convention, 1969, 71
    • Fund Convention 1971, 71
    • Guidelines. See Table of International Instruments and Agreements
    • intervention, 902
    • IOPC Funds, 139
    • Oil Pollution Act 1990 (United States), 63
    • OPRC 1990, 923924, 926927
    • port state control, 1060
    • standards, 10671068
  • International Oil Pollution Compensation Funds. See IOPC Funds
  • International rules to prevent pollution from ships, 807853
    • Control of Harmful Anti-fouling Systems on Ships, 847850
      • provisions, 848850
        • conference resolutions, 849
        • inspections and violations, 848
    • enforcement, 10511071
    • international law of the sea, 808817
      • coastal states. See regulation
      • flag states. See regulation
      • maritime zones
        • archipelagic water, 811
        • contiguous zone, 810
        • continental shelf, 812
        • exclusive economic zone (EEZ), 811
        • high seas, 812
        • internal waters, 809810
        • straits used for international navigation, 810
        • territorial sea, 810
      • regulation by flag states, 812813
      • regulation by coastal states, 813816
        • archipelagic waters, 815
        • exclusive economic zone, 814
        • high seas, 815
        • internal waters, 813
        • straits used for international navigation, 815
        • territorial sea, 814
    • international organizations, 816817
    • jurisdiction. See international law of the sea, regulation
    • Prevention of Pollution from Ships (MARPOL 73/78), 821847. See also MARPOL 73/78
      • air pollution (Annex VI), 840845
        • background, 840
        • emissions controls, 841
          • ozone depleting substances, 841
          • nitrogen oxides (NOx), 841842
          • sulphur oxides (SOx), 842843
          • volatile organic compounds (VOCs), 843
        • fuel oil quality, 844
        • incineration, 843844
        • NOx Technical Code, 844845
        • reception facilities, 844
        • revised Annex VI 2008, 844845
        • shipboard incineration, 843844
      • background, 821823
      • carbon emissions, 845847
      • garbage (Annex V), 839840
      • greenhouse gas emissions, 845847
      • harmful substances in packaged forms (Annex III), 838
      • implementation and enforcement of MARPOL, 847
      • noxious liquid substances in bulk (Annex II), 834837
        • categorization of substances, 834
        • design, construction, arrangement and equipment, 835
        • general, 834
          • exemptions and exceptions, 834
        • measures of control by port states, 837
        • operational discharges of residues, 835
          • Cargo Record Book, 837
          • categories Y and Z, 836
          • category X, 836
          • cleaning agents and additives, 836
          • control of discharges, 835
          • discharge standards, 835
          • pre-washes, 836
          • Procedures and Arrangements Manual, 836
        • reception facilities, 837
        • shipboard marine pollution emergency plan (SMPEP), 837
        • surveys and certification, 834835
      • oil (Annex I), 824833
      • general provisions
        • application to oil tankers and offshore craft, 825826
        • exceptions and exemptions, 826
        • special areas, 826
      • offshore craft, application to, 825826
      • operational discharges of oil
        • crude oil washing operations, 832
        • discharge conditions, 828, 832
        • Oil Record Book, 829, 832833
      • reception facilities, 833
      • requirements for cargo area of oil tankers
        • construction
          • carriage of heavy grade oil as cargo, 831
          • double hull and double bottom requirements, 829831
          • other construction requirements, 831
          • segregated ballast tanks (SBT), 829
        • equipment
          • crude oil washing requirements, 832
          • oil discharge monitoring and control system, 831832
          • oil/water interface detector, 832
      • requirements for machinery spaces of ships
        • construction and equipment
        • discharge connections, 828
        • fuel tank protection, 827
        • oil filtering equipment, 828
        • sludge tanks, 827
      • segregation of oil and water ballast and carriage of oil in forepeak tanks, 829
      • shipboard oil pollution emergency plan (SOPEP), 833
      • special requirements for fixed or floating platforms, 833
      • surveys and certification, 826827
    • sewage (Annex IV), 838839
      • equipment and control of discharge, 839
      • general, 838
      • reception facilities, 839
      • surveys and certification, 839
  • Safety of Life at Sea (SOLAS), 817821
    • amendment procedure, 821
    • provisions
      • additional structural requirements for bulk carriers, 821
      • carriage of cargoes, 819
      • carriage of dangerous goods, 819
      • construction and sub-division, 817819
      • enhanced surveys, 820
      • fire prevention, detection and extinction, 818
      • high-speed craft, 820
      • life saving appliances and arrangements, 818
      • maritime security, 820821
      • nuclear ships, 819
      • radiocommunications, 818
      • safety of navigation, 818819
      • ship management, 820
    • scope, 817
  • Ships’ Ballast Water and Sediments, 850853
    • background, 850
    • provisions, 850853
      • Annex, 852
        • general provisions, 852
        • management and control requirements, 852
      • ballast water exchange and performance standards, 852
        • survey and certification requirements, 853
        • transfer of harmful species, 852
      • general obligation, 850
      • specific obligations, 851
      • reception facilities, 851
      • research and monitoring, 851
      • survey, certification and inspection, 851
      • technical assistance, 851
  • International Safety Management Code. See ISM Code
  • International Tanker Indemnity Association, 14
  • International Tanker Owners Pollution Federation Ltd. See ITOPF
  • International Tonnage Certificates, 221
  • International treaties and conventions. See Treaties and conventions
  • Intersessional Working Groups. See under IOPC Funds
  • INTERTANKO. See also Table of Cases
    • financial responsibility, 224
    • MEIF, 224
  • Intervening events
  • Intervention. See also Intervention Convention 1969
    • IOPC Funds, intervention in proceedings under Civil Liability Conventions, 157
    • state intervention. See Intervention Convention 1969, Intervention on the High Seas Act
  • Intervention Convention 1969
    • abandoned ships, 905
    • Amoco Cadiz, 903
    • best endeavours, 902
    • Civil Liability Conventions, 904
    • coastal states, 891, 899, 902904
    • coastline, 902
    • compensation, 903
    • consultation, 902904
    • costs, 903
    • customary law, 903
    • Eleni V, 905
    • exclusive economic zones, 900
    • exercise of right to take measures, 902
    • government bodies, 904
    • grave and imminent danger, 902
    • high seas, 899
    • “imminent threat or material damage”, 900
    • innocent passage, 903
    • International Maritime Organization, 902
    • “maritime casualty”, 900
    • national laws, 903
    • notice, 904
    • “oil”, 901
    • pollutants, 901902
    • proportionality, 902903
    • “related interests”, 902
    • salvage, 904
    • “ship”, 900
    • “substances other than oil”, 901
    • territorial sea, 899904
    • Torrey Canyon, 891, 899, 900, 903905
    • types, 904905
    • use of force, 904
  • Intervention on the High Seas Act (United States), 330
  • Inverpool, 9
  • Invoices, 475
  • IOPC Funds. See also Fund Conventions 1971 and 1992
    • Assemblies, 137, 139
      • composition, 139
      • consistency between decisions of 1971 and 1992 Fund Assemblies, 366
      • constitution, 139
      • claims, determination and settlement, role in, 159
      • endorsement of Intersessional Working Group reports
        • Fifth (1971 Fund) (damage to marine environment), 482
        • Seventh (1971 Fund) (criteria for admissibility of claims), 151, 366368
      • functions, 139
      • records of decisions, 143
      • resolutions
        • No. 3, damage to marine environment, 481
        • significance under 1969 Vienna Convention, 368
      • uniform application of Conventions
        • emphasis on, 364
        • role in maintaining, 366368
    • claims
      • admissibility, criteria. See Criteria for admissibility of claims
      • claims manuals, 151
      • determination and settlement, 140, 150, 154, 167168, 367
    • compensation
      • cases in which Funds pay
        • damage exceeds liability limit under CLC, 149150
        • no liability under CLC, 145147
          • shipowner exonerated from liability, 146
          • unidentified ship, 145
        • shipowner financially incapable, 147149
          • assets insufficient, 149
          • compulsory insurance requirements
            • not applicable, 147
            • not complied with, 149
          • insurance cover insufficient, 149
          • shipowner’s expenses, 150, 373
      • distribution, 155
      • limits
        • amounts, 153
        • conversion into national currency, 155
        • interest awarded against shipowner, effect of, 154
        • interest paid or payable by Funds, 154
        • natural phenomenon, 153
        • unit of account, 155
    • constitution, 139
    • contributions
      • capping, 1992 Fund Protocol, 72
      • full collection, 137
      • funding by, 141143
      • transitional arrangements, 167
    • contributing oil
      • quantities included, 141
      • quantities received in main contributory states, 143
      • receivers liability to pay contributions, 141142
    • criteria for admissibility of claims,
      • adoption of, 366367
      • background to, 366367
      • clean-up operations and preventive measures
        • cost of measures, 383
        • fixed costs, 388389
        • reasonableness of measures, 375
      • damage to marine environment
        • exclusion of claims other than for costs of reasonable measures of reinstatement, 480481
        • funding of studies, 488
        • reinstatement measures, 488
      • economic loss
        • decided cases, 446475
        • general criteria, 437440
        • measures to prevent or minimise economic loss, 440
      • legal status of, 367368
    • decisions
      • compatibility between 1971 and 1992 Funds, 366367
      • economic loss, 446475
      • records of, 143
      • role in maintaining international uniformity, 366368
    • Director of the Funds, 137, 138, 139, 141
      • chief administrative officer, 137, 140
      • claims settling authority, 159
      • contributions, collection, 142
      • Jacobsson, Måns, 141
      • legal representative of Funds, 141
      • Oosterveen, Willem, 141
      • same for both Funds, 138
      • Secretariat, head of, 138, 141
    • exclusion of liability, 152153
    • Executive Committees, 139, 140
      • claims
        • criteria for admissibility, role in developing, 366367
        • determination and settlement, role in, 159
      • composition, 140
      • constitution, 140
      • establishment of, 1992 Fund, 140
      • functions, 140
      • records of decisions, 143
      • uniform application of Conventions, role in maintaining, 366368
    • finance, 3, 141143
    • funding, 3, 141143
    • geographical scope, 144145
    • headquarters, 138
    • indemnification of shipowners by 1971 Fund,
      • background to, 17, 1819
      • subrogation against shipowner or guarantor, effect on, 165
      • subrogation against third parties, 166
    • interest
      • payable by contributors to Funds, 142
      • payable by Funds to claimants, 151
        • effect on Funds’ liability limit, 154
      • payable by shipowner to claimants, 121122
        • effect on Funds’ liability limit, 1992 Fund, 153
    • intergovernmental bodies, as, 3, 138, 139140, 366
    • Internal Regulations, 139, 141, 159
    • interim payments, 160
    • Intersessional Working Groups (1971 Fund)
      • Fifth
        • damage to the marine environment, claims for, 480481
        • fixed costs, claims for, 388
        • payment of interest, 151
      • Sixth (entry into force of Protocols), 71
      • Seventh (criteria for admissibility of claims), 151, 366367, 369, 389, 438441
  • Intersessional Working Groups (1992 Fund)
      • Second
        • applicability of regime to offshore craft, 91, 246
        • applicability of regime to vessels constructed or adapted for carriage of persistent oil and other cargoes, 90
      • Third, 7778
        • Review of compensation regime, 7778
        • criteria governing claims
        • environmental damage, 487
        • environmental impact studies, 490
        • establishment to review compensation regime, 77
        • jurisdiction of national courts, 129
        • revision of conventions, decided against, 7778, 1069
        • “ship”, CLC 92 definition, 91
        • substandard shipping, 1069
      • Fourth
        • conclusion, 10691070
        • establishment to examine non-technical measures to promote quality shipping, 78, 1069
        • measures introduced by P&I Clubs, 1070
  • jurisdiction, 164165
  • legal proceedings
    • extent to which Funds bound by proceedings against shipowner, 165
    • intervention by Funds in proceedings against shipowner, 157
    • notification, 156
  • liability. See compensation and exclusion of liability
  • limit of Funds’ liability, 153156
    • amounts
      • 1992 Fund, 153
    • conversion into national currency 1992 Fund, 155
    • distribution of available compensation, 155156
    • natural phenomenon, 153
    • interest, effect of, see interest
    • unit of account, 1992 Fund, 155
  • limitation of actions, see time limit for proceedings
    • member states, 4, 18, 32, 77, 8182, 132, 137143 passim, App. 1
    • Memorandum of Understanding with International Group of P&I Clubs, 157158
    • notification, proceedings under Civil Liability Conventions, 156
      • form of notification, 156157
    • object, 4, 1719, 137, 368369
    • oil, contributing, see contributing oil
    • oil receivers, 142144
    • oil reports, 142
    • organs, 139141
    • P&I Clubs, co-operation with, 157165, 167168
    • policy, 368
    • purpose, 4, 1719, 137, 368369
    • receipts of oil, 141143
    • receivers of oil, 141143
    • recourse
      • against shipowner and his guarantor, 165166
      • against third parties, 166
      • Funds’ subrogation to rights of shipowner, 166, 627
    • reports, 142143
    • Secretariat, 137, 138, 141
    • subrogation, 165168
      • Funds’ subrogation to rights of shipowner, 166, 627
      • Funds’ subrogation to recovery rights of other parties, 167
      • rights of subrogation against Funds,
        • insurer of claimant, 167
        • other parties, 167168
    • time limit for proceedings,
      • claim for compensation, 156
        • notification of proceedings under CLC, 156
        • legal action against Fund, 157
    • Working Groups. See Intersessional Working Groups Irish Stardust, 103
  • Iron Baron, 256
  • ISM Code, 63
    • criminal offences, 11431144
    • Oil Pollution Act 1990 (United States), 63
    • P&I cover, 748
    • ship management, 661
  • ITIA (International Tanker Indemnity Association), 14
  • ITOPF (International Tanker Owners Pollution Federation Ltd)
  • Ixtoc, 47
  • Jacobsson, Måns, 141
  • Japan, 71
  • Jettison
    • MARPOL 73/78, 838
    • salvage, 604
  • Joint and several liability
    • bareboat charters, 646647
    • Bunkers Convention, 265261
    • CERCLA (United States), 310, 331
    • charterers, 611
    • Civil Liability Convention 1969, 95
    • Deepwater Port Act (United States), 45
    • Hazardous and Noxious Substances Convention 1996, 278
    • Oil Pollution Act 1990 (United States), 197
    • ship management, 651, 652
    • Trans-Alaska Pipeline Authorization Act (United States), 42
  • Joint Operations Center, 930
  • Jones, Walter, 54
  • Jose Marti, 104, 147
  • Judgments. See Enforcement of judgments, Recognition of judgments
  • Judicial review
  • Jupiter, 432433
  • Jurisdiction
    • Admiralty, 177180
    • Bunkers Convention, 265266
    • Civil Liability Conventions, 15, 112, 128131
      • incidents affecting non-CLC states, 131
      • incidents affecting only CLC states, 130
      • incidents affecting two states subscribing to different versions, 131
    • coastal state control, 1062, 1064, 1065
    • competent courts, 128129
    • conduct, 130
    • Deepwater Port Act (United States), 45
    • enforcement of ship safety rules, 1059
    • exclusive, 121, 128130
    • financial responsibility, 57
    • Hazardous and Noxious Substances Convention 1996, 293
    • incidents affecting more than one state, 129131
    • insurance, 128
    • IOPC Funds, 164165
    • judgments
      • recognition and enforcement, 128
    • limitation funds, 11, 121, 128130
    • limitation of liability, 130
    • Oil Pollution Act 1990 (United States), 54, 58, 196, 225228
    • pollution prevention, 1051, 1055, 1056, 1064
    • port state control, 1055, 1056, 1059
    • Torrey Canyon, 129
    • United States, 177180
      • advantages of, 45
    • venue, 225228
  • Kamina, 1011
  • Karin B, 1017
  • Kasuga Maru No. 1, 412
  • Khark V, 909910
  • Khian Sea, 632
  • Kirki, 914
  • Knowledge. See also Privity and knowledge
  • Kristal, 1013
  • Kure, 255
  • Kuroshima, 203
  • Kuzbass, 73
  • Labelling
    • containers, 634
    • hazardous and noxious substances, 634
    • US hazardous and noxious substances, 299, 301
  • Laura D’Amato
    • criminal proceedings
      • accidental spill, 1088, 1100
      • chief officer, 1102
      • fine, mitigation, 1102
      • master, 1076
      • parties liable to prosecution, 1076
  • Law of the Sea Convention, 10521055, 1128
  • LDC. See Dumping at sea, London Dumping Convention 1972
  • Leasing, 711, 714718, 724725
  • Legal proceedings. See also Claims, Jurisdiction
  • Lender liability
  • operators, 711712
  • Letters of credit, 219, 222
  • Liability. See also Fault, Liability funds, Joint and several liability, Limitation of liability, Strict liability
  • Liability funds
    • Deepwater Port Liability Fund, 46
    • offshore Oil Pollution Compensation Fund, 41
    • Oil Pollution Act 1990 (United States), 5354, 55, 195, 210216
    • Oil Spill Liability Trust Fund, 55, 61, 211216
    • state law, 4748
    • TAPAA fund, 4244
  • Liens. See Maritime liens
  • Lightering, 860, 875876, 962963, 972, 973
  • Lights, 104
  • Lilar, Albert, 14, 17
  • Limburg
    • collision
      • act of terrorism, 669
    • terrorism
      • exclusion of liability under CLC, 100
  • Limitation of actions. See Time limits
  • Limitation funds
  • Limitation of liability, 785804. See also Limitation funds, Limitation of Liability Convention 1957, Limitation of Liability Convention 1976
    • acts or omissions, 119
    • actual fault or privity, 116117, 119, 791794
    • alter egos, 119, 791792
    • Amoco Cadiz, 2728
    • amount of liability limit, 81, 114, 790, 800
    • arrest of ships, 132133, 135136
    • Bermuda, 11
    • bunker spills, 6, 262264, 798
    • calculation of limitation tonnage, 790791, 800
    • cargo interests, 607
    • CERCLA (United States), 320321, 327
    • Charlotte, 792
    • charterers, 607, 628, 637638, 789790
      • slot charterers, 638
      • sub-charterers, 638
    • Civil Liability Convention 1969, 1417, 2729, 85, 106, 113125, 131
    • Civil Liability Convention 1992, 72, 113, 117124
    • claims subject to limitation, 788789, 794799
    • clean-up, 24
    • clean-up expenses and preventive measures, 375, 798
      • cost of preventive measures by owner, 798799
      • environmental damage, 797798
      • pure economic loss, 797
      • recourse claim, 799
      • third parties, 799
    • Clean Water Act (United States), 3334, 37
    • colliding ships
      • claims by parties suffering pollution damage, 677678
      • claims by owners of colliding ship (contribution claims), 687
      • recourse claims by compensation bodies, 688689
      • conduct barring, 116117, 119, 130, 149, 791794, 801803
    • “damages”, 788789
    • Deepwater Port Act (United States), 46
    • financial responsibility, 225
    • France, 1011
    • Fund Convention 1971, 72, 73, 116117
    • general average, 796
    • gold francs, 154
    • Hazardous and Noxious Substances Convention 1996, 272, 278, 280, 283284
    • importance, 113
    • insurance, 127128, 709
    • international conventions, 786787
      • Brussels Convention 1957, 787794. See also Limitation of Liability Convention 1957
      • London Convention 1976 (LLMC), 794803. See also Limitation of Liability Convention 1976
    • IOPC Funds, 137, 145, 148149, 153156
    • jurisdiction, 130
    • limitation funds, 113114, 120125
    • Marion, 792793
    • Nissos Amorgos, 115
    • Oil Pollution Act 1990 (United States), 53, 55, 57, 194, 197, 207212
    • onus of proof, 794, 803
    • Outer Continental Shelf Lands Act Amendments (United States), 4041
    • P&I, 710
    • parties, 789790, 799
    • “personal” act or omission, 801
    • pilot, 697
    • privity and knowledge, 2021, 2324, 793
    • responsible party, 193194
    • SDRs, 114
    • Sea Empress, 115116
    • ship management, 792, 651
    • shipowners, 16, 116117
    • small tankers, 118
    • special compensation, 567568, 796
    • state of mind of person liable, 801
      • intent to cause loss, 802
      • recklessness with knowledge, 802
      • “such loss”, 803
    • strict liability, 1315, 113
    • tonnage, 115, 119
    • Torrey Canyon, 10
    • Trans-Alaska Pipeline Authorization Act (United States), 4244
    • United Kingdom, 910
    • United States, 3, 79, 1925, 4748
    • Amoco Cadiz, 2728
      • Shipowner’s Limitation of Liability Act 1851 (United States), 32
    • wreck removal, 798, 996997
  • Limitation of Liability Convention 1957, 787794
    • actual fault or privity, 16, 116, 119
    • amount of liability limit, 790
    • arrest of ships, 133, 135
    • calculation of limitation tonnage, 790791
    • cargo interests, 16
    • Civil Liability Convention 1969, 16, 113
    • claims subject to limitation, 788789
      • “damages”, 788789
      • conduct barring limitation, 791794
      • “actual fault”, 792793
      • “owner”, 791792
      • onus of proof, 794
      • “privity”, 793
    • clean-up costs, 16
    • Hazardous and Noxious Substances Convention 1996, 283
    • limitation funds, 16
    • parties entitled to avail themselves of limitation, 789790
    • SDR Protocol 1979, 787
    • shipowners, 1617
    • tonnage, 16
  • Limitation of Liability Convention 1976 (LLMC), 794803
    • Aegean Sea
      • charterers’ liabilities, 637638
      • claims subject to limitation, 794795
    • amount of liability limit, 800
    • bunker spills, 262264, 798
    • calculation of limitation tonnage, 800
    • charterers’ liabilities, 637638
      • slot charterers, 638
      • sub-charterers, 638
    • Civil Liability Conventions, relationship with, 113, 795796
    • claims subject to limitation under LLMC, 794799
      • bunker pollution, 262264, 798
      • claims excluded, 795796
      • clean-up expenses and preventive measures, 798
      • environmental damage, 797798
      • owner’s expenses, 798799
      • pure economic loss, 797
      • recourse claim, 799
      • third parties, 799
      • wreck removal, 798, 996997
    • colliding ships
      • claims by parties suffering pollution damage, 677678
      • claims by owners of colliding ship (contribution claims), 687
        • recourse claims by compensation bodies, 688689
      • conduct barring limitation, 801803
        • onus of proof, 803
        • “personal” act or omission, 801
        • state of mind of person liable, 801
        • intent to cause loss, 802
        • recklessness with knowledge, 802
        • “such loss”, 803
      • general average, 796
      • hazardous and noxious substances
        • liability for damage by, 283
      • Hazardous and Noxious Substances Convention 1996
        • absence of linkage with, 283284
      • offshore craft, 248249, 251
      • parties entitled to limit liability, 799
        • charterers, 637
        • salvors, 567
        • shipowner, 799
      • Protocol 1996, 568, 803804
      • salvors, 567568, 594596, 789
      • “ship”, 800
        • aircushion vehicles, 800
        • floating platforms, 800
        • mobile drilling units, 800
        • offshore craft, 248249, 251
      • “shipowner”, 799
      • special compensation, 567568, 796
      • tonnage, 800
      • wreck removal, 798, 996997
  • Limitation periods. See Limitation of actions
  • Litigation. See Legal proceedings
  • Lloyd’s Open Form
  • Local authorities. See Public authorities
  • LOF. See Lloyd’s Open Form
  • London Dumping Convention 1972 (LDC), 10011013
  • Loss of image claims, 51
  • Loss of life, 538
  • Loss of profit
    • Civil Liability and Fund Conventions 1992, 358
    • fisheries, 452
    • natural resources, 515
    • tourism, 460
  • Loss of use or enjoyment, 41, 472
  • Louisiana
    • economic loss, 435436
    • Louisiana Offshore Oil Port (LOOP), 45
  • Magnuson Act (United States), 855
  • Malicious acts, 99, 100
  • Managers. See Ship management
  • Mandatory Excess Insurance Facility, 61
  • Manning
    • alcohol testing, 865
    • certificates, 864865
    • criminal offences, 1147
    • drug testing, 865
    • Exxon Valdez, 873
    • foreign tank vessels, 866
    • merchant mariner’s document, 865
    • National Contingency Plan, 944
    • Oil Pollution Act 1990 (United States), 864866
    • person in charge, 864866
    • salvage, 891
    • Tank Vessel Act 1936 (United States), 861
    • tankers, 873874
    • training, 866
    • US Coast Guard, 864866
    • US tank vessels, 864865
  • Marine Debris Co-ordinating Committee, 864
  • Marine environment. See also Environmental damage, Natural resources
    • bunker spills, 798
    • damage to, claims for
      • international conventions, 480490
        • Civil Liability Convention 1969, 480481
        • Civil Liability Convention 1992, 482
        • costs of reinstatement, restoration, 487
        • Fund Convention 1971, 481
          • Resolution No. 3 of 1971 Fund, 481482
        • Fund Convention 1992, 482
        • funding of studies, 488490
        • governmental bodies, claims by, 482486
        • Hazardous and Noxious Substances Convention 1996, 490
        • Protocols 1984 and 1992, 482
        • reinstatement, costs of, 487488
        • restoration, costs of, 487488
      • United States, position in. See Natural resources
    • Deepwater Port Act (United States), 45
    • lightering, 875877
    • MARPOL 73/78, 808, 823
    • natural recovery, 361362, 478, 521522
    • natural resources, 477532
    • OPRC 1990, 921927
    • Outer Continental Shelf Lands Act Amendments (United States), 4041
    • policy considerations, compensation, 478480
    • Tank Vessel Act 1936 (United States), 855, 858862
    • technical issues, 359363, 478480
    • United States, 855861 passim, 875. See also Natural resources
  • Marine insurance. See Insurance, Hull and cargo insurance, P&I Clubs
  • Marine Preservation Association, 976
  • Marine property insurance. See General average, Hull and cargo insurance
  • Marine Spill Response Corporation, 975976
  • Maritime authorities, liability, 691692, 698704
    • cause of incident, 698702
    • immunity from suit, 702704
    • pilots
      • independent fault of employer, 695696
      • vicarious liability for acts of, 693695
    • response to incident, 702704
      • inadequate response, 703
      • spill from response vessel, 704
      • unreasonable measures, 703704
  • “Maritime lepers”, 909
  • Maritime liens
    • Admiralty jurisdiction, 178179
    • lenders, 713
    • salvor’s security, 567
    • special compensation, 567
    • United States, 178
  • Maritime Transportation Security Act 2002 (US), 70
  • Marketing
  • MARPOL 73/78, 821847. See also International rules
  • volatile organic compounds, 840, 843
  • Maslov, G.A., 14
  • Masters
  • Media reports, 51, 52, 64, 68, 69, 136, 363, 415, 441, 457, 462, 559, 907, 1103
  • Medical practice, 464
  • Medina Princess, 766
  • Mega Borg, 52, 951
  • MEIF, 61
  • Memoranda of Understanding
  • “Methodika” formula, 481, 483, 486487
  • Metula, 360
  • Migratory Bird Treaty Act (US)
    • criminal liability for violations, 11301131
  • Milad 1, 95
  • Misconduct. See Wilful misconduct
  • Misrepresentation
  • Mitchell, George, 52, 53
  • Mobil, 62
  • Mobile offshore units, 243, 276
  • Mont Louis, 270
  • Mooring fees, 472
  • Morris J. Berman, 109, 712, 861, 874, 11381142
  • Mortgages
  • MSC Ariane, 1101
  • MSC Napoli, 916, 920
  • Müller, Walter, 15
  • Multi-party actions. See Class actions
  • Nagasaki Spirit, 374, 394, 537, 547, 548, 556561, 564, 566, 568, 590, 667, 767, 788
  • Nairobi Convention on Wreck Removal 2007 (WRC), 9901000
    • background, 990
    • certification and direct action, 999
    • compulsory insurance, 999
    • direct action, 999
    • disputes, 999
    • hazard, determination of, 994
    • main provisions, 990991
    • relationship with other liability regimes, 997999
    • rights and obligations as to wrecks, 993999
      • reporting, 994
      • locating and marking, 994
      • removal, 995999
  • scope of application, 991993
      • “affected state”, 992993
      • definitions, 992993
      • exclusions, 991
      • geographical scope, 991
      • “hazard”, 992993
      • “maritime casualty”, 992
      • “registered owner” and “operator of the ship”, 993
      • “removal”, 993
      • “ship”, 992
      • “wreck”, 992
    • time limits, 999
  • Nakhodka, 73, 117, 155, 382, 459, 751
    • causeway, construction of, 382383
    • incident, 73
    • maximum amount of compensation (date of conversion into national currency), 155
    • marketing campaign, 459
    • reasonableness of preventive measures, 382383
    • recourse action by IOPC Fund against insurer, 117, 751
  • Nancy Orr Gaucher, 98, 410411
  • National Contingency Plan (United States), 20, 929985 passim