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Index

Shipping and the Environment

Index Index A Turtle permission to dump oil rig in South Atlantic, 1009 Abnormally dangerous activities, 240 – 241 , 493 , 965 Access to places of refuge. See Places of refuge for ships Access to territorial seas and ports, 905 – 920 Acts of God CERCLA (United States), 310 – 311 , 669 definition, 310 international compensation Conventions. See Natural phenomenon Oil Pollution Act 1990 (United States), 201 – 203 , 669 Acts of war CERCLA (United States), 310 – 311 , 669 Oil Pollution Act 1990 (United States), 201 , 203 , 669 Acts or omissions CERCLA (United States), 310 – 312 , 669 charterers, 625 , 628 claimants Civil Liability Conventions, 92 – 94 Fund Conventions, 146 , 153 Hazardous and Noxious Substances Convention 1996, 281 – 283 , 285 limitation of liability, 109 , 119 navigational aids, 104 – 105 Oil Pollution Act 1990 (United States), 193 – 194 , 201 , 203 – 204 , 207 – 208 ship management, 653 – 654 Actual fault or privity. See also Privity and knowledge “actual fault”, 792 – 793 arrest of ships, 134 burden of proof, 794 Civil Liability Convention 1969, 116 compensation, 116 – 117 definition, 792 – 793 limitation of liability, 116 – 117 Limitation of Liability Convention 1957, 116 , 791 – 794 masters, 793 national laws, 794 non-delegable duty, 793 P&I Clubs, 116 – 117 “pay to be paid”, 116 “privity”, 793 ship managers, 792 Torrey Canyon , 11 Actual loss, 775 Admiralty jurisdiction Admiralty Extension Act (United States), 179 – 180 maritime liens, 178 – 179 tort, 180 United States, 177 – 180 Admittance to ports, 584 , 758 – 759 , 767 – 768 , 908 – 913 Advertisements, OPA–90 claims procedure, 217 Aegean Captain , 542 , 667 , 906 Aegean Sea , 72 – 73 act or omission of claimant, 104 – 105 charterers, 637 criteria for admissibility of claims, background to, 366 , 438 economic loss. See under Economic loss employees, 473 fishing and related industries, claims by, 448 , 452 , 455 , 458 limit of liability, 1992 Fund, 72 limitation of liability under 1976 Convention, charterers, 637 claims subject to limitation, 796 – 797 negligence, 104 – 105 , 695 pilot, contributory negligence of, 104 – 105 , 695 ports, claims relating to, 469 – 470 preventive measures, loss caused by, 390 – 391 salvage and related operations, 403 – 404 shipping claims related to, 469 – 470 social security payments, 474 special compensation, claimed as cost of preventive measures, 403 – 404 tourism, 460 , 464 unlicensed activities, 474 Agip Abruzzo , 400 – 402 Agriculture, effect of oil spill on, 470 , 471 Air pollution Clean Air Act (United States), 883 – 889 compensation under international conventions health claims, 357 smoke and soot, 356 windblown oil spray, 357 , 409 , 470 , 471 criminal liability (United States), 1137 – 1138 prevention (MARPOL), 840 – 847 Al Jaziah 1 recourse action by 1971 Fund, 138 “ship”, CLC 92, 87 Alambra claim for fine or penalty outside scope of CLC 92, 483 – 484 , 486 claims outstanding against 1971 Fund, 138 Alcohol testing, 864 – 865 , 1146 Alter egos affiliates, 658 , 663 Amoco Cadiz , 662 – 663 arrest of ships, 657 – 658 CERCLA (United States), 660 – 661 , 664 – 665 Civil Liability Conventions, 657 – 658 companies, 119 , 285 , 657 – 665 continuity of enterprise theory, 664 costs, 663 damages, 663 – 664 dissolution, 665 enforcement, 657 environmental damage, 660 – 662 Exxon Valdez , 664 Fund Conventions, 657 – 658 guarantors, 657 Hazardous and Noxious Substances Convention 1996, 285 insurance, 657 liability, 657 – 665 limitation of liability, 119 negligence, 663 parent/subsidiary liability, 658 – 665 piercing the corporate veil, 657 – 665 Oil Pollution Act 1990 (United States), 658 , 660 , 664 – 665 partnership, 660 P&I Clubs, 741 registered owners, 657 – 665 shareholder liability, 660 , 663 – 664 sister ships, 657 subsidiaries, 659 – 660 , 663 – 664 successor corporations, 664 – 665 United States, 658 – 665 American Trader economic loss claims, Californian state law, 436 liability of time charterer, 611 – 612 Oil Pollution Act 1990 (United States), provided impetus for, 52 Trans-Alaska Pipeline Authorization Act (United States), 43 – 44 Amoco Cadiz , 27 – 28 1984 Protocols, led to, 29 alter egos , liability of, 662 – 663 associated parties, liability of, 662 – 663 Civil Liability Conventions application of incident to CLC 69, 27 – 28 , 108 channelling provisions, 107 – 111 claims in non-CLC states, 112 – 113 parties other than shipowner, claims against, 107 , 652 – 654 “servants or agents” of shipowner, 107 – 108 , 652 – 654 common law, liability at, 656 – 657 economic loss, 430 fixed costs “committed costs”, 384 equipment on standby, 387 – 388 overheads, 387 salaries and equipment, 385 – 386 intervention, 903 – 904 litigation in United States, summary, 27 – 28 managers, liability of, 652 – 654 negligence, 112 , 657 operators, liability of, 652 – 654 parent company, liability of, 662 – 663 salvage changes in law, led to, 542 – 543 claims against salvors, 543 , 592 Amorgos detention of officers and crew, 1107 Taiwan Association for Human Rights, 1104 Andros Patria , 908 – 909 Angling clubs, 471 , 472 Anti-fouling systems, 847 – 850 Antonio Gramsci first incident (1979), 151 , 481 second incident (1987), 483 Aquacultural stocks, 408 , 410 , 415 , 446 – 452 Aquatic invasive species, 887 – 889 Arbitration Lloyd’s Open Form, 538 , 557 , 565 – 567 P&I Clubs, 729 – 730 salvage, United States, 599 Area Contingency Plans, 66 , 929 , 933 , 944 – 947 Area exercises, 986 – 987 Argana , 1100 Argo Merchant , 47 – 48 , 514 , 858 , 931 Ariadne , 271 Arrest of ships actual fault or privity, 132 – 133 alter egos , 658 burden of proof, 135 Civil Liability Convention 1969, 131 , 132 – 134 Civil Liability Convention 1992, 133 – 134 , 135 conduct, 135 counter-productive, 131 Fund Conventions, 132 , 133 – 134 limitation funds, 132 – 134 limitation of liability, 133 – 135 Limitation of Liability Convention 1957, 134 , 135 Limitation of Liability Convention 1976, 134 national laws, 132 Nissos Amorgos , 136 P&I Clubs, 136 public authorities, 136 release, 134 , 135 – 136 Seki , 136 sister, 657 Wladyslaw Lokietek , 134 , 135 Arvak Ltd, 61 Asset Conservation Act (United States), 722 – 725 Assignment charterers, 641 , 642 Fund Conventions, rights under, 168 Athos I charterer, potential liability, 610 funding of clean-up, 211 incident, 67 limit of liability concerns about adequacy, 67 legislation to increase, 207 NPFC claim procedures, 216 nuisance claims, 239 terminal operator, potential liability, 617 Atlantic Empress , 542 , 906 Autopilots, 873 – 874 Average. See General average, Particular average Averity , 1103 Bahamas , 1011 Ballast bunker spills, 257 Civil Liability Convention 1969, 88 – 92 Civil Liability Convention 1992, 72 , 88 – 92 emissions, 884 double hulls, 867 Fund Convention 1992, 72 Hazardous and Noxious Substances Convention 1996, 275 MARPOL 73/78, 824 , 825 OILPOL 54 , 821 – 823 segregated ballast tanks, 823 , 824 Ballast Water and Sediments Management Convention, 850 – 853 . See also under International rules to prevent pollution Ballast water management in US, 887 – 889 Baltic Carrier “incident”, CLC 92 , 93 environmental impact studies, costs, 489 – 490 oil contaminating colliding ship, 669 Ban Ann , 1088 Bareboat charters Civil Liability Conventions, 629 clean-up costs, 610 damages, 610 Fund Conventions, 629 Hazardous and Noxious Substances Convention, 629 indemnities, 629 – 630 , 635 , 646 – 647 instructions, 630 insurance, 646 – 647 joint and several liability, 610 , 646 – 647 lender liability, 710 – 711 liability, 610 , 646 – 647 negligence, 615 – 616 Oil Pollution Act 1990 (United States), 192 , 610 , 646 – 647 P&I Clubs, 646 – 647 recourse liability, 629 – 630 responsible party, 610 standard forms, 629 – 630 strict liability, 610 Barges, 87 – 88 , 971 Basel Convention on Transboundary Movements of Waste, 1017 – 1022 . See also Shipment of waste civil liability and compensation, 1022 control of movements between contracting states, 1020 – 1021 criminal liability and public law obligations, 1021 dismantling of vessels, 1030 – 1049 , passim. See also Dismantling of vessels movements permissible subject to controls, 1021 non-compliance with, 1021 – 1022 prohibition of movements, 1020 scope, 1018 – 1019 “wastes”, meaning, 1019 Betelgeuse , 270 Bilge water CERCLA (United States), 347 – 348 hazardous waste, 347 – 348 MARPOL 73/78, 766 Birds clean-up, 379 criminal offences, 1030 – 1031 Migratory Bird Treaty Act (United States), 1030 – 1031 Blue cards, 126 Blue Lady , 1037 – 1039 beaching irreversible, 1033 Supreme Court of India, judgment, 1027 , 1036 Braer , 72 – 73 agriculture, effect on, 470 – 472 criteria for admissibility of claims, background to, 366 , 438 dispersal of oil, 361 economic loss. See under Economic loss employees, 472 – 474 environmental impact studies, funding of, 488 – 490 fishing and related industries, claims by, 447 – 450 , 452 – 456 , 472 – 474 health, effect on, 357 Landcatch claim, 442 – 444 , 456 – 457 oil spilt, type of, 360 property damage, 409 real estate, loss of market value, 409 recourse against P&I Clubs by IOPC Fund, 731 salvage and related operations primary purpose test, 398 special compensation, claimed as cost of preventive measures, 403 – 404 tourism promotion, 468 unlicensed activities, 474 – 475 windblown oil spray, 409 , 470 – 472 Brent Spar , 1008 , 1013 Bridge-to-Bridge Radio Telephone Act 1971 (United States), 877 Brussels Collision Convention. See Colliding ships Brussels Conference 1969, 14 – 17 Brussels Conference 1971, 17 – 18 Bulk carriers, 89 , 255 Bunker emission clauses, 645 – 646 Bunker spills, 255 – 266 . See also Bunkers Convention, Double bottoms bulk carriers, 255 – 256 bunkering operations, 257 – 258 certification, 264 – 265 charterers, 260 , 261 , 619 Civil Liability Convention 1969, 4 , 86 , 88 , 257 Civil Liability Convention 1992, 4 , 86 , 88 , 257 , 259 – 261 , 262 clean-up, 372 clean-up costs, 258 , 263 compulsory insurance, 264 – 265 container ships, 255 Cosco Busan , 256 costs, 263 – 264 dry cargo ships, 255 – 266 environmental damage, 256 , 261 – 262 fishing vessels, 258 Fund Convention 1971, 4 , 257 – 258 Fund Convention 1992, 4 , 257 – 258 general average, 758 – 759 hull insurance, see insurance insurance hull cover, costs of repairs, 774 – 775 , 777 compulsory liability cover, absence of, 264 – 265 IOPC Funds, unidentified ship, 145 – 146 Iron Baron , 256 Kure , 255 , 618 , 619 limitation of liability, 4 , 257 , 259 , 261 , 262 – 264 1976 Convention, 263 – 264 clean-up expenses, 263 environmental damage, 263 owner’s expenses, 263 – 264 preventive measures, 263 – 264 national laws, 263 , 266 negligence, 260 New Carissa , 255 non-persistent oil, 96 , 257 “oil”, 95 – 96 , 257 Oil Pollution Act 1990 (United States), 266 parties liable under Convention, 260 – 261 persistent oil, 257 , 360 pollution damage, 257 , 258 , 259 – 262 , 263 , 264 , 265 , 266 preventive measures, 257 , 259 , 262 , 263 – 264 property damage, 258 public authorities, 263 – 264 salvage special compensation, 256 , 551 – 552 , 558 Selendang Ayu , 255 “ship”, 256 , 257 spills during bunkering operations, 257 – 258 strict liability, 258 , 259 – 260 , 263 , 266 tankers, 4 , 86 , 256 – 258 , 259 in ballast, 86 , 257 laden, 86 , 257 technical issues, 263 , 360 threat removal, 257 unidentified ship, IOPC Funds, 145 – 146 United States, 266 Yinka Folawiyo , 551 – 552 , 558 Bunkers Convention 2001 background, 76 , 258 certification, 264 channelling provisions, absence of, 260 – 262 , 594 , 609 charterers, 262 , 609 compulsory insurance, 264 geographical scope, 259 insurer, 264 judgments, recognition and enforcement, 265 jurisdiction of courts, 265 liability incurred independently of Convention by shipowner, 261 other parties, 262 insurer, 264 limitation, 262 – 264 parties liable under Convention, 260 scope of, 259 limitation of liability, 262 – 264 claims subject to limitation, 263 parties liable, 260 responder immunity, absence of, 260 – 262 , 594 salvors, 594 scope of liability, 259 “ship”, 265 time limit for claims, 265 Business interruption, 469 California financial responsibility requirements, 60 Camp sites, 461 Canada Fund Convention 1971, 87 – 88 Irish Stardust , 103 navigational aids, 103 – 104 Oil Pollution Act 1990 (United States), 55 response measures in the United States, 962 Carbon dioxide emissions, 845 – 846 Carbon monoxide, 883 , 885 Cargo. See also Cargo interests bunker spills, 88 collision, 780 contamination, 781 destruction, 778 general average, 768 insurance, 771 – 774 , 778 lightering, 875 – 876 special compensation, 558 total loss, 778 Cargo interests, 607 – 649 clean-up costs, 613 Civil Liability Convention 1969, 15 , 26 contracts, 614 costs, 639 – 642 CRISTAL, 17 , 26 Florida, 613 Fund Convention 1971, 18 IOPC Fund, 145 – 146 , 608 liability, 608 – 637 Limitation of Liability Convention 1957, 16 negligence, 614 – 616 New York, 613 – 614 Oil Pollution Act 1990 (United States), 61 , 195 , 235 , 239 , 608 , 612 , 635 ownership, 614 potential liability, 613 – 614 recourse liability, 626 – 637 response, 639 – 642 sale contract terms, 614 salvage enhanced awards, 538 Funding Agreements, 546 , 548 state law, 613 – 614 title, 614 Carriage by sea Hazardous and Noxious Substances Convention 1996, 276 US hazardous and noxious substances, 296 , 300 Castillo de Bellver , 1012 Castor “damage to the environment”, Salvage Convention, no substantial threat, 552 contact points, coastal states, 894 places of refuge search for, 910 – 911 IMO Guidelines, led to, 916 Catastrophe losses, effect on reinsurance of P&I risks, 731 Causation. See also Proximate cause CERCLA (United States), 339 – 340 charterers, 635 claims, 356 clean-up, 391 Clean Water Act (United States), 177 economic loss, 438 – 440 , 441 natural resources, 493 negligence, 237 – 238 Oil Pollution Act 1990 (United States), 206 tourism, 460 United States, 237 – 238 Causes of action Clean Water Act (United States), 35 Oil Pollution Act 1990 (United States), 177 Refuse Act (United States), 182 – 183 United States, 234 – 241 CERCLA (United States), 47 , 55 , 59 , 303 – 352 act of God, 310 – 311 act of war, 310 – 311 acts or omissions, 310 – 312 administrative orders, 322 – 332 , 337 , 352 administrative records, 331 – 332 , 332 – 335 alter egos , 660 – 661 , 664 – 665 ambient defence, 313 “arbitrary and capricious” standard, 333 – 335 arrangers, 326 – 327 bilge water, 347 – 348 causation, 339 – 340 Certificates of Financial Responsibility, 220 charterers, 611 – 612 , 629 chemicals, 349 – 350 claim provisions, 336 – 337 clean-up costs, 295 , 303 – 304 , 308 – 309 , 310 , 314 – 316 , 319 , 321 , 324 – 329 , 335 – 337 Clean Water Act (United States), 185 , 191 , 303 compliance orders, 329 consumer products, 320 , 322 contaminated sites, 337 – 338 contracts, 312 , 318 – 319 contribution, 317 – 319 costs, 312 – 313 , 315 – 317 , 320 , 337 criminal offences, 314 , 330 , 351 – 352 , 1137 damages, 319 , 322 , 323 – 324 , 327 – 328 , 337 , 501 – 505 de minimis defence, 313 declarations, 316 – 317 defences, 310 – 313 , 318 – 319 , 327 – 329 , 330 disposal, 345 – 346 , 351 economic loss, 416 , 430 – 432 EE/CA, 308 endangerment, 324 – 325 , 352 enforcement, 329 – 330 administrative orders, 322 – 324 citizen, 352 compliance orders, 329 costs, 315 government, 314 – 315 hazardous waste, 351 – 352 “environment”, 304 – 307 Environmental Protection Agency, 305 – 307 , 314 – 315 , 317 , 322 – 324 , 325 , 326 , 328 – 329 , 329 – 330 , 331 , 333 , 341 , 344 – 352 , 721 – 725 exclusions, 340 – 344 facilities, 319 – 321 , 325 – 327 , 348 – 349 financial responsibility, 220 – 224 , 336 fines, 314 , 323 – 324 , 351 – 352 generators, 339 – 340 , 346 – 348 , 350 – 351 good faith, 327 government agencies, 318 – 319 guarantors, 336 guidance, 328 handling, 344 hazardous and noxious substances, 302 – 352 hazardous waste, 338 – 352 Hazardous Waste Identification Rule, 350 indemnities, 319 information, 314 injunctions, 352 inspection, 307 , 314 insurance, 336 Intervention on the High Seas Act (United States), 330 joint and several liability, 310 , 317 judicial review, 329 – 330 , 332 – 335 legal proceedings, 316 – 317 legislative history, 340 – 341 lender liability, 712 – 716 , 719 – 721 liability, 309 – 310 , 319 – 322 , 325 – 327 , 338 – 352 limitation of liability, 320 – 321 , 325 – 326 mini-Superfund, 335 National Contingency Plan, 304 – 309 , 312 – 313 , 316 , 932 – 934 , 940 , 954 – 958 National Priorities List, 306 natural resources, 309 , 319 , 337 , 501 – 515 , 531 – 532 negligence, 337 oil, 338 – 352 Oil Pollution Act 1990 (United States), 55 , 195 , 220 – 221 operators, 319 – 321 , 338 – 352 overview, 303 – 304 penalties, 314 , 323 – 324 , 328 – 330 , 351 – 352 permits, 330 petroleum exclusion, 340 – 344 planning periods, 331 potentially responsible parties, 321 , 324 , 329 – 330 , 331 , 332 , 337 precautions, 312 private actions, 430 – 432 property damage, 407 public welfare, 325 reasonableness, 327 – 328 reauthorization, 337 – 338 record of decision, 307 recovery actions, 315 – 317 recycling, 345 , 346 – 347 , 351 reform, 337 – 338 regulation, 338 – 352 relationship to other laws, 335 “release”, 304 – 305 , 307 – 308 , 309 – 313 , 319 – 320 , 325 – 326 , 328 remedial actions, 315 – 316 , 332 – 333 , 337 remedies, 306 removal action, 307 – 309 , 316 , 332 – 335 , 337 reopener provisions, 315 reporting, 304 Resource Conservation and Recovery Act 1976 (United States), 338 – 352 response, 304 – 309 , 314 – 317 , 320 , 324 – 326 , 331 – 332 , 335 – 337 government, 307 – 308 risk assessment, 307 – 309 , 328 , 337 Santa Clara , 333 SARA (United States), 304 , 314 – 315 , 324 , 327 , 328 , 331 , 431 section 106 orders, 322 – 330 secured credits, 719 – 725 self-insurance, 336 settlement, 314 – 315 ship management, 656 – 657 shipowners, 319 – 322 , 338 – 352 ships, 319 , 325 – 327 site access, 314 solid waste, 344 – 346 , 349 standards, 338 – 352 state law, 335 strict liability, 310 , 321 “sufficient cause”, 327 – 329 Superfund, 303 – 304 , 308 , 317 , 319 , 323 , 329 , 336 , 337 – 338 third parties, 311 – 312 , 319 threat removal, 307 – 309 time limits, 337 Toxicity Characteristics, 349 – 350 transporter provisions, 351 treatment, 339 US Coast Guard, 314 , 322 – 323 , 330 – 331 , 333 used oil, 345 – 350 generators, 347 – 348 regulations, 346 – 347 state authorisation, 348 – 349 transporters, 348 waste, 338 – 352 Certificates of Financial Responsibility Arvak Ltd, 61 CERCLA (United States), 220 – 221 First Line, 61 fleet, 224 Florida, 613 insurance, 750 lightering, 875 Mobil, 62 Oil Pollution Act 1990 (United States), 57 , 220 P&I Clubs, 57 Shoreline Mutual Insurance Association, 61 Sigco, 61 Water Quality Insurance Syndicate (WQIS), 61 Certification. See also Certificates of Financial Responsibility bunker spills, 264 – 265 Civil Liability Conventions, 125 – 127 container packing certificate, 882 double hulls, alternatives to, 870 Hazardous and Noxious Substances Convention 1996, compulsory insurance, 286 hazardous and noxious substances, packing, 881 manning, 864 – 865 Oil Pollution Act 1990 (United States), 864 – 865 insurance, 749 – 750 International Oil Pollution Prevention Certificate, 870 , 896 MARPOL 73/78, 823 , 841 , 863 – 864 Standards, 1053 vessel response plans, 896 Charlotte , 792 Charterers, 607 – 649 . See also Bareboat charters acts or omissions, 614 – 619 Aegean Sea , 637 – 638 assignment, 641 , 642 bunker spills, 619 , 794 – 795 , 796 causation, 635 CERCLA (United States), 629 , 656 channelling provisions, 628 , 652 charterparty clauses, 643 – 647 Civil Liability Conventions, 609 , 627 – 628 , 640 – 641 , 643 , 646 – 647 , 795 – 796 classification societies, 622 – 623 clauses, 643 – 647 clean-up costs, 610 – 611 common law, 615 – 616 compensation, 627 – 628 , 641 consequential loss, 796 – 797 contracts, 614 , 628 – 629 , 641 – 642 contributions, 627 , 629 , 638 costs, 640 – 647 damages, 627 , 641 defences, 627 delay, 469 – 470 delegation, 610 due diligence, 622 employment clause, 635 environmental damage, 636 expenses, 640 – 642 financial responsibility, 611 Fund Conventions, 609 , 625 – 626 , 627 – 628 , 642 hazardous and noxious substances, 611 , 619 , 633 – 636 Hazardous and Noxious Substances Convention, 625 – 626 , 640 – 641 , 642 , 646 – 647 HNS Fund, 628 inadequate stowage, 619 indemnities, 627 – 630 , 635 – 636 , 646 – 647 , 648 inspection, 619 – 623 insurance, 622 – 623 , 646 – 647 cost of additional, 647 IOPC Funds, 628 , 641 , 642 joint and several liability, 611 , 625 law of individual states, 612 – 614 liability, 607 – 636 , 646 – 647 liability for waste disposal, 608 , 623 – 625 European legislation, 623 – 625 United States, 611 limitation of liability, 607 , 628 , 637 – 641 , 785 – 803 1976 Convention, 794 – 804 negligence, 607 , 614 – 616 , 620 – 622 negligent choice of carrier, 619 – 623 New Jersey, 613 New York, 613 OCIMF, 622 Oil Pollution Act 1990 (United States), 609 – 612 , 628 – 629 oil transfer operations, 619 “operators”, 610 – 612 orders, 635 – 636 P&I Clubs, 642 , 647 , 648 personal injuries, 616 potential liability, 612 – 613 potentially responsible parties, 629 pre-emption provisions, 335 prevention, 638 – 641 , 643 property damage, 796 reasonableness, 622 recourse liability, 608 , 626 – 636 , 637 recovery, 642 reimbursement, 641 , 644 remedies, 636 res ipsa loquitur , 619 response, 639 – 642 response measures, 643 – 644 responsible parties, 609 – 610 , 628 , 647 safe berths, 630 – 632 safe ports, 630 – 632 shipowners, 627 , 640 – 641 state law, 612 – 613 stowage, 615 , 619 strict liability, 608 – 612 subrogation, 627 – 628 , 629 , 641 , 642 substandard vessels, 619 – 623 third parties, 616 , 628 – 629 , 641 threat removal, 392 time charterparties, 610 – 612 , 612 – 613 , 630 – 636 employment clause in, 635 – 636 TOVALOP, 643 TOVALOP Charterparty Clause, 643 – 644 warranty of entry, 643 United States, 607 , 609 – 623 , 628 – 629 unsafe berths, 630 – 632 unsafe ports, 630 – 633 vetting programmes, 619 – 623 vicarious liability, 615 voyage charterparties, 610 – 612 , 619 – 623 , 630 – 636 warranties, 619 – 623 , 630 – 633 Charterparty clauses, 643 – 647 bunker emission clauses, 645 – 646 cost of additional insurance, 647 oil major approval clauses, 644 payment for insurance, 646 – 647 response measures oil company clauses, 643 – 644 TOVALOP Charterparty Clause, 643 vetting clauses, 645 Charts, 104 Chemicals CERCLA (United States), 347 – 348 Hazardous and Noxious Substances Convention 1996, 269 – 293 hazardous waste, 349 – 350 National Contingency Plan, 958 – 959 Civil Liability Conventions 1969 and 1992, 3 , 80 – 136 act of God. See natural phenomenon acts or omissions of claimants, 104 – 105 actual fault or privity, 793 agents of shipowner, liability excluded by, 107 – 108 alter egos , 119 , 657 – 658 , 791 – 792 arrest, 121 , 132 – 136 background CLC 69, 14 – 17 CLC 92, 71 – 73 bareboat charters, 629 Brussels Conference 1969, 14 – 17 builder, liability not excluded by, 109 bunker spills, 4 , 86 , 88 , 244 – 245 , 256 – 258 , 263 – 264 cases covered by CLC 92 but not by CLC 69, 6 cases not covered by Conventions, 5 – 6 causation, 356 – 357 certification, 15 , 125 – 127 channelling provisions, 107 – 113 charterers claims by, 641 exclusion of liability CLC 69, 625 – 626 CLC 92, 98 , 625 – 626 recourse action against by shipowner, 627 – 628 limitation of liability, 637 – 638 TOVALOP Charterparty Clause, 643 charts, 104 claims admissibility and assessment clean-up operations and preventive measures, 371 – 406 criteria. See Criteria for admissibility of claims (IOPC Funds) economic loss, 415 – 417 , 437 – 475 general principles, 105 – 107 , 355 – 369 marine environment, damage to, 477 – 490 property damage, 407 – 412 non-CLC states, 112 – 113 classification societies, 111 clean-up operations, generally, 357 , 371 – 372 loss or damage caused by, 390 – 391 persons taking measures, 372 – 374 reasonableness of measures, 375 – 379 technical problems, 362 colliding ship, owner of, 109 collision, 109 , 779 combination carriers, 89 – 91 Comité Maritime International, CLC 69, preparatory work, 12 – 13 , 14 – 16 CMI Guidelines on Oil Pollution Damage, 369 compensation general framework, 3 , 81 – 82 limits CLC 69, 114 CLC 92, 117 increase in, 29 – 30 , 71 – 72 supplemental, under Fund Convention, 3 , 81 – 82 , 131 – 134 conduct of owner barring limitation CLC 69, 116 – 117 CLC 92, 72 , 119 guarantor’s liability, no effect on, 127 wilful misconduct guarantor’s liability, effect on, 127 contamination. See also Environmental damage clean-up operations, 375 – 379 damage not caused by, 412 escape or discharge oil, contamination resulting from, 346 – 357 , 412 contamination not resulting from, 412 fisheries. See also Fishing industry and related industries equipment, 452 fish farms, 446 sampling, 449 wild fish and other seafood, 449 – 451 loss or damage, cause of, 356 – 357 property damage, 408 – 409 technical considerations, 359 – 363 water supplies, 452 corporate veil, 85 costs of clean-up operations and preventive measures equipment, residual value, 389 fixed costs, 383 – 389 salaries, 386 plant and equipment, 387 IOPC Funds, practice of, 388 generally, 14 – 15 , 92 , 105 – 106 , 371 – 372 , 383 – 390 meaning of “costs”, 385 persons entitled to claim, 372 – 374 pre-spill costs, 404 – 406 CLC 69, 404 CLC 92, 405 – 406 reasonableness of costs, 383 – 384 salvage operations and related measures, 392 – 404 criteria for admissibility of claims. See claims, Criteria for admissibility of claims (IOPC Funds) default in maintenance of navigational aids. See maintenance of navigational aids definitions, 85 – 98 denunciation of CLC 69, 19 , 81 direct action against insurer, 131 – 132 , 749 – 750 economic loss. See also Economic loss criteria of IOPC Funds, 437 – 446 decided cases, 446 – 475 generally, 106 , 357 , 415 – 417 enforcement of judgments, 131 – 136 entry into force CLC 69, 25 – 26 CLC 92, 71 , 72 – 74 in contracting states, 1000 – 1004 exclusive economic zones, 5 , 72 , 83 , 84 , 144 fault, 15 , 98 financial limits background, 113 CLC 69, 114 – 117 CLC 92, 72 – 73 , 81 , 117 – 119 insurer, 127 fisheries. See under contamination, and also Fishing and related industries Fund Conventions, relationship with, 3 – 4 , 17 – 19 , 81 – 82 , 137 – 138 , 144 – 145 general average, relationship with, 760 , 763 , 765 geographical scope, 5 , 72 , 83 – 85 contracting states, 1000 – 1004 exclusive economic zones, 5 , 72 , 84 guarantors, 127 , 131 – 132 , 749 health claims, 357 incident definitions CLC 69, 92 , 356 CLC 92, 72 , 92 , 358 pre-spill costs, 404 – 406 indemnity, insurer’s right of against shipowner, 127 – 128 insurance certification, 126 – 127 , 131 channelling of liability, relevance, 107 compulsory, 16 , 86 , 97 – 98 , 125 – 127 enforcement of judgments, relevance to, 131 – 132 P&I cover, 727 – 751 insurer. See also insurance liability of, 127 , 750 – 751 interim payments, 112 , 122 – 124 , 160 – 164 International Maritime Organization, 71 intervention by IOPC Funds in proceedings under CLC, 165 state intervention, costs of, 903 – 904 IOPC Funds, see IOPC Funds joint and several liability, 95 judgments enforcement, 131 – 136 mutual recognition and enforcement, 132 recognition, 131 – 132 IOPC Funds, effect on, 165 jurisdiction, 15 , 112 , 128 – 131 lender liability, 710 – 712 liability, 15 , 72 , 85 , 98 basis for, 15 , 98 exceptions, 98 – 105 guarantors, 127 insurers, 127 limitation of. See limitation of liability pollution damage, other than for, 106 – 107 , 112 lights, 104 Limitation Convention 1976 relationship with, 72 , 113 – 120 , 135 , 248 – 249 , 270 , 786 , 794 , 795 limitation funds distribution of fund, 122 – 125 interim distribution, 122 – 124 owner’s expenses, 124 – 125 reserve for outstanding claims, 122 – 123 subrogation claims against fund, 123 – 124 establishment of fund, 120 – 122 jurisdiction, 121 conversion into national currency, 121 interest on, 121 – 122 limitation of actions, 128 limitation of liability background, 113 CLC 69, 114 – 117 CLC 92, 71 – 72 , 81 , 117 – 119 insurer, 127 – 128 limitation tonnage CLC 69, 115 – 116 CLC 92, 118 – 119 loss of profit. See also Economic loss in revised definition of “pollution damage”, 358 maintenance of navigational aids, default in, 101 – 104 “maintenance”, meaning, 103 – 104 “navigational aids”, meaning, 104 alternative remedy, whether necessary, 102 – 103 malicious act, 101 marine environment, claim for damage to, admissibility, 480 – 490 assessment of damage, 478 funding of studies, 488 – 490 generally, 477 – 478 liability other than for “pollution damage”, 106 – 107 policy considerations, 479 – 480 reinstatement, 362 , 478 , 487 – 488 restoration, 362 , 478 , 487 – 488 studies, funding, 488 – 490 technical considerations, 359 – 363 , 472 – 479 valuation of damage, 478 – 479 mobile offshore units, 91 , 243 , 248 natural phenomenon, 99 – 100 natural resources. See marine environment navigational aids. See maintenance of negligence, 102 – 103 , 104 – 105 , 112 – 113 contributory, 101 , 104 – 105 occurrence incident, meaning, 92 time limit for claims, 128 oil, definition, 96 – 98 oil barges, 87 – 88 owner, definition, 85 – 86 P&I Clubs, 125 , 126 , 127 – 128 , 750 – 751 parties liable under, 6 – 7 persistent oil, definition, 96 personal injury, 357 piercing the corporate veil, 85 pilots, 104 , 105 , 111 , 147 pollution damage definitions CLC 69, 92 , 104 , 105 , 356 – 357 , 368 CLC 92, 72 , 92 , 104 – 105 , 358 , 368 , 482 liability for damage other than, 106 , 112 port state control, 15 , 125 preventive measures, 15 , 72 , 84 – 85 , 90 , 92 , 94 , 105 – 106 , 108 , 124 , 129 , 356 – 357 , 371 – 406 property damage, 106 , 407 – 412 Protocol 1976, 113 , 121 Protocol 1984, 29 – 30 , 71 United States, decision not to ratify, 52 , 55 Protocol 1992, 71 – 73 , 81 , 137 – 138 , 482 proximate cause war risks exclusion, 99 proximity between contamination and economic loss criteria for admissibility of claims, 438 – 439 decided cases, 442 – 444 , 446 – 474 public authorities. See also clean-up operations, Clean-up, Clean-up costs act or omission of, 104 – 105 default in maintenance of navigational aids, 101 – 104 pure economic loss. See Economic loss “pure threat” situation. See incident, pre-spill costs ratification, 1992 Protocol, 72 – 73 recognition of judgments, 131 – 136 recourse, owner’s rights of, 107 , 166 registered owner, 85 – 86 relationship between conventions CLC 69 and CLC 92, 83 , 113 CLC and Fund Conventions, 3 – 4 , 17 – 19 , 81 – 82 , 137 – 139 remedies alternative, 102 – 103 , 107 – 113 exclusion of other, 107 – 113 government authority against, 102 revision, 14 – 15 , 31 – 32 sale and leaseback, liability of owner, 86 salvage. See salvors, Salvage salvors claims by, 587 – 590 liability for pollution, exclusion of, 108 , 590 – 594 payments to, claims for, 396 – 404 scope of, 82 – 98 ship definitions, 86 – 92 , 95 incident involving two or more, 95 small, 30 , 131 tanker in ballast, 88 – 89 warships, 105 ship builders, 109 ship financiers, 710 – 712 ship managers, 651 – 655 shipowners definition, 85 – 86 exceptions to liability of, 98 – 105 servants or agents, liability of CLC 69, 107 – 108 CLC 92, 108 strict liability of, 15 , 98 small tankers, 30 , 131 state immunity, 102 , 105 state-owned ships, 91 – 92 status in contracting states, 999 – 1004 strict liability, 15 , 81 , 85 , 98 exceptions to shipowner’s, 98 – 105 sunken wrecks contact with, 356 time limit for claims, 128 tankers, 95 bunker spills, 256 – 258 in ballast, 88 terminal operators, 109 territorial sea, 5 , 83 – 84 tonnage, 14 , 81 CLC 69, 115 – 116 CLC 92, 118 – 119 TOVALOP, 14 – 15 , 26 , 30 transitional period, 71 , 131 , 383 two or more ships, 95 two-tier system, 17 – 18 , 81 war risks, 99 warships, 105 wilful misconduct effect on liability of guarantor, 127 wrecks contact with, 356 time limit for claims, 128 Claims. See also Damages, Legal proceedings admissibility, 7 , 105 – 106 , 150 – 151 , 358 , 364 – 369 , 441 aggregation, 167 – 168 assessment, 7 , 355 , 358 , 364 – 369 Civil Liability Convention 1969, 105 – 106 , 112 – 113 , 356 – 357 , 364 – 365 Civil Liability Convention 1992, 112 – 113 , 358 , 364 clean-up costs, 355 , 358 – 359 , 384 Clean Water Act (United States), 37 – 38 Comité Maritime International, 364 , 369 compensation, 364 concursus, 226 , 289 – 290 contingency fees, 365 conventions, parties not liable under, 6 – 7 economic loss, 365 , 438 – 439 , 441 Exxon Valdez , 48 Fund Convention 1971, 356 – 357 , 364 – 366 Fund Convention 1992, 358 – 359 , 364 – 366 general average, 763 , 765 guarantors, 364 guidelines, 364 – 369 Hazardous and Noxious Substances Convention, 278 – 282 , 359 insurance, 364 international criteria, 366 – 369 IOPC Funds, 149 – 150 , 157 , 165 , 355 , 364 – 368 legal framework, 355 – 360 liability, 355 loss of image, 51 national courts, 364 – 365 notice, 342 Oil Pollution Act 1990 (United States), 53 , 55 , 216 – 218 P&I Clubs, 158 policy considerations, 365 – 366 pollution damage, 365 procedure, 157 – 165 , 216 – 218 reserve for outstanding, 122 settlement, 365 technical considerations, 355 – 363 uniform system, 364 United States, 355 , 358 – 359 Vienna Convention on the Law of Treaties, 368 Class actions Deepwater Port Act, 45 Oil Pollution Act 1990 (United States), 226 Classification societies charterers, 622 controls on ship safety standards, 1067 – 1068 International Association of Classification Societies, 63 , 1067 – 1068 liability for pollution, 109 Oil Pollution Act 1990 (United States), 63 ships, vetting programmes, 622 standards, 63 , 1054 , 1067 – 1068 CLC. See Civil Liability Conventions 1969 and 1992 Clean Air Act (United States), 883 – 887 , 1137 – 1138 criminal liability for violations, 1137 – 1138 emission standards ocean-going vessels, 885 – 887 Clean-up. See also Clean-up costs birds, 379 bulk oil, 378 bunker spills, 372 causation, 391 Civil Liability Conventions, 372 , 391 – 392 contamination, 390 “damage”, 392 dispersants, 376 , 377 – 378 economic loss, 391 Exxon Valdez , 379 Fund Conventions, 372 , 391 – 392 hazardous and noxious substances, 392 Hazardous and Noxious Substances Convention, 372 , 392 IOPC Funds, 382 , 391 law and practice, 382 – 383 limitation of liability, 24 loss or damage, 390 – 391 onshore operations, 378 – 379 offshore operations, 376 – 378 P&I Clubs, 382 , 733 – 734 personal injuries, 391 pre-existing conditions, 378 pre-spill costs, 372 , 404 – 406 preventive measures, 371 – 372 public authorities, 372 , 376 publicity, 372 , 376 purpose of measures, 391 – 392 reasonableness, 375 – 383 recovery of oil at sea, 377 repairs, 390 response measures in the United States, 962 – 963 restoration, 371 , 531 salvage, 392 – 404 shipowners, 379 ships escape from, 379 technical issues, 362 , 372 , 376 , 378 ITOPF paper, Preventive Measures and Property Damage , 359 , 362 , 376 threat removal, 392 Torrey Canyon , 371 , 375 – 376 transshipment, 392 United States, 372 wildlife rehabilitation, 379 Clean-up costs, 7 , 9 additional, 383 – 389 Amoco Cadiz , 27 – 28 bareboat charters, 610 bunker spills, 263 cargo owners, 613 CERCLA (United States), 295 , 303 – 304 , 308 , 310 , 314 – 316 , 319 , 321 , 324 – 329 , 335 – 337 charterers, 629 Civil Liability Convention 1969, 15 , 106 , 383 – 386 , 388 – 389 , 404 – 406 claims, 355 , 358 – 359 , 384 Clean Water Act (United States), 33 – 35 , 37 – 40 commercial tensions, 7 contractors, 373 – 374 , 385 CRISTAL, 406 deductions, 389 – 390 Deepwater Port Act (United States), 45 – 46 definition, 45 depreciation, 387 – 388 economic loss, 371 , 373 equipment, 384 , 387 – 388 , 389 – 390 expenses, 373 , 375 , 387 , 404 Exxon Valdez , 48 – 49 fines, 1140 financial responsibility, 61 , 219 fixed, 383 – 389 Fund Conventions, 373 – 375 , 383 – 386 , 388 – 389 , 404 – 406 general average, 763 – 764 Germany, 73 government authorities, 373 , 383 – 389 Hazardous and Substances Convention 1996, 375 incident, 404 , 405 indemnities, 385 interest groups, 372 – 375 IOPC Funds, 373 , 383 , 388 – 389 lender liability, 722 limitation fund, 373 , 375 limitation of actions, 233 limitation of liability, 375 Limitation of Liability Convention 1957, 16 national laws, 373 , 374 , 375 oil companies, 372 Oil Pollution Act 1990 (United States), 53 – 54 , 55 , 177 , 194 , 197 – 203 , 207 , 211 – 218 , 228 , 233 Oil Spill Liability Trust Fund, 214 – 216 OPRC Convention 1990, 389 Outer Continental Shelf Lands Act Amendments (United States), 40 – 41 overhead, 387 , 388 – 389 P&I Clubs, 733 persons entitled to claim, 372 – 375 plant, 384 , 387 – 388 prevention, 385 US hazardous and noxious substances, 295 Clean Water Act (United States), 8 – 9 , 20 , 21 , 23 , 32 – 40 , 184 – 192 administrative penalties, 189 – 190 aquatic invasive species, 887 – 889 ballast water management, 887 – 889 causation, 177 causes of discharge, 34 , 36 action, of, 35 CERCLA, 185 , 191 , 303 claims, 37 clean-up costs, 33 – 35 , 36 – 37 , 39 private party, 33 – 34 , 37 , 38 criminal offences, 39 – 40 , 187 – 189 , 1131 – 1137 , 1142 – 1143 damages, 33 – 35 , 39 , 498 – 501 defences, 34 – 36 , 39 enforcement, 191 – 192 Environmental Protection Agency, 187 , 189 exclusive economic zones, 302 financial responsibility, 39 – 40 , 218 fines, 39 , 188 – 191 harmful qualities, 185 hazardous substances, 184 – 185 , 187 – 188 , 191 , 295 , 301 , 302 – 303 immunity, 187 injunctions, 191 knowledge, 187 liability, 33 – 37 , 39 , 184 – 185 third parties, 35 – 37 limitation of actions, 39 limitation of liability, 33 – 34 , 37 masters, 186 mobile offshore units, 186 National Contingency Plan, 38 , 940 , 944 – 945 , 948 , 954 – 957 natural resources, 34 , 185 , 302 , 498 – 501 , 506 – 515 negligence, 38 – 39 , 189 – 190 notice, 186 – 188 nuisance, 38 “oil”, 185 Oil Pollution Act 1990 (United States), 33 , 36 , 184 – 185 , 191 – 192 , 203 – 208 , 218 , 303 P&I Clubs, 39 penalties, 39 , 188 – 191 pre-emption provisions, 38 pre-spill costs, 372 privity and knowledge, 34 prohibited discharges, 185 – 186 property damage, 407 relationship to other law, 37 – 38 reporting, 186 – 188 , 303 response, 184 , 187 revolving fund, 38 – 39 savings clause, 37 set off, 33 ships, 186 “significant harm to the environment”, 188 state law, 38 strict liability, 34 , 36 , 189 exceptions, 38 – 39 third parties, 34 – 37 , 177 , 190 threats of discharge, 194 – 192 US Coast Guard, 187 – 189 , 194 US hazardous and noxious substances, 295 , 301 , 302 – 303 “vessels”, 186 wilful misconduct, 189 Clémenceau , 1035 – 1037 , 1044 recycling in the UK, 1042 CMA Djakarta charterer, right to limit liability, 638 , 790 “consequential loss”, LLMC Art. 2.1(a), 677 dangerous goods, shipment, 634 “property”, LLMC Art. 2.1(a), 799 CMI. See Comité Maritime International Coal, 275 , 636 Coastal Express , 1012 Coastal state control, 1062 – 1067 detection of violations, 1066 – 1067 enforcement at sea, 1062 – 1065 in the EEZ, 1063 – 1064 in the territorial sea, 1063 maritime casualties, 1064 – 1065 jurisdiction, 1062 , 1064 , 1065 practice, 1065 – 1067 safeguards, 1065 Coastal states intervention, 891 , 899 – 900 , 902 – 903 ports, 908 – 909 reporting, 893 response measures, 12 – 13 , 893 salvage, 543 standards, 812 – 813 state law, 4 United States, 19 , 21 COFR. See Certificates of financial responsibility Colliding ships, 667 – 690 admissibility of pollution claims by parties suffering pollution damage, 681 – 682 by the owners of the other ship, 675 – 676 Agip Abruzzo , collision with Moby Prince , 667 . See also Agip Abruzzo Atlantic Empress , collision with Aegean Captain , 667 . See also Atlantic Empress Baltic Carrier , collision with Tern , 669 . See also Baltic Carrier Collision Convention apportionment of blame, 670 – 674 background to, 671 non-contracting states, application in, 671 compulsory insurance direct rights against insurers, 675 Estrella Pampeana , collision with Sea Parana , 608 , 667 Ever Decent , collision with Norwegian Dream , 667 , 915 – 916 Evoikos , collision with Orapin Global , 667 . See also Evoikos Hebei Spirit , struck by crane barge Samsung No. 1 , 667 . See also Hebei Spirit Independenta , collision with Evrialy , 667 . See also Independenta innocent cargo rule, 672 , 674 , 681 , 686 insurance of liabilities, 689 – 690 , 779 – 781 liability for claims by parties suffering pollution damage apportionment of blame, 670 – 674 Brussels Collision Convention, 670 – 673 domestic laws China, 674 United States, 673 – 674 United Kingdom, 673 limitation of liability, 677 – 678 time limit, 674 – 675 by owners of colliding ship contribution claims, 678 – 688 admissibility of claims, 681 – 682 Brussels Collision Convention, 680 – 685 liability to pay contribution, 679 – 86 limitation of liability, 687 restrictions on claim for contribution, 682 – 685 domestic laws United Kingdom, 685 United States, 686 time limit, 686 – 687 limitation of liability to parties suffering pollution damage, 677 – 678 to owners of colliding ship (contribution claim), 687 to compensation bodies bringing recourse claims, 688 – 689 Maritime Conventions Act 1911 (UK), 672 , 680 , 683 Mont Louis , collision with Olau Britannia , 270 , 667 Nagasaki Spirit , collision with Ocean Blessing , 667 . See also Nagasaki Spirit parties suffering pollution damage, 668 – 678 limitation of liability to, 677 – 678 pollution caused by both ships, 678 recourse claims by compensation bodies, 688 – 689 Running Down Clause (RDC), 689 – 690 , 779 – 781 spilling and non-spilling ships, 668 – 670 Tarpenbek , collision with Sir Geraint , 669 . See also Tarpenbek time limits claims by parties suffering pollution damage, 674 – 675 claims by owners of colliding ship (contribution claims), 686 – 687 Collision Convention. See Colliding ships Collision insurance, 779 – 781 cargo, 780 – 781 Civil Liability Conventions, 779 contamination of other ship, 781 costs of pollution preventive measures, 780 expenses, 779 , 781 general average, 781 hull insurance, 779 – 781 IOPC Funds, subrogation rights arising from, 167 liability, 779 – 781 Oil Pollution Act 1990 (United States), 193 pollution liability to owners of other ship, 780 for contamination of the other ship or her cargo, 781 for expenses relating to pollution, 781 for liabilities incurred in respect of pollution, 780 liability to third parties, 781 preventive measures (pollution), 781 remedies, 779 Running Down Clause, 779 shipowners, 780 – 781 special compensation, 781 strict liability for pollution, 779 third parties, 781 Combination carriers, 89 , 90 , 246 , 247 , 248 Comité Maritime International (CMI), 12 – 13 Civil Liability Convention 1969, 12 – 13 , 14 – 15 Colloquium, Genoa (1992), 369 comparative law study, 369 Conferences (1969), Tokyo Draft Civil Liability Convention, 12 – 13 , 14 – 15 (1981), Montreal Draft HNS Convention, 270 Draft Salvage Convention, 546 – 547 (1990), Paris amendment of York-Antwerp Rules 1974, 756 , 756 – 758 (1994), Sydney CMI Guidelines on Oil Pollution Damage, 364 , 369 York-Antwerp Rules 1994, 755 – 771 details of, 12 – 13 Guidelines on Oil Pollution Damage, 364 , 369 Hazardous and Noxious Substances Convention 1996, 270 Maritime Law Associations, 12 , 369 Salvage Convention 1989, 546 – 547 Report of Mr. Bent Nielsen, 547 , 551 , 561 – 562 , 564 – 565 York-Antwerp Rules 1990 amendment, 756 , 757 – 758 1994 revision, 755 – 756 , 762 – 763 , 769 – 770 Communications equipment, 877 Companies alter egos , 119 , 285 , 657 – 665 , 741 , 791 – 792 , 801 Civil Liability Conventions channelling provisions, 107 – 108 , 652 – 653 owner, definition, 85 – 86 , 657 – 658 criminal offences, 1074 – 1154 passim directors, criminal liability, 1075 , 1129 , 1141 – 1144 dissolved, 335 , 665 groups of, 108 – 109 , 652 – 653 lender liability, 710 – 726 Oil Pollution Act 1990 (United States), 63 piercing the corporate veil, 85 , 657 – 665 single ship, 63 , 125 , 652 , 657 , 662 , 715 successors, 664 – 665 Compensation. See also Civil Liability Conventions, Damages, Fund Conventions, Interim payments, IOPC Funds, Liability funds, Special compensation Amoco Cadiz , 27 – 28 calculation, 358 charterers, 640 – 641 Civil Liability Conventions. See under Civil Liability Conventions claims, 364 Comité Maritime International, 369 economic loss. See Economic loss Fund Conventions. See under Fund Conventions Hazardous and Noxious Substances Convention 1996, 269 – 293 intervention, 903 marine environment, damage to. See Marine environment National Contingency Plan, 958 natural resources, 478 Oil Pollution Act 1990 (United States), 32 , 55 , 62 , 68 , 197 , 198 – 200 , 213 , 228 – 229 , 231 , 234 , 434 , 515 preventive measures, costs, 371 – 406 passim salvage, 536 , 604 – 604 . See also Special compensation supplementary, 29 , 161 , 169 , 257 Tanio , 28 – 29 , 154 , 360 , 438 , 461 Torrey Canyon , 11 – 12 , 269 , 270 workers, 22 , 270 , 278 , 387 , 435 Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act 1980 (United States). See CERCLA Compromise. See Settlements Conciliation, 903 , 999 Conduct. See also Human error, Wilful misconduct arrest of ships, 135 barring limitation Civil Liability Convention 1969, 116 , 130 , 285 Civil Liability Convention 1992, 113 , 119 , 130 , 135 , 285 guarantor, effect on, 127 Hazardous and Noxious Substances Convention 1996, 285 IOPC Funds, 149 London Convention 1976, 113 , 116 , 119 , 801 – 803 insurance, 127 jurisdiction, 130 limitation of liability, 116 – 117 , 119 , 130 , 149 Oil Pollution Act 1990 (United States), 210 Confiscation of ship, 737 – 738 P & I cover, 738 Conflict of laws, 43 , 178 , 232 , 1114 – 1117 , 1121 – 1124 Consequential loss economic loss, 416 , 438 , 469 , 471 property damage, 408 , 410 – 411 , 418 Constructive total loss, 746 , 775 , 777 , 778 wrecks and dumping, 989 Containers certification, 882 hazardous and noxious substances, 633 , 881 – 882 Hazardous and Noxious Substances Convention 1996, 282 labelling, 634 Contaminated sites, 337 Contiguous zones criminal offences, 1132 definition, 1132 United States, 181 Continental Shelf Oil Pollution Act 1990 (Untied States), 207 Outer Continental Shelf Lands Act Amendments (United States), 32 , 40 – 41 Contingency fees, 365 Contingency plans. See also National Contingency Plan clean-up costs, 384 equipment, 384 negligence, 238 OPRC 1990, 924 – 925 public authorities, 892 response measures in the United States, 932 – 959 Salvage Convention 1989, 909 sheltered waters, 910 shipboard oil pollution emergency plans, 833 United States, 238 Contractors claims for costs of clean-up and preventive measures taken by, 373 – 374 , 385 , 587 – 590 Contracts. See also Contractors, Privity of contract carriage cargo owners, 614 charterers, 628 – 629 , 641 – 642 Hazardous and Noxious Substances Convention 1996, 278 – 279 , 287 – 288 CERCLA (United States), 312 , 318 economic loss, 422 , 471 interference with, 422 P&I Clubs, 729 , 746 – 747 salvage, see Salvage ship management, 656 Contributions CERCLA (United States), 317 – 319 general average, 770 – 774 IOPC Funds, to, see IOPC Funds Oil Pollution Act 1990 (United States), 212 – 214 , 233 United States, 20 , 236 Contributory negligence Civil Liability Conventions, 101 , 104 economic loss, 441 Hazardous and Noxious Substances Convention 1996, 282 navigational aids, 101 , 104 Control of Harmful Anti-fouling Systems on Ships, 847 – 850 Convention. See Treaties and conventions Cosco Busan , 68 – 69 bunker fuel carriage alleged to be “ultrahazardous activity” under California State law, 493 notable spillage, 256 charterers, potential liability highlighted, 610 common law claims, 235 criminal charges false statements, 1139 navigational errors, 1134 non-tank vessel response plans, change of policy, 599 , 981 Costs. See Clean-up costs alter egos , 663 – 664 bunker spills, 263 cargo interests, 639 – 643 CERCLA (United States), 312 – 313 , 315 – 317 , 320 , 337 charterers, 639 – 647 common safety, for, 764 – 767 economic loss, 440 – 441 general average, 755 , 764 – 766 , 769 – 770 Hazardous and Noxious Substances Convention 1996, 272 – 273 intervention, 903 marine property insurance, 753 National Contingency Plan, 949 natural resources, 487 , 508 , 517 , 525 official orders, 733 OPRC 1990, 925 – 926 P&I Clubs, 733 prevention, 7 , 643 – 647 , 755 , 798 – 799 repairs, 775 – 776 response, 639 – 643 United States, 973 salvage, 590 Salvage Convention 1989, 263 threat removal, 798 Crew. See Manning Criminal liability, 1073 – 1154 air pollution, 1090 bail to release individuals Hebei Spirit , 1113 Prestige , 1108 , 1110 Tasman Spirit , 1109 to release ships, 1083 custodial penalties, restrictions on, 1097 – 1099 defendants, 1087 detention of seafarers Amorgos , 1107 Erika , 1106 Hebei Spirit , 1113 Nissos Amorgos , 1104 – 1105 Prestige , 1108 , 1110 Tasman Spirit , 1109 discharge of garbage, 1089 – 1090 discharge of harmful substances in packaged form, 1088 – 1089 discharge of noxious liquid substances, 1075 , 1083 – 1084 , 1088 discharge of oil, 1073 – 1153 passim discharge of sewage, 1089 domestic laws, 1114 – 1127 passim relationship with international law, 1114 – 1127 Erika , 1116 – 1117 EU Directive on Criminal Sanctions for Ship-source Pollution, 1117 – 1127 exclusive economic zone, 1123 French legislation, 1116 – 1117 INTERTANKO case (ECJ), 1122 – 1127 MARPOL 1973 Conference records, 1125 – 1127 territorial sea, 1124 – 1127 UNCLOS, 1114 – 1127 , passim dumping of waste, 1090 – 1091 Erika , 1116 – 1117 EU Directive on Criminal Sanctions for Ship-source Pollution, 1117 – 1127 evidence, 1091 – 1096 aerial observations, 1092 – 1093 photographs, 1092 – 1093 sampling and analysis, 1093 – 1095 statements, 1095 – 1096 fair treatment of defendants, 1103 – 1114 IMO guidelines, 1110 – 1114 French legislation, 1116 – 1117 imprisonment, restrictions on, 1097 – 1099 London Dumping Convention 1972, under, 1090 MARPOL and domestic laws, 1115 MARPOL Annexes I and II, under, 1075 – 1088 accidental discharges, 1084 – 1088 resulting from damage to ship or equipment, 1085 – 1087 defendants, 1087 exemptions, 1087 – 1088 liability standard, 1087 meaning of “damage”, 1086 other accidental pollution, 1087 – 1088 operational discharges, 1079 – 1084 implications of fault or privity, 1084 other cases, 1083 – 1084 prosecutions in France, 1082 – 1083 , 1093 prosecutions in United States, 1081 – 1082 , 1127 – 1154 owners and master, 1076 – 1077 parties liable to prosecution, 1076 – 1079 class of parties liable, 1078 – 1079 MARPOL Annexes III–VI, under, 1088 – 1090 national laws. See domestic laws penalties, 1096 – 1103 aggravating and mitigating factors, 1099 – 1103 ability to pay fine, 1102 – 1103 action to prevent recurrence, 1101 amount spilt, 1101 cause of violation, 1101 clean-up, 1101 co-operation with authorities, 1102 extent of damage, 1101 – 1102 guilty plea, 1102 intent, 1100 motive, 1100 onus of proof, 1100 previous convictions, 1103 regret expressed, 1102 response measures, 1099 custodial penalties, restrictions on, 1097 – 1099 false statements, 1098 – 1099 imprisonment, restrictions on, 1097 – 1099 internal waters, offences in, 1098 level, 1099 – 1103 mitigating factors, 1099 – 1103 , and see aggravating and mitigating factors maritime safety issues, 1098 obstruction of justice, 1098 – 1099 types, 1097 – 1099 violation of laws other than for prevention of pollution, 1098 – 1099 regional laws. See domestic laws SOLAS, under, 1090 United States, 1081 – 1082 . See also Criminal liability (United States) Criminal liability (United States) alcohol testing, 1146 Assimilated Crimes Act, 1128 birds, 1130 – 1131 casualty investigation, 1144 – 1145 , 1149 formal, 1146 – 1147 CERCLA (United States), 314 , 330 , 351 , 1137 civil liability and, 1149 Clean Water Act (United States), 39 – 40 , 187 – 189 , 1131 – 1137 , 1143 Coast Guard role in investigations, 1144 – 1149 “contiguous zones”, 1132 corporate officers and directors, 1141 – 1144 corporations, 1141 – 1142 criminal fines, 1139 defences, 1130 Department of Justice, 1127 directors, 1141 – 1144 “discharge of pollutant”, 1132 drugs, 1142 , 1146 enforcement, 1128 , 1146 evidence, 1144 – 1149 Exxon Valdez , 48 , 1127 , 1129 , 1148 false information, 1136 Federal Sentencing Guidelines, 1140 federal statutes, 1129 – 1145 fines, 1127 , 1130 , 1133 – 1140 Fifth Amendment, 1147 – 1148 formal marine casualty investigations, 1146 – 1147 general criminal statutes, 1139 hazardous and noxious substances, 1135 , 1137 hazardous waste, 351 – 352 immunity, 1148 – 1149 inspections, 1144 – 1146 , 1151 ISM Code, 1143 – 1144 knowing endangerment, 1134 – 1135 knowledge, 1132 – 1136 , 1142 Law of the Sea Convention, 1128 legal representation, 1148 liability, 1141 – 1144 loss doubling provision, 1136 manning, 1147 Marine Board of Investigation, 1146 “marine casualty”, 1144 marine casualty investigations, 1144 – 1145 MARPOL, 864 , 1138 Migratory Bird Treaty Act (United States), 1130 – 1131 National Pollution Discharge Elimination System, 1131 natural resources, 1131 “navigable waters”, 1132 negligence, 1132 – 1133 , 1148 – 1149 notice, 1144 – 1145 “ocean”, 1132 Oil Pollution Act 1990 (United States), 53 , 205 , 1128 , 1131 – 1137 oily water separators, 1149 – 1154 Outer Continental Shelf Lands Act Amendments (United States), 42 P&I Club, 1149 penalties, 1130 , 1134 – 1138 , 1144 “person”, 1132 “point source”, 1132 “pollutant”, 1131 Ports and Waterways Safety Act (United States), 858 , 1138 refuse, 1129 – 1130 Refuse Act, 1129 – 1130 reporting, 1135 – 1136 “responsible corporate officer”, 1142 – 1143 Rivers and Harbors Act 1899 (United States), 1129 – 1130 SARA (United States), 1137 self-incrimination, 1147 – 1148 Sentencing Reform Act, 1139 strict liability, 1129 , 1130 , 1131 Superfund, 1137 territorial sea, 1128 , 1138 Thompson memorandum, 1141 United States, 8 , 1127 – 1154 US Coast Guard, 1144 – 1154 wildlife, 1138 Criminalization fair treatment of defendants, 1103 – 1114 CRISTAL, 17 background, 17 cargo interests, 17 , 26 Contract, 32 Cristal Ltd, 31 extension, 25 – 26 , 30 – 32 , 73 – 74 Fund Conventions, comparison with, 17 introduction of, 17 membership, 17 negotiations leading to, 27 OCIMF, 17 PLATO, 31 purpose, 17 revision, 25 – 26 , 30 – 32 small tankers, 26 termination, 73 – 74 threat removal measures, 405 – 406 tonnage, 31 TOVALOP, 31 – 32 differences between, 17 TOVALOP Supplement relationship with, 31 – 32 Criteria for admissibility of claims (IOPC Funds) adoption of, 366 – 367 background to, 366 – 367 clean-up operations and preventive measures cost of measures, 383 – 384 fixed costs, 388 – 389 reasonableness of measures, 382 – 383 damage to marine environment exclusion of claims other than for costs of reasonable measures of reinstatement, 481 – 482 funding of studies, 488 reinstatement measures, 487 – 488 economic loss decided cases, 446 – 475 general criteria, 437 – 440 measures to prevent or minimise economic loss, 440 – 441 legal status of, 367 – 368 Crude oil washing, 824 , 868 Crystal Rubino , 1083 “Damage” (Hazardous and Noxious Substances Convention 1996), definition, 276 – 277 Damage to property. See Property damage “Damage to the environment” (Salvage Convention 1989). See also Salvage definition, 550 location of damage, 552 – 553 mid-ocean casualty, 552 – 553 nature of damage, 550 – 551 economic loss, 550 scale of damage, 551 – 552 substantial, 551 – 552 threat of damage apprehension of danger, 558 – 559 degree of risk, 558 source of threat, 558 Damages alter egos , 663 – 664 bareboat charters, 610 bunker spills, 256 , 266 CERCLA (United States), 319 , 322 , 323 – 324 , 327 , 337 , 501 – 505 charterers, 627 , 641 – 642 claims, 357 Clean Water Act (United States), 33 – 35 , 39 – 40 , 498 – 501 contracts, 641 – 642 Deepwater Port Act (United States), 46 definition, 45 , 788 – 789 double recovery, 515 , 531 – 532 economic loss, 435 Exxon Valdez , 48 – 50 financial responsibility, 219 – 220 Haven , 71 lender liability, 722 limitation of actions, 233 measure of, natural resources, United States, 491 , 494 , 498 – 500 , 516 – 517 recourse action by shipowner, 627 natural resources, 478 , 479 , 491 – 505 , 510 , 515 – 528 , 531 – 532 negligence, 236 – 237 nuisance, 239 Oil Pollution Act 1990 (United States), 53 , 54 , 177 , 193 – 194 , 197 – 201 , 207 , 211 – 212 , 214 – 218 , 228 , 233 , 515 – 519 Oil Spill Liability Trust Fund, 214 – 215 Outer Continental Shelf Lands Act Amendments (United States), 40 – 41 P&I Clubs, 734 – 735 punitive, 235 , 734 – 735 CERCLA (United States), 327 Exxon Valdez , 49 – 50 recourse action by shipowner, 627 Refuse Act (United States), 183 state law, 495 – 496 Trans-Alaska Pipeline Authorization Act (United States), 44 trespass to land, 240 United States, 20 – 21 , 24 – 25 , 235 , 236 – 237 , 239 , 358 – 359 Dangerous goods. See also Hazardous and noxious substances charterer’s liability, 633 Darling, Gerald, 543 De minimis provisions, 313 Declarations, 316 – 317 Deepwater Port Act (United States), 32 , 44 – 46 class actions, 45 clean-up costs, 46 Coast Guard, 45 – 46 damages, 45 – 46 Deepwater Port Liability Fund, 46 “deepwater ports”, definition of, 44 – 45 defences, 46 financial responsibility, 46 fines, 45 – 46 joint and several liability, 45 jurisdiction, 45 licensing, 45 , 46 limitation of liability, 45 , 46 Louisiana Offshore Oil Port (LOOP), 45 marine environment, 45 natural resources, 45 , 497 – 498 negligence, 45 – 46 Oil Pollution Act 1990, 44 , 193 – 194 , 211 – 212 penalties, 45 privity and knowledge, 45 – 46 strict liability, 46 subrogation, 46 wilful misconduct, 45 , 46 Delay charterers, 469 diversion, 470 economic loss, 469 – 470 ferries, 469 loss of income, 470 shipowners, 469 – 470 Demise charters. See Bareboat charters Department of Homeland Security, 934 , 952 Desalination plants, 407 , 408 Detention of ships arrest. See Arrest of ships coastal state control, 1063 – 1064 , 1065 port state control, 1055 , 1057 – 1058 , 1061 , 1062 Director of IOPC Funds. See under IOPC Funds Directors, criminal liability, 1141 – 1144 Dismantling of vessels, 1026 , 1029 – 1049 application of Basel Convention, 1031 – 1045 Basel guidelines, 1046 Blue Lady , 1027 , 1029 , 1033 , 1036 , 1037 – 1039 classification of ship as “hazardous waste”, 1033 – 1039 as “waste”, 1031 – 1033 Clémenceau , 1035 – 1037 , 1042 export for disposal, 1039 – 1041 “ ghost ships ”, 1030 , 1036 , 1042 – 1045 hazardous materials remaining on board, 1033 – 1041 “hazardous waste”, classification of ship as, 1033 – 1039 historical developments, 1029 – 1031 import of ships for recycling in OECD states, 1041 – 1045 international standards, 1045 – 1049 Basel guidelines, 1046 ILO Guidelines on Safety and Health in Shipbreaking, 1046 IMO Draft Convention on Recycling of Ships, 1048 – 1049 IMO Guidelines on Ship Recycling, 1047 – 1048 Industry Code of Practice on Ship Recycling, 1045 – 1046 Norway. See Blue Lady OECD Decision, 1030 – 1042 , passim Otapan , 1026 , 1039 – 1041 , 1042 Otapan principles, 1041 Sandrien , 1024 , 1025 , 1031 – 1032 , 1034 , 1042 Sea Beirut , 1032 “waste”, classification of ship as, 1031 – 1033 Dispersal, natural, see Dissipation Dispersants, use of, 377 – 378 , 958 – 959 , 973 Dissipation, natural, 295 , 359 – 361 Dissolved corporations, 665 Diversion of ships, 470 Dobrudja , 1100 Documentary credits, 219 , 222 Documentary sources, 1161 – 1162 Dolly claim for cost of removing cargo of bitumen from sunken wreck, 380 vessel adapted for carriage of oil, 89 Domestic laws. See National laws Double bottoms. See also Bunker spills, Double hulls damaged double bottoms, cost of measures to prevent escape of bunkers, general average, 758 – 759 hull insurance, 774 – 775 , 776 , 777 Double hulls, 829 – 831 alternatives, 869 – 870 application, 867 – 868 benefits, 870 certification, 870 definition, 868 dimensions, 870 double bottoms, 870 hydrostatic balancing load, 869 Intermediate Oil Tight Deck with Double Sides, 869 International Maritime Organization, 867 , 869 – 870 lightering, 875 , 876 MARPOL, 870 Oil Pollution Act 1990 (United States), 866 – 870 segregated ballast tanks, 868 standards, 866 – 867 timetable, 866 – 869 US Coast Guard, 866 – 870 washing, 868 Drills, 985 – 986 Drugs, 865 , 1142 , 1146 – 1147 Dry cargo vessels, 56 , 66 , 67 , 980 Due diligence charterers, 618 , 622 , 633 negligence, 238 safe ports, 632 – 633 stowage, 633 – 634 United States, 238 Dumping at sea, 989 , 1000 – 1014 controls, 1005 – 1013 alternative means of disposal, 1008 – 1009 criteria governing the issue of permits, 1007 – 1009 emergencies, 1009 – 1010 force majeure and emergencies, 1009 – 1010 general permits, 1007 prohibitions (black list), 1006 – 1007 reasons of health or safety of life, 1010 – 1012 special permits (grey list), 1007 legal framework, 1000 – 1001 London Dumping Convention 1972, 1001 – 1013 . See also London Dumping Convention 1972 Stockholm Declaration, 1001 UNCLOS, 1000 Ecological damage. See Environmental damage Economic loss, 415 – 475 Aegean Sea , contamination of water supplies, 452 destruction of shellfish stocks, 447 – 449 employees, 473 – 475 ferry operators, 464 fish porters, 455 – 456 general principles, 438 – 440 government orders, 447 – 449 net repairers, 455 ports, claims relating to, 469 – 470 preventive measures, economic loss caused by, 402 – 404 price, reduction in, 458 shipping, effect of oil spill on delay, 469 diversion of, 470 ferry operators, 470 social security payments, 474 university study, claim reliant on, 441 unlicensed activities, 474 – 475 angling clubs, 471 , 472 agriculture, 470 – 472 aquaculture, 415 , 446 – 457 Braer agriculture, effect on, 470 – 472 box manufacturer, 456 Burra Haaf claims, 449 , 450 commercial decisions, claims resulting from, 452 – 453 consequential loss, 471 – 472 damage to stocks, 451 diver, 455 employees, 472 – 474 fish processors, reduced supplies, 453 – 455 fish trader, reduced supplies Billingsgate, 454 Norway, 455 general principles, 438 haulage companies, 456 – 457 ice factory, 456 Landcatch claim, 442 – 445 , 456 loss of market, 457 – 458 marketing campaigns, 458 – 459 net makers and repairers, 455 offal collector, 456 prices and sales reduction, 457 – 458 salmon farms 1991 intake, 447 1992 intake, 448 diver, 455 feed suppliers, 456 smolt suppliers, 442 – 445 , 456 smolt suppliers, 442 – 445 , 456 tourism promotion, 467 – 469 unlicensed activities, 474 – 475 wild fish, reduced catches, 449 – 451 bright line rule, 423 , 430 bunker spills, 797 – 799 business interruption, 469 – 470 causation, 439 , 441 CERCLA (United States), 416 , 430 – 432 charterers of ships, 469 – 470 civil law, 416 , 441 – 447 Civil Liability Convention 1969, 105 , 113 , 440 – 441 , 444 claims, 357 , 365 – 366 , 415 , 417 , 438 – 440 , 441 , 446 , 457 , 470 – 472 clean-up, 372 clean-up costs, 371 commercial fishermen in United States, 424 – 426 common law, 416 – 430 , 442 – 446 compensation, 444 consequential, 416 , 448 , 471 – 472 contamination, 415 , 425 , 438 – 440 , 441 – 446 contracts, 422 , 471 contributory negligence, 441 costs, 437 , 440 – 441 damages, 435 decided cases, 446 – 475 definition, 432 delay to ships, 469 – 470 diversion of shipping, 470 employees, 459 – 460 , 472 – 474 Erika car ferry operators, 464 causation, 461 , 468 , 471 establishments outside polluted area, 462 marketing campaigns, 440 , 459 measures to correct inaccurate reporting, 468 reasonableness of costs, 468 – 469 millennium party cancelled, 461 pure economic loss, 368 , 454 , 461 salt production, loss of, 471 “second degree” tourism claims, 368 , 442 , 462 tax revenue, loss of, 466 , 467 tour operators, 462 Exxon Valdez Alaskan state law, 436 commercial fishermen, 425 media coverage, effect on tourism, 363 native corporations, 425 false invoices, 475 ferry operators, 469 – 470 fishing and related industries aquacultural establishments, 446 – 449 , 451 – 452 , 457 – 458 box manufacturer, 456 buyers, 453 – 455 cessation or reduction of activities, 452 commercial fishermen in United States, 424 – 426 contamination of equipment, 452 contamination of stocks fish farms, 446 – 447 sampling, 448 – 449 wild fish and other sea food, 449 – 451 contamination of water supplies, 452 depuration, 447 – 449 destruction of stocks, 447 , 448 – 449 diver, 455 employees claims by, 459 , 473 claims by employers, 459 , 472 social security payments, 474 equipment, contamination of, 452 exclusion zones lifting of, 449 losses outside scope of, 457 – 458 losses resulting from, 447 – 449 , 451 – 452 false invoices, 475 feed suppliers, 456 fish buyers, 453 – 455 fish farms, 447 – 449 , 451 – 452 , 457 – 458 fish porters, 455 fish processors loss of market, 457 – 458 reduced supplies of fish, 453 fish selling agents, 453 – 455 fish traders, 453 – 455 fishermen, 424 – 426 , 446 – 452 , 457 – 458 fishing bans losses resulting from, 447 – 449 , 451 – 452 losses outside scope of, 457 – 458 lifting of, 449 fishing industry and related claims, 446 – 459 future income, loss of, 451 government orders, 447 – 449 , 451 – 452 harvesting restrictions losses resulting from, 447 – 449 , 451 – 452 losses outside scope of, 457 – 458 lifting of, 449 haulage and transport companies, 456 – 457 ice factory, 456 interruption, 451 – 452 invoices, 475 loss of market, 457 marketing campaigns, 440 – 441 , 458 – 460 net makers and repairers, 455 offal collector, 456 porters, 455 – 456 price reduction, 457 processors loss of market, 457 – 458 reduced supplies of fish, 453 – 455 proof technical issues university study, claim reliant on, 441 public confidence, 447 – 449 public perceptions, 363 . See also publicity reduced catches, 449 – 451 reduced demand for goods or services, 455 – 457 reduction in prices and/or sales, 457 sales reduction, 457 salmon, farming methods, 447 sampling, 448 – 449 selling agents, 453 – 455 slaughter of produce, 447 , 448 smolt suppliers, 442 , 456 stocks, contamination of fish farms, 446 wild fish and other sea food, 449 – 451 testing, 448 traders, 453 – 455 university study, claim reliant on, 441 unlicensed activities, 474 water supplies, contamination of, 452 wild fish and other sea food, 449 – 451 foreseeability, 417 , 419 , 432 France, 430 Fund Conventions, 440 – 441 future income, loss of, 451 Haven criteria for admissibility of claims, background to, 366 , 438 tourism beach facilities, operators of, 463 establishments at uncontaminated locations in polluted area, 461 establishments outside polluted area, 461 – 462 general principles, 460 hotels, 461 locations not dependent on, 461 multiple claims, equal treatment at same locality, 461 promotion campaigns, 467 – 469 retailers, 462 Savona claims, 461 “touristic image”, loss of, 467 travel agents, 463 yacht flooring fees, 472 insurance, 437 , 472 interference with contractual claims, 422 invoices, 475 IOPC Funds, 437 – 441 , 446 – 475 limitation of liability, 431 Lloyd’s Open Form, 543 loss of income, 474 – 475 loss of market, 457 – 458 loss of use or enjoyment, 472 Louisiana, 435 , 436 marketing, 440 – 441 , 458 media coverage, adverse effects of, 363 , 440 – 441 , 458 , 467 – 469 miscellaneous types of claim, 470 – 471 national courts, 437 , 441 – 446 national laws, 417 – 430 natural resources, 484 , 485 , 491 , 498 negligence, 237 , 417 , 422 , 429 , 435 nuisance, 435 Oil Pollution Act 1990 (United States), 197 , 200 , 407 , 416 , 417 , 426 , 432 – 434 Outer Continental Shelf Lands Act Amendments (United States), 40 outline of problems, 415 physical damage, 416 – 418 , 420 , 422 – 424 , 431 pollution, 424 – 429 pollution damage, 437 , 442 , 444 ports, 469 – 470 prevention, 372 , 440 – 441 private actions, 430 – 432 property damage, 407 , 471 – 472 proprietary rights, 430 , 433 proximate cause, 433 proximity, 429 , 432 , 438 , 442 – 443 public perceptions, 363 . See also publicity publicity, 363 , 440 – 441 , 457 – 458 , 458 – 459 , 462 , 467 – 469 pure, 416 – 419 , 423 , 429 – 430 , 432 , 433 , 438 , 446 Robins rule, 420 – 422 , 423 , 425 , 427 , 431 – 434 , 436 – 437 Salvage Convention 1989 “damage to the environment”, 550 Sea Empress angling clubs, 471 , 472 bed-and-breakfast accommodation, 461 civil engineering contractor, 471 exclusion zone, imposition of, 451 false invoices, 475 fish processors, 452 – 453 fish sales companies, 453 – 455 fishing ban imposition of, 451 losses sustained after lifting of, 452 goods and services, suppliers of, 465 – 466 harvesting restrictions, imposition of, 451 – 452 haulage companies, 456 hotels, 461 ice-cream and frozen foods suppliers, 466 invoices, 475 medical practice, 464 polluted area, tourist establishments outside, 461 – 462 postcard manufacturer, 466 self-catering accommodation, 461 tourism promotion campaign, 467 – 469 tourism, effect on, 460 transport companies, 456 – 457 unlicensed activities, 474 – 475 wholesaler, 465 shipping, 469 – 470 social security, 474 state law, 434 – 437 strict liability, 416 , 436 technical issues, 363 tourism beaches, operators of facilities on, 463 bed-and-breakfast accommodation, 461 camp sites, 461 car ferry operators, 464 cash-and-carry wholesaler, 465 establishments at uncontaminated locations in polluted areas, 461 establishments outside polluted area, 461 – 462 ferry operators, 464 , 470 general principles, 460 goods and services, suppliers of, 463 – 464 , 464 – 466 hotels, 461 – 462 image, loss of, 467 laundry services, 466 medical practice, 464 postcard manufacturer, 466 promotion campaigns, 467 public bodies, 466 – 467 public perceptions, 363 . See also Media reports, Public expectations restaurants, 461 – 462 retailers, 462 – 463 “second degree” claims, 368 , 442 , 462 self-catering accommodation, 461 tax revenue, 466 – 467 tour operators, 462 tourism promotion campaigns, 467 “touristic image”, loss of, 467 travel agents, 463 wholesale suppliers, 465 traditional principles, 416 treaties and conventions, 437 – 475 United Kingdom, 418 – 419 United States, 237 , 241 , 417 , 419 – 429 , 430 – 437 unlicensed activities, 474 – 475 yachts, 472 Eleni V dispersants, use of, 377 – 378 State intervention, 904 – 905 Emergencies. See also Contingency plans National Contingency Plan, 943 – 945 Oil Spill Liability Trust Fund, 214 – 215 OPRC 1990, 921 – 922 response, 891 United States, in, 929 – 930 , 969 salvage, 891 shipboard marine pollution emergency plans, 837 , 896 – 898 shipboard oil pollution emergency plans, 833 , 896 – 898 , 922 – 923 Emissions, 840 – 844 , 883 – 887 , 1137 – 1138 Employees. See also Manning economic loss, 472 – 474 fisheries, 459 – 460 , 472 – 473 health and safety at work, 943 – 944 National Contingency Plan, 943 – 944 Enforcement. See also Enforcement of Judgments alcohol testing, 1146 alter egos , 657 – 659 CERCLA (United States), 315 – 316 , 322 – 324 , 329 – 330 Clean Water Act (United States), 191 – 192 criminal offences, 1128 , 1146 drug testing, 1146 hazardous or noxious substances, 879 – 880 , 883 hazardous waste, 351 – 352 MARPOL 73/78, 847 , 1051 – 1071 pollution prevention, 1051 – 1071 Refuse Act (United States), 184 standards, 1051 – 1071 United States, 7 – 9 Enforcement of judgments Civil Liability Conventions 1971 and 1992, 128 , 131 – 136 arrest, 132 – 136 limitation funds, 132 – 135 mutual, 132 recognition of judgments, 132 release from arrest, 132 – 136 security, 131 Fund Conventions 1971 and 1992, relevance to, 132 Hazardous and Noxious Substances Convention 1996, 293 Oil Pollution Act 1990 (United States), 225 – 226 Environmental damage. See also Marine environment, Natural resources assessment. See Natural resources bunker spills, 255 compensation. See Marine environment, Natural resources “damage to the environment” (Salvage Convention 1989) definition, 550 – 553 location of damage, 552 – 553 mid-ocean casualty, 552 nature of damage, 550 – 551 economic loss, 550 scale of damage, 551 – 552 substantial, 551 threat of damage apprehension of danger, 558 – 559 degree of risk, 558 source of threat, 558 damages. See Natural resources Hazardous and Noxious Substances Convention 1996 “damage”, definition, 276 – 277 Ports and Waterways Safety Act (United States), 856 salvors. See also Salvage duties of salvor, 553 – 554 duties of shipowner and other parties, 554 – 555 efforts to prevent or minimise pollution damage compensation outside the law of salvage, 587 – 590 remuneration in the law of salvage legal framework, 536 – 537 Lloyd’s Open Form 1980, 543 – 546 Lloyd’s Open Form 1990, 547 – 548 Lloyd’s Open Form 1995, 548 – 549 modern law and practice, development of, 542 – 549 Salvage Convention 1989, 546 – 547 , 549 – 551 “damage to the environment”, definition. See above enhanced awards (Art. 13), 555 – 556 special compensation (Art. 14), 556 – 567 traditional principles, 537 – 542 liability for pollution damage, 590 – 594 United States National Research Council (NRC) reassessment, 603 – 604 Oil Pollution Act 1990, 599 – 601 remuneration, 596 – 599 Tank Vessel Act 1936 (United States), 858 technical issues, 359 – 362 , 478 – 479 ITOPF paper, Environmental Damage , 359 , 478 Environmental Protection Agency (United States) CERCLA (United States), 307 , 314 , 315 , 322 – 323 , 327 – 330 , 334 , 341 – 342 , 345 – 352 , 721 – 725 Clean Water Act (United States), 187 , 189 emissions, 884 – 887 hazardous and noxious substances, 295 hazardous waste, 341 , 345 – 349 , 352 lender liability, 721 – 725 National Contingency Plan, 932 , 934 , 940 , 944 , 947 , 953 – 954 , 957 – 958 response measures in the United States, 930 , 931 , 986 US hazardous and noxious substances, 295 Equipment, 384 , 387 – 390 , 455 , 565 , 603 , 877 – 878 , 976 – 977 Erika bibliography, 74 cargo owner, liability for pollution, 610 , 615 , 620 – 621 changes in law and practice, led to Bunkers Convention, 76 coastal state control, 1065 EU Directive on Criminal Sanctions for Shipsource Pollution, 1118 increase in compensation limits, 72 , 118 , 153 Maritime Assistance Services (MAS), 894 measures of disputed validity in international law, 1120 quality shipping, measures to promote, 1068 single hull tankers accelerated phase-out, 830 ban on carriage of heavy grades of oil, 830 Special Coastal Maritime Court, 1083 STOPIA and TOPIA, 168 Supplementary Fund, 168 unilateral measures, 816 charterer, liability for pollution channelling provisions, 625 – 626 vetting procedures, 620 – 621 , 624 waste, disposal of, 623 CLC 92 and Fund Convention 1992 admissibility of claims car ferry operators, 464 causation, 461 , 468 , 471 damage to the environment, 487 marketing campaigns, 440 , 459 measures to correct inaccurate reporting, 468 reasonableness of costs, 468 – 469 millennium party cancelled, 461 moral damages, 487 pure economic loss, 368 , 454 , 461 salt production, loss of, 471 tax revenue, loss of, 466 , 467 tour operators, 462 channelling provisions charterer, 624 , 625 – 626 classification societies, 111 manager, 109 – 111 servants or agents, 109 – 111 , 624 , 625 – 626 claims for compensation, number of, 133 , 365 , 461 interim payments, restrictions on, 161 major oil company, standing last in queue for compensation, 639 – 640 maximum amount of compensation date of conversion into national currency, 155 criminal proceedings civil claims, relationship with, 1106 French legislation, 1116 – 1117 international law, relationship with, 1116 – 1117 MARPOL, 1116 – 1117 UNCLOS, 1116 – 1117 Paris High Court, 109 – 111 , 1068 , 1116 – 1117 delay before trial, 1106 – 1107 detention of master, 1106 disposal of waste, 623 economic loss car ferry operators, 464 causation, 461 , 468 criteria of IOPC Fund decisions of French courts “second degree” tourism claims, 368 , 442 , 462 establishments outside polluted area, 462 marketing campaigns, 440 , 459 millennium party cancelled, 461 tax revenue, loss of, 466 , 467 tour operators, 462 Erika I, 75 Erika II, 75 , 920 Erika III, 78 , 916 , 921 EU maritime policy, effect on, 79 EU Waste Framework Directive, liability under, 623 fair treatment of defendants, 1106 – 1107 French courts civil law approach, 369 , 442 decisions, 442 admissibility of claims car ferry operators, 464 causation, 461 , 468 , 471 damage to the environment, 487 marketing campaigns, 440 , 459 measures to correct inaccurate reporting, 468 reasonableness of costs, 468 – 469 millennium party cancelled, 461 moral damages, 487 pure economic loss, 368 , 454 , 461 salt production, loss of, 471 tax revenue, loss of, 466 , 467 tour operators, 462 IOPC Fund’s criteria, status, 368 , 369 number of courts competent to deal with pollution claims, 129 heavy fuel oil, 76 , 360 incident, 74 major oil company approval clauses, 644 approval of ship, liability for, 615 , 620 – 621 channelling provisions, denied benefit, 625 – 626 response costs, 639 – 640 standing last in queue for compensation, 639 – 640 Third Intersessional Working Group, 1992 Fund, 75 – 76 , 172 vetting procedures, 615 , 620 – 621 , 624 waste, disposal, 623 Escort vessels, 876 – 877 Estrella Pampeana collision with Sea Parana , 667 waste, liability of cargo owner to remove spilt oil, 608 EU Directive on Criminal Sanctions for Ship-source Pollution, 1117 – 1127 adoption, 1122 background, 1118 – 1119 draft Directive, 1119 – 1122 Explanatory Memorandum, 1118 – 1119 objections of industry and seafaring bodies, 1119 – 1122 INTERTANKO case (ECJ), 1122 – 1127 Report on draft Directive by European Parliament, 1121 – 1122 European Waste Shipment Regulation, 1024 – 1026 classification of shipments, 1026 export of waste for disposal, 1024 export of waste for recovery, 1024 – 1026 “waste”, meaning, 1024 Eurysthenes , 741 – 742 Ever Decent collision with Norwegian Dream , 667 SOSREP, 915 – 916 Evoikos collision with Orapin Global , 667 , 788 pollution affecting more than one state, 114 claims against colliding vessel, 779 claims outstanding against 1971 Fund, 138 Exclusive economic zones (EEZ) Civil Liability Convention 1992, 5 , 72 , 84 Clean Water Act (United States), 302 establishment, notification, 84 financial responsibility, 218 – 219 fisheries, 181 Fund Convention 1992, 5 , 72 , 84 , 144 Hazardous and Noxious Substances Convention 1996, 272 – 273 , 280 intervention, 900 – 901 IOPC Funds, 144 lightering, 876 Oil Pollution Act 1990 (United States), 177 , 196 , 866 P&I Clubs scope of geographical exclusion, United States, 745 pollution preventive standards enforcement in EEZ by port and coastal states, 1063 – 1066 regulation in EEZ by port and coastal states, 1063 standards. See above , pollution preventive standards state intervention, 900 transshipment, 876 United States, 181 Exercises, 969 , 985 – 988 Expenses. See also Costs, Clean-up costs, Preventive measures charterers, 639 – 642 clean-up costs, 372 – 373 , 375 , 383 , 404 collision, 779 , 780 general average, 755 , 768 – 770 limitation funds, 124 Lloyd’s Open Form 1980, 545 OPRC 1990, 925 – 926 owner’s expenses HNS Fund, payable by, 289 – 290 IOPC Funds, payable by, 124 – 125 , 375 Limitation Convention 1976, not ranking as claim against fund, 798 – 799 , 375 national laws, 375 ranking as claim against limitation fund Civil Liability Conventions, 124 , 373 Hazardous and Noxious Substances Convention 1996, 286 salvage and related operations, 392 – 405 P&I cover, 732 – 740 , 745 – 746 Salvage Convention 1989, 402 – 404 , 555 , 556 , 561 – 562 , 564 – 565 shipowner’s. See owner’s expenses special compensation, 564 – 566 sue and labour, 738 – 740 Explosions Hazardous and Noxious Substances Convention 1996, 269 – 270 , 276 , 276 special compensation, 558 Export controls on waste shipments, 1023 – 1026 Extraterritoriality United States, 4 – 5 Exxon Valdez , 48 – 52 alter ego , 664 charterers, 639 clean-up, 379 clean-up costs, 48 – 49 criminal charges, 48 , 1127 , 1129 , 1148 damages, 48 – 49 punitive, 49 economic loss, 425 – 426 , 427 fines, 48 – 49 habitats, 48 indigenous people, 48 , 49 inquiries, 51 – 52 insurance, 50 – 51 legal proceedings, 48 – 50 “loss of image” claims, 51 , 363 manning, 873 marine environment, 48 National Contingency Plan, 51 natural resources, 477 negligence, 1148 Oil Pollution Act 1990 (United States), 52 – 53 , 54 OPRC 1990, 921 P&I Clubs, 739 , 745 property damage, 49 publicity, 51 , 363 response, 51 United States, in, 929 , 931 – 932 salvage, 393 seaworthiness, 51 Tank Vessel Act 1936 (United States), 859 technical issues, 363 wilful misconduct, 51 Facilities CERCLA (United States), 319 – 320 , 325 – 327 , 348 , 349 definition, 320 financial responsibility, 219 hazardous waste, 349 lender liability, 719 – 721 , 723 offshore, 193 , 219 Oil Pollution Act 1990 (United States), 193 , 195 , 207 , 211 – 212 OILPOL 54 , 822 OPRC 1990, 922 – 923 shore reception, 822 treatment, storage or disposal, 349 Fair treatment of defendants, 1103 – 1114 . See also Criminal liability False invoices, 475 Fanti , 751 Fast Independence , 1059 Federal Water Pollution Control Act (United States). See Clean Water Act Ferries, 464 , 469 , 470 Finance. See Ship finance Financial responsibility. See also Certificates of Financial Responsibility Arvak Ltd, 61 bunker spills, 266 California, 60 CERCLA (United States), 61 – 62 , 220 – 221 , 222 – 223 , 336 – 337 charterers, 611 , 616 , 647 clean-up costs, 57 , 60 , 219 Clean Water Act (United States), 39 , 218 damages, 60 , 219 Deepwater Port Act (United States), 46 evidence, 221 – 223 , 225 exclusive economic zones, 218 Final Rule, 224 – 225 fines, 218 fleet certificates, 224 guarantors, 219 – 220 , 221 – 224 hazardous substances, 220 – 221 insurance, 219 , 222 – 223 Interim Final Rule, 220 – 223 , 224 jurisdiction, 218 legal proceedings, 219 – 220 , 223 – 224 lender liability, 713 letters of credit, 219 , 222 navigable waters, 220 notice, 224 offshore facilities, 219 Oil Pollution Act 1990 (United States), 54 , 55 – 56 , 218 – 225 operators, 221 – 222 Outer Continental Shelf Lands Act Amendments (United States), 41 , 218 penalties, 219 responsible party, 218 – 220 , 224 self-insurance, 219 , 222 service of process, 224 shipowners, 221 – 222 state law, 46 – 47 sureties, 219 , 222 – 223 tonnage, 221 Trans-Alaska Pipeline Authorization Act (United States), 44 , 218 United States, 21 US Coast Guard, 222 – 225 Financial security. See Arrest, Guarantors, Security Fines CERCLA (United States), 314 , 323 – 324 , 351 – 352 clean-up costs, 1140 Clean Water Act (United States), 39 – 40 , 188 – 191 criminal offences, 1128 , 1130 , 1133 – 1136 , 1137 – 1139 Deepwater Port Act (United States), 45 Federal Sentencing Guidelines, 1140 financial responsibility, 218 guidance, 1139 – 1140 hazardous waste, 351 – 352 loss doubling, 1135 New York and Other Harbors Deposit of Refuse Prohibition Act 1888 (United States), 182 Oil Pollution Act 1990 (United States), 54 Oil Spill Liability Trust Fund, 228 Outer Continental Shelf Lands Act Amendments (United States), 41 P&I Club cover, 737 – 738 Refuse Act (United States), 183 Sentencing Reform Act 1984 (United States), 1139 United States, 8 – 9 wrecks, 184 Fires Hazardous and Noxious Substances Convention 1996, 269 – 270 , 274 , 276 – 277 property damage, 412 , 413 salvage, 604 special compensation, 558 Fishing and related industries. See also Fishing vessels Aegean Sea , 72 – 73 , 455 , 458 , 474 aquacultural establishments, 445 – 449 , 451 – 452 , 457 – 459 bans, 451 – 452 , 453 – 455 lifting of, 449 losses outside scope of, 457 – 458 losses resulting from, 447 – 449 , 451 – 452 box manufacturer, 456 Braer , 72 , 447 – 450 , 452 – 459 , 470 – 475 buyers, 453 – 455 cessation or reduction of activities, 452 Civil Liability Convention, 84 claims by, 424 – 426 , 446 – 460 commercial fishermen in United States, 424 – 426 contamination of equipment, 452 contamination of stocks fish farms, 447 sampling, 449 wild fish and other sea food, 449 – 451 contamination of water supplies, 452 criminal offences, 1138 depuration, 447 – 449 destruction of stocks, 447 – 448 diver, 455 economic loss, 415 , 424 – 426 , 441 , 447 – 459 employees, 459 – 460 , 473 , 474 claims by, 459 – 460 , 473 – 474 employers, claims by, 459 – 460 , 472 – 474 social security payments, 474 equipment, 452 , 455 exclusion zones lifting of, 449 losses outside scope of, 457 – 458 losses resulting from, 447 – 449 , 451 – 452 exclusive economic zones, 181 Exxon Valdez , 48 false invoices, 475 feed suppliers, 456 fish farms, 446 – 452 , 455 – 460 fishermen, 424 – 426 , 446 – 452 , 457 – 460 foreseeability, 453 Fund Convention 1971, 453 , 455 , 457 – 458 future income, loss of, 451 goods and services, reduced demand for, 455 , 456 government orders, 447 – 449 , 451 harvesting restrictions lifting of, 449 losses outside scope of, 457 – 458 losses resulting from, 448 – 449 , 451 – 452 haulage, 456 – 457 ice factory, 456 interruption, 451 – 452 invoices, 475 IOPC Funds, 447 – 449 , 454 – 455 , 458 – 459 licensing, 474 – 475 loss of future income, 451 loss of market, 457 – 460 loss of profits, 451 – 452 marketing, 440 – 441 , 458 – 459 National Contingency Plan, 945 – 947 , 951 , 957 national laws, 451 natural resources, 491 , 512 net makers and repairers, 455 offal collector, 456 porters, 456 – 457 price reduction, 457 – 458 processors loss of market, 457 – 458 reduced supplies of fish, 453 – 455 proof university study, claim reliant on, 441 property damage, 447 proximity, 453 , 453 – 455 public confidence, 447 – 449 public perceptions, 363 , 447 – 449 publicity, 457 reduced catches, 449 – 451 , 453 – 455 reduced demand for goods or services, 455 – 457 reduction in price and/or sales, 457 – 458 related industries, 452 – 457 remoteness, 447 restrictions, 451 – 452 salmon, farming methods, 447 sampling, 448 – 449 Sea Empress , 73 , 451 – 452 , 453 – 455 , 456 – 457 selling agents, 453 – 455 slaughter of produce, 448 , 448 – 449 smolt, 442 , 456 stocks, contamination of fish farms, 447 wild fish and other sea food, 449 – 451 testing, 449 traders, 453 – 455 transport, 455 – 457 United States, 181 water supplies, contamination of, 452 wild fish and other sea food, 449 – 457 Fishing vessels bunker spills, 258 Outer Continental Shelf Lands Act Amendments (United States), 40 Flag state control, 1052 – 1055 administration, 1053 – 1055 enhancement of flag state control, 1054 – 1055 guidelines on flag state performance, 1054 – 1055 IMO Member State Audit Scheme, 1054 international law, 1052 – 1053 casualty inquiries, 1053 investigation and prosecution of violations, 1052 survey and certification of ships, 1052 Fleet Factors , 719 – 721 Floating production, storage and offloading units, 91 Floating storage units, 91 Florida cargo owners, 613 certificates of financial responsibility, 613 strict liability, 22 – 23 “Flying Dutchmen”, 909 , 910 Foreseeability economic loss, 417 , 419 , 432 fisheries, 453 hazardous and noxious substances, 300 negligence, 236 – 237 United States, 236 – 237 , 300 US hazardous and noxious substances, 300 Forum non conveniens , 436 FPSOs. See Offshore craft France Amoco Cadiz , 27 – 28 Civil Liability Convention 1969, 27 – 28 criminal liability, 1116 – 1117 Erika. See Erika limitation of liability, 11 Tanio 28 – 29 Torrey Canyon , 11 – 12 Frances Hammer , 1149 Frixos , 1094 FSUs. See Offshore craft Fukkol Maru No. 12 , 410 Fund Conventions 1971 and 1992, 4 , 17 – 19 , 71 – 73 , 137 – 139 . See also Civil Liability Conventions 1969 and 1992, IOPC Funds arrest of ships, relevance to, 133 , 135 Brussels conference 1971, 17 bunker spills, 4 , 256 – 258 . See also under Civil Liability Conventions 1969 and 1992 cases not covered by, 5 – 7 charterers claims by, 640 – 641 , 642 recourse action against by shipowner, 627 – 628 limitation of liability, 637 – 638 Civil Liability Conventions, relationship with, 3 – 4 , 17 – 19 , 81 – 82 , 137 – 138 claims admissibility and assessment, 150 – 151 . See also claims under Civil Liability Conventions 1971 and 1992, Criteria for admissibility of claims (IOPC Funds) claim settlement procedures, 157 – 165 determination and settlement, 159 legal proceedings, 164 – 165 manuals, 151 provisional payments, 160 compensation cases in which payable, 145 – 151 damage exceeds liability limit under CLC, 149 – 150 no liability under CLC, 145 – 147 shipowner exonerated from liability, 146 – 147 unidentified ship, 145 – 146 shipowner financially incapable, 147 – 149 assets insufficient, 149 compulsory insurance requirements not applicable, 147 – 149 not complied with, 149 insurance cover insufficient, 149 shipowner’s expenses, 150 , 375 distribution, 155 – 156 limits amounts, 153 conversion into national currency, 155 interest awarded against shipowner, effect of, 154 interest paid or payable by IOPC Funds, 154 natural phenomenon, 153 unit of account, 155 contributions. See IOPC Funds CRISTAL comparison with, 17 , 19 – 20 criteria for admissibility of claims. See Criteria for admissibility of claims (IOPC Funds) economic loss. See Economic loss enforcement of judgments against shipowners, 132 entry into force, 27 – 29 , 71 , 72 – 73 , 73 – 74 exclusive economic zones, 5 , 144 financial limits. See limit of Funds’ liability geographical scope, 5 , 144 incident. See under Civil Liability Conventions indemnification of shipowners background to, 17 , 18 subrogation against shipowner or guarantor, effect on, 165 – 166 subrogation against third parties, 166 interest payable by contributors to Funds, 142 payable by IOPC Funds to claimants, 151 effect on Funds’ liability limit, 155 payable by shipowner to claimants, 121 – 122 effect on Funds’ liability limit 1971 Convention, 154 1992 Convention, 154 International Maritime Organization, 71 IOPC Funds. See IOPC Funds limit of Funds’ liability, 153 – 155 amounts 1992 Convention, 153 conversion into national currency 1992 Convention, 155 distribution of available compensation, 155 – 156 natural phenomenon, 153 interest, effect of. See interest unit of account 1992 Convention, 155 limitation of actions. See time limit for proceedings mobile offshore units, 91 natural resources. See Marine Environment oil, 95 – 97 oil barges, 87 – 88 owner, definition, 85 – 86 persistent oil, 96 pollution damage, definitions 1971 Convention (as per CLC 69), 92 , 105 , 356 , 368 1992 Convention (as per CLC 92), 92 , 105 – 106 , 358 , 368 , 481 preventive measures. See under Civil Liability Conventions property damage, 407 – 411 Protocol 1984, 29 – 30 , 47 , 71 United States, decision not to ratify, 52 – 56 Protocol 1992, 71 – 73 entry into force, 73 , 138 , 482 purpose, 17 – 19 , 368 receivers of oil. See IOPC Funds recourse, subrogation to rights of owner, 166 , 627 relationship between Fund Conventions, 138 – 139 salvage and related operations pre-spill costs, 404 – 406 preventive measures, 396 – 404 , 588 – 590 ship definitions, 86 – 92 , 95 incident involving two or more, 95 small, 30 , 131 tanker in ballast, 88 , 89 – 91 warships, 91 – 92 ship owners, definition. See owner subrogation, 165 – 168 time limits for proceedings claim for compensation, 156 notification of proceedings under CLC, 156 – 157 legal actions against Fund, 157 claim for indemnification under 1971 Convention, 151 transitional period, 71 , 117 United States, 29 – 30 , 52 – 55 Working Groups. See IOPC Funds, Intersessional Working Groups Funding Agreement 1980, 396 , 403 , 546 Funding Agreement 1990, 548 Garbage, 839 – 840 , 864 , 1129 – 1130 Gas industry. See Oil and gas industry General average bunker spills, 758 – 759 burden of proof, 760 – 761 cargo, 768 Civil Liability Conventions, 760 , 763 , 764 clean-up costs, 763 – 764 collision, 780 – 781 Comité Maritime International, 756 common safety provisions, 764 – 768 contributions, 770 – 774 costs, 755 , 758 – 768 , 770 enhanced awards to salvors, 756 expenses, 755 – 756 , 768 – 770 financial responsibility, 57 – 58 , 223 – 225 Fund Conventions, 760 , 763 guarantors, 759 , 767 insurance, 770 – 774 Institute Time Clauses (Hulls), 756 , 771 , 773 – 774 IOPC Funds, 760 , 762 marine property insurance, 755 – 774 cargo policies, 771 – 774 hull policies, 771 – 774 P&I Clubs, 755 , 756 , 759 , 763 , 765 ports remaining in, 768 conditions of entry into or departure from, 767 – 768 , 770 precautions, 763 – 764 , 767 preventive measures, 755 , 758 – 768 , 771 purpose of measures, 759 – 761 , 764 – 768 dual purpose, 761 – 762 primary, 760 – 761 repairs, 758 – 759 response, 766 – 767 Rule Paramount, 766 sacrifice, 768 – 770 salvage, 395 , 754 – 755 , 756 – 758 , 767 Salvage Convention 1989, 756 – 758 , 760 , 762 , 764 special compensation, 757 Sydney Compromise, 756 , 762 – 763 , 769 , 772 third parties, 765 – 766 total loss, 775 York-Antwerp Rules, 395 , 755 – 756 revisions, 756 , 757 – 758 General Excess Loss Reinsurance Contract, 731 Germany, 73 Geroi Sevastopolya , 910 , 1064 – 1065 “Ghost Ships”, 1042 – 1045 Glacier Bay , 42 – 43 economic loss, Alaskan state law, 436 Gold francs liability limit, unit of account Civil Liability Convention 1969, 16 – 17 , 114 Protocol 1976, 114 , 121 conversion into national currency, 121 SDRs, replacement by, 114 , 121 Fund Convention 1971, 18 – 19 conversion into national currency, 155 Haven , 155 indemnification of shipowner, 18 Protocol 1976, 154 SDRs, replacement by, 155 Governing law P&I cover, 729 Government authorities. See also Public authorities access to territorial seas, 905 – 911 admittance to ports, 554 , 758 – 759 , 767 – 768 , 905 – 921 enforcement. See Enforcement international compensation Conventions contributory negligence, 104 – 105 , 282 default in maintenance of navigational aids, 101 – 104 , 282 fishing and related industries fishing bans lifting of, 449 losses resulting from, 447 – 449 , 451 – 452 orders for destruction of produce, 448 marine environment, claims for damage to, 482 – 490 oil spill response fixed costs, 383 – 389 offshore operations, 376 – 378 use of dispersants, 377 onshore operations, 378 public expectations, 363 , 376 salvage and related operations purpose of measures, 394 – 402 intervention. See Intervention Convention 1969 official orders, cost of complying with general average, admissibility in York-Antwerp Rules 1974, 760 York-Antwerp Rules 1994, 764 – 768 P&I cover, 733 particular average, 776 Pollution Hazard Clause, 777 preparedness, response and co-operation. See OPRC 1990 report of incident to, 892 – 894 United States control of salvage operations, 600 response to an incident, 891 – 927 Grandcamp dangerous cargo, liability for shipping, 634 Texas City Disaster 1947, 269 – 270 third party liability, 300 – 302 Greenhouse gases, 845 – 847 Group actions. See Class actions Guarantees. See also Guarantors condition of entry into port general average, 758 – 759 , 767 – 768 P&I cover, 746 – 747 salvage operations, 554 – 555 limitation fund, establishment of by Civil Liability Conventions, 120 Hazardous and Noxious Substances Convention 1996, 298 parent company. See ship finance special compensation, security for payment to salvor, 567 ship finance, security for, 707 , 713 Guarantors. See also Guarantees cancellation, 224 CERCLA (United States), 336 Civil Liability Conventions compulsory insurance, 125 – 127 direct action against, rights of, 127 , 588 , 750 – 751 enforcement of judgments, relevance to, 131 – 132 IOPC Funds, liability to, 165 liability, 127 , 750 – 751 salvor, liability to, 588 International Group of P&I Clubs, 57 Oil Pollution Act 1990 (United States), 218 – 228 P&I Clubs, 57 , 750 – 751 ship finance, security for, 707 , 713 Guidelines CMI Guidelines on Claims for Oil Pollution Damage, 364 , 369 fines, 1139 – 1140 IMO Guidelines. See Table of International Instruments and Agreements National Contingency Plan, 949 natural resources, 529 – 530 , 893 – 894 OPRC 1990, 923 , 927 penalties, 1144 report of incident IMO Guidelines, 893 – 894 , 923 vessel response plans, 897 response measures in the United States, 985 – 987 vessel response plans, 896 – 897 Gulf of Mexico, 875 – 876 Gulf War, 925 Gunny , 270 Habitats Exxon Valdez , 48 Habitat Equivalency Analysis, 524 natural resources, 478 , 524 Haven , 71 criteria for admissibility of claims, background to, 366 , 438 – 439 economic loss. See under Economic loss interest on CLC limitation fund, 121 – 122 , 154 limit of liability, 1971, Fund conversion into national currency, 155 effect of interest awarded against owner, 154 effect of interest paid or payable by Fund, 154 marine environment, damage to, 483 – 487 natural resources, 483 – 487 tourism, 455 – 468 yacht mooring fees, 472 Hazardous and noxious substances. See also Hazardous and Noxious Convention 1996, Hazardous waste, US hazardous and noxious substances abnormally dangerous activities, 240 – 241 Ariadne , 271 Betelgeuse , 270 CERCLA (United States), 220 certification, 882 charterers, 611 , 627 clean-up, 382 clean-up costs, 375 Clean Water Act (United States), 184 – 185 , 187 , 191 containers, 634 , 882 Dangerous Cargo Manifest, 635 definition, 220 difficulties, 269 DOT Regulations, 881 – 883 enforcement, 879 – 880 , 883 financial responsibility, 220 – 221 fines, 883 Grandcamp , 269 – 270 Hazardous Materials Transport Act 1975 (United States), 879 – 883 Hazardous Materials Transportation Uniform Safety Act (United States), 879 – 880 IMDG Code, 634 , 882 Independenta , 285 injunctions, 191 knowledge, 883 labelling, 634 MARPOL, 881 Mont Louis , 270 natural resources, 507 non-persistent oil, 6 Oil Pollution Act 1990 (United States), 54 , 635 OPRC 1990, 922 penalties, 883 Ports and Waterways Safety Act (United States), 857 property damage, 407 registration statement, 881 response measures in the United States, 931 – 959 , 976 – 980 , 984 salvage, 588 , 604 standards, 880 , 883 stowage, 633 – 635 , 882 Tank Vessel Act 1936 (United States), 860 terrorism, 295 Texas City Disaster , 269 – 270 training, 881 – 883 transport, 879 – 883 uniformity, 883 United States, 21 , 47 , 240 , 635 , 855 , 879 – 883 waste, 338 – 340 , 344 – 352 Hazardous and Noxious Substances Convention 1996. See also Hazardous and noxious substances acts or omissions, 282 – 283 , 290 alter egos , 657 – 658 , 801 ballast, 275 carriage by sea, 276 channelling provisions, 283 Chapter II , 280 – 286 Chapter III , 286 – 292 charterers, 625 – 626 , 642 chemicals, 269 Civil Liability Conventions, 275 – 276 , 278 , 279 , 282 , 286 claims, 359 clean-up, 372 , 392 coal, 275 compensation, 269 – 293 maximum amount, 288 second-tier, 275 , 284 conduct, 285 containers, 282 contamination, 359 contracts, 278 , 288 contributory negligence, 282 costs, 273 damage definition of, 276 – 277 excluded, 278 – 279 , 283 limit exceeding, 289 location of, 272 – 273 declarations, 280 “deeming” provision, 277 defences, 281 – 282 definitions, 273 draft, 270 enforcement of judgments, 293 entry into force, 269 conditions for, 271 environmental damage, 277 exclusions, 275 , 278 – 281 claims, 278 – 279 damage, 279 , 283 HNS Fund, 290 limits on effect of, 283 remedies, 282 ships, 279 – 280 exclusive economic zones, 272 – 273 , 280 expenses, 289 explosions, 269 – 270 , 274 – 275 , 276 fires, 269 – 270 , 274 – 275 , 276 – 277 Fund Conventions, 275 – 276 , 282 geographical scope, 272 – 273 HNS Fund, 280 , 285 , 286 – 292 administration, 286 , 290 Assembly, 290 cases in which the HNS Fund pays compensation, 287 – 289 contributions, 286 , 291 – 292 exclusions, 290 funding, 291 – 292 limit of liability, 290 organisation, 290 reports, 291 – 292 Secretariat, 291 “incident”, 277 – 278 insurance, 280 , 284 , 286 , 289 joint and several liability, 278 jurisdiction, 293 liability, 280 – 286 conduct barring, 285 exoneration, 281 – 282 , 287 – 288 limitation funds, 280 , 284 , 286 – 292 establishment and distribution of, 286 relationship with other, 285 limitation of liability, 278 – 279 , 280 , 282 , 286 amount, 284 damage exceeding, 289 HNS Fund, 290 Limitation of Liability Convention 1957, 283 Limitation of Liability Convention 1976, 283 London Conference 1984, 270 London Conference 1996, 271 mobile offshore units, 276 negligence, 282 , 290 oil, 270 , 274 – 275 , 276 – 279 “owners”, 275 P&I Clubs, 279 “person”, 275 “pollution damage”, 276 – 277 , 279 , 359 prevention, 273 , 276 – 277 property damage, 413 “pure threat”, 278 radioactive materials, 275 , 279 remedies, 279 residues, 275 salvage, 588 – 589 , 592 – 594 scope, 272 – 280 security, 289 settlement, 289 ship management, 651 – 654 “ship”, 275 – 276 excluded, 279 – 280 small, 280 state-owned, 279 – 280 two or more, 278 unidentified, 287 ship registration, 273 shipowners, 275 financially incapable of meeting obligations, 288 – 289 small ships, 280 social security, 278 state-owned ships, 279 – 280 strict liability, 281 territorial sea, 273 , 280 threat removal, 278 time limits, 292 tonnage, 280 , 284 Torrey Canyon , 269 – 270 unidentified ships, 287 unknown substances, 282 workers’ compensation, 278 Hazardous waste administrative orders, 352 background, 338 bilge water, 347 – 348 CERCLA (United States), 338 – 352 chemicals, 349 – 350 court decisions, 341 – 344 criminal offences, 351 – 352 definition, 344 – 346 discarded material, 345 disposal, 344 , 351 endangerment, 352 enforcement, 351 – 352 Environmental Protection Agency, 341 , 345 – 349 , 352 facilities, 349 fines, 352 generator provisions, 350 – 351 handling, 344 Hazardous Waste Identification Rule, 350 identification, 349 – 350 injunctions, 352 legislative history, 340 – 341 liability, 347 – 352 oil, 338 – 352 sources, 338 used, 344 – 349 operations, 338 penalties, 351 – 352 petroleum exclusion, 341 – 344 recycling, 346 , 351 Resource Conservation and Recovery Act 1976 (United States), 338 – 352 shipowners, 338 – 352 ships for scrapping, 1015 , 1029 – 1049 passim. See also Dismantling of ships solid waste, 344 – 346 , 349 state law, 348 – 349 Superfund, 303 – 304 Toxicity Characteristics, 349 – 350 transboundary movement, 1015 – 1029 passim. See also Shipment of waste treatment, storage or disposal facilities, 349 – 350 transporter provisions, 351 – 352 used oil, 344 – 349 Health and safety at work, 943 – 944 Hebei Spirit criminal proceedings, 1112 – 1113 date for conversion of compensation limit into national currency, Fund Convention, 155 emergency legislation, 124 interim payments risk to shipowner of deposit of limitation fund still being required, 164 restrictions on, 161 struck by crane barge Samsung No. 1 , 667 Web-based Claims Management System, 159 Historical overview of oil pollution regimes, 3 – 80 HNS. See Hazardous and noxious substances HNS Fund, 280 , 286 – 293 administration, 286 , 290 Assembly, 290 cases in which the HNS Fund pays compensation, 287 – 290 charterers, 628 contributions, 286 , 291 – 292 exclusions, 290 funding, 291 – 292 limit of liability, 290 organisation, 290 reports, 291 – 292 Secretariat, 291 Hotels, 461 – 464 Hull and cargo insurance, 753 – 781 collisions, 773 , 779 – 781 costs, 758 – 768 general average, 755 – 774 Institute Clauses, 708 , 771 – 774 particular average, 774 – 778 Pollution Hazard Clause, 771 – 778 pollution preventive measures, 753 repairs, 753 , 754 , 767 , 768 , 774 – 777 salvage, 754 – 755 total loss, 773 – 778 Ikan Tanda , 1011 IMCO. See Inter-Governmental Maritime Consultative Organization, International Maritime Organization IMDG Code, 634 , 882 Immunity. See also State immunity Clean Water Act (United States), 188 criminal offences, 1148 – 1149 response measures in the United States, 964 – 966 “use immunity”, 188 IMO. See International Maritime Organization Import controls on waste shipments, 1022 Incident Command Center, 983 – 985 Incineration, 843 – 844 Indemnification under Fund Convention 1971, 151 background to, 17 , 18 subrogation against shipowner or guarantor, effect on, 165 – 166 subrogation against third parties, 166 time limit for claim, 156 – 157 Indemnities bareboat charters, 629 – 630 , 635 , 646 CERCLA (United States), 319 charterers, 627 – 629 , 635 – 636 clean-up costs, 385 dangerous cargoes, 633 – 635 employment clause in time charter, 635 guarantor’s right of indemnity, 127 – 129 hazardous and dangerous substances, 636 lender liability, 713 , 716 Oil Pollution Act 1990 (United States), 212 – 213 P&I Clubs, 59 , 734 – 735 , 737 , 743 , 749 salvage, 754 United States, 234 – 236 Indigenous persons, 48 Industry controls on ship safety standards, 1067 – 1071 classification societies, 1067 – 1068 insurance industry, 1068 – 1070 oil industry, 1070 – 1071 Information CERCLA (United States), 314 criminal offences, 1137 false, 1137 National Contingency Plan, 944 natural resources, 511 – 514 , 517 , 522 , 527 – 529 OPRC 1990, 925 response measures in the United States, 966 – 967 , 971 vessel response plans, 898 Injunctions CERCLA (United States), 352 Clean Water Act (United States), 191 hazardous and noxious substances, 191 hazardous waste, 352 Innocent passage, 874 Inspections casualty investigations, 1144 – 1145 CERCLA (United States), 307 , 314 charterers, 616 criminal offences, 1136 , 1144 – 1145 lightering, 875 Oil Pollution Act 1990 (United States), 192 port state control, 1061 – 1062 response measures in the United States, 974 – 975 ships, 620 standards, 1067 – 1068 Tank Vessel Act 1936 (United States), 861 towing vessels, 874 – 875 Institute Clauses cargo clauses, 771 , 778 hull clauses, 771 – 774 , 777 – 778 , 779 – 781 mortgagees’ interest clauses, 708 – 709 Insurance. See also P&I Clubs, Self-insurance additional, P&I premiums for US trading, 647 bareboat charters, 646 bunker spills, 264 cargo, 770 – 774 , 778 CERCLA (United States), 336 – 337 certificates of financial responsibility, 750 certification. See compulsory insurance charterers, obligation to arrange and pay for, 646 – 647 collisions, pollution resulting from, 779 – 781 compulsory bunker pollution, 264 Civil Liability Conventions, 15 – 16 , 125 – 128 , 131 – 132 , 749 – 750 Hazardous and Noxious Substances Convention 1996, 271 , 286 Exxon Valdez , 49 – 50 , 745 financial responsibility, 219 , 222 – 224 , 749 – 750 First Line, 61 general average, 770 – 774 global corporate excess policies, 49 – 51 guarantors, 127 , 223 – 224 , 749 – 750 Hazardous and Noxious Substances Convention 1996 compulsory insurance, 286 , 750 linkage, 283 – 284 hull collisions, pollution resulting from, 779 – 781 general average, 770 – 774 particular average, 774 – 778 cost of repairs, 775 – 777 Pollution Hazard Clause, 777 Running Down Clause (RDC), 779 – 781 illegality, 747 Institute Clauses cargo clauses, 771 , 778 hull clauses, 771 – 774 , 777 – 778 , 779 – 781 mortgagees’ interest clauses, 707 – 709 legal proceedings, 210 lenders. See ship finance liability insurance. See P&I Clubs Marine Insurance Act 1906 (UK), exclusions and defences under, 740 – 744 MEIF, 61 misrepresentation, 744 mortgagees. See ship finance non-disclosure, 744 Oil Pollution Act 1990 (United States), 205 , 647 , 710 proximate cause, 99 , 776 radioactive contamination, 748 salvage enhanced awards to salvors, 540 Funding Agreement 1980, 546 Funding Agreement 1990, 396 , 403 , 548 scuttling, 742 – 743 ship finance Mortgagees’ Additional Perils (Pollution) Insurance, 709 – 710 Mortgagees’ Interest Insurance, 708 – 709 P&I cover owner’s non-recovery under, 706 requirement of, 705 – 706 , 713 role of, 706 sue and labour expenses, 738 – 740 United States, 20 , 750 unseaworthiness, 740 – 742 war risks, 99 wilful misconduct, 127 , 742 – 743 Insurance industry controls on ship safety standards, 1068 – 1070 Interest payable by contributors to IOPC Funds, 142 payable by IOPC Funds to claimants, 151 effect on Funds’ liability limit, 154 payable by shipowner to claimants, 121 – 122 effect on Funds’ liability limit, Fund Convention 1971, 154 Fund Convention 1992, 154 Interest groups. See Special interest groups Inter-Governmental Maritime Consultative Organization (IMCO). See also International Maritime Organization draft conventions, 12 – 13 double hulls, 866 – 870 IMDG Code, 634 , 882 tankers, 871 Torrey Canyon , 12 Interim payments Civil Liability Conventions, 113 IOPC Funds, 159 – 164 Internal exercises, 985 – 986 International Association of Classification Societies, 63 , 1067 – 1068 International Association of Independent Tanker Owners. See INTERTANKO International Chamber of Shipping Bridge Procedure Guide , 238 International Convention for the Prevention of Pollution from Ships. See MARPOL 73/78 International Convention for the Prevention of Pollution of the Sea by Oil 1954. See OILPOL International Convention on Civil Liability for Bunker Oil Pollution Damage, 2001. See Bunkers Convention 2001 International Convention on Salvage 1989. See Salvage Convention 1989 International Convention on the Establishment of an International Fund for Compensation for Oil Pollution Damage. See Fund Convention 1971, Fund Convention 1992 International Convention on Tonnage Measurement of Ships 1969 Civil Liability Convention 1969, 114 – 116 Civil Liability Convention 1992, 117 Hazardous and Noxious Substances Convention 1996, 284 International Convention Relating to the Intervention on the High Seas in Cases of Oil Pollution Casualties. See Intervention Convention 1969 International Group of P&I Clubs, 729 – 732 , 735 , 745 . See also P&I Clubs cover provided by Group Clubs, 730 – 732 financial responsibility of shipowner, 57 guarantors, 57 Hazardous and Noxious Substances Convention 1996, insurance capacity, 284 Memorandum of Understanding with IOPC Funds, 157 – 158 Oil Pollution Act 1990 (United States), 56 – 57 oil pollution risks, 732 Pollution Sub-Committee, 730 Pooling Agreement, 730 – 731 reinsurance, 56 – 57 , 731 – 732 , 745 salvage Funding Agreement 1980, 546 Funding Agreement 1990, 396 , 403 , 548 terrorist risks, 747 – 748 , 750 International Legal Conference on Marine Pollution Damage 1969 (Brussels), 14 – 17 International Maritime Organization Civil Liability Convention, 1969, 71 Fund Convention 1971, 71 Guidelines. See Table of International Instruments and Agreements intervention, 902 IOPC Funds, 139 Oil Pollution Act 1990 (United States), 63 OPRC 1990, 923 – 924 , 926 – 927 port state control, 1060 standards, 1067 – 1068 International Oil Pollution Compensation Funds. See IOPC Funds International rules to prevent pollution from ships, 807 – 853 Control of Harmful Anti-fouling Systems on Ships, 847 – 850 provisions, 848 – 850 conference resolutions, 849 inspections and violations, 848 enforcement, 1051 – 1071 international law of the sea, 808 – 817 coastal states. See regulation flag states. See regulation maritime zones archipelagic water, 811 contiguous zone, 810 continental shelf, 812 exclusive economic zone (EEZ), 811 high seas, 812 internal waters, 809 – 810 straits used for international navigation, 810 territorial sea, 810 regulation by flag states, 812 – 813 regulation by coastal states, 813 – 816 archipelagic waters, 815 exclusive economic zone, 814 high seas, 815 internal waters, 813 straits used for international navigation, 815 territorial sea, 814 international organizations, 816 – 817 jurisdiction. See international law of the sea, regulation Prevention of Pollution from Ships (MARPOL 73/78), 821 – 847 . See also MARPOL 73/78 air pollution (Annex VI), 840 – 845 background, 840 emissions controls, 841 ozone depleting substances, 841 nitrogen oxides (NOx), 841 – 842 sulphur oxides (SOx), 842 – 843 volatile organic compounds (VOCs), 843 fuel oil quality, 844 incineration, 843 – 844 NOx Technical Code, 844 – 845 revision 2008, 844 – 845 reception facilities, 844 revised Annex VI 2008, 844 – 845 shipboard incineration, 843 – 844 background, 821 – 823 MARPOL 73 , 823 MARPOL 78 , 823 – 824 amendments, 824 OILPOL 54 , 821 – 822 amendments, 822 – 823 carbon emissions, 845 – 847 garbage (Annex V), 839 – 840 greenhouse gas emissions, 845 – 847 harmful substances in packaged forms (Annex III), 838 implementation and enforcement of MARPOL, 847 noxious liquid substances in bulk (Annex II), 834 – 837 categorization of substances, 834 design, construction, arrangement and equipment, 835 general, 834 exemptions and exceptions, 834 measures of control by port states, 837 operational discharges of residues, 835 Cargo Record Book, 837 categories Y and Z, 836 category X, 836 cleaning agents and additives, 836 control of discharges, 835 discharge standards, 835 pre-washes, 836 Procedures and Arrangements Manual, 836 reception facilities, 837 shipboard marine pollution emergency plan (SMPEP), 837 surveys and certification, 834 – 835 oil (Annex I), 824 – 833 general provisions application to oil tankers and offshore craft, 825 – 826 exceptions and exemptions, 826 special areas, 826 offshore craft, application to, 825 – 826 operational discharges of oil crude oil washing operations, 832 discharge conditions, 828 , 832 Oil Record Book, 829 , 832 – 833 reception facilities, 833 requirements for cargo area of oil tankers construction carriage of heavy grade oil as cargo, 831 double hull and double bottom requirements, 829 – 831 other construction requirements, 831 segregated ballast tanks (SBT), 829 equipment crude oil washing requirements, 832 oil discharge monitoring and control system, 831 – 832 oil/water interface detector, 832 requirements for machinery spaces of ships construction and equipment discharge connections, 828 fuel tank protection, 827 oil filtering equipment, 828 sludge tanks, 827 segregation of oil and water ballast and carriage of oil in forepeak tanks, 829 shipboard oil pollution emergency plan (SOPEP), 833 special requirements for fixed or floating platforms, 833 surveys and certification, 826 – 827 sewage (Annex IV), 838 – 839 equipment and control of discharge, 839 general, 838 reception facilities, 839 surveys and certification, 839 Safety of Life at Sea (SOLAS), 817 – 821 amendment procedure, 821 provisions additional structural requirements for bulk carriers, 821 carriage of cargoes, 819 carriage of dangerous goods, 819 construction and sub-division, 817 – 819 enhanced surveys, 820 fire prevention, detection and extinction, 818 high-speed craft, 820 life saving appliances and arrangements, 818 maritime security, 820 – 821 nuclear ships, 819 radiocommunications, 818 safety of navigation, 818 – 819 ship management, 820 scope, 817 Ships’ Ballast Water and Sediments, 850 – 853 background, 850 provisions, 850 – 853 Annex, 852 general provisions, 852 management and control requirements, 852 ballast water exchange and performance standards, 852 survey and certification requirements, 853 transfer of harmful species, 852 general obligation, 850 specific obligations, 851 reception facilities, 851 research and monitoring, 851 survey, certification and inspection, 851 technical assistance, 851 International Safety Management Code. See ISM Code International Tanker Indemnity Association, 14 International Tanker Owners Pollution Federation Ltd. See ITOPF International Tonnage Certificates, 221 International treaties and conventions. See Treaties and conventions Intersessional Working Groups. See under IOPC Funds INTERTANKO. See also Table of Cases financial responsibility, 224 MEIF, 224 Intervening events negligence, 237 – 238 United States, 237 – 238 Intervention. See also Intervention Convention 1969 IOPC Funds, intervention in proceedings under Civil Liability Conventions, 157 state intervention. See Intervention Convention 1969, Intervention on the High Seas Act Intervention Convention 1969 abandoned ships, 905 Amoco Cadiz , 903 best endeavours, 902 Civil Liability Conventions, 904 coastal states, 891 , 899 , 902 – 904 coastline, 902 compensation, 903 consultation, 902 – 904 costs, 903 customary law, 903 Eleni V , 905 exclusive economic zones, 900 exercise of right to take measures, 902 government bodies, 904 grave and imminent danger, 902 high seas, 899 “imminent threat or material damage”, 900 innocent passage, 903 International Maritime Organization, 902 “maritime casualty”, 900 national laws, 903 notice, 904 “oil”, 901 pollutants, 901 – 902 proportionality, 902 – 903 “related interests”, 902 salvage, 904 “ship”, 900 “substances other than oil”, 901 territorial sea, 899 – 904 Torrey Canyon , 891 , 899 , 900 , 903 – 905 types, 904 – 905 use of force, 904 Intervention on the High Seas Act (United States), 330 Inverpool , 9 Invoices, 475 IOPC Funds. See also Fund Conventions 1971 and 1992 Assemblies, 137 , 139 composition, 139 consistency between decisions of 1971 and 1992 Fund Assemblies, 366 constitution, 139 claims, determination and settlement, role in, 159 endorsement of Intersessional Working Group reports Fifth (1971 Fund) (damage to marine environment), 482 Seventh (1971 Fund) (criteria for admissibility of claims), 151 , 366 – 368 functions, 139 records of decisions, 143 resolutions No. 3, damage to marine environment, 481 significance under 1969 Vienna Convention, 368 uniform application of Conventions emphasis on, 364 role in maintaining, 366 – 368 claims admissibility, criteria. See Criteria for admissibility of claims claims manuals, 151 determination and settlement, 140 , 150 , 154 , 167 – 168 , 367 procedures, 157 – 165 compensation cases in which Funds pay damage exceeds liability limit under CLC, 149 – 150 no liability under CLC, 145 – 147 shipowner exonerated from liability, 146 unidentified ship, 145 shipowner financially incapable, 147 – 149 assets insufficient, 149 compulsory insurance requirements not applicable, 147 not complied with, 149 insurance cover insufficient, 149 shipowner’s expenses, 150 , 373 distribution, 155 limits amounts, 153 conversion into national currency, 155 interest awarded against shipowner, effect of, 154 interest paid or payable by Funds, 154 natural phenomenon, 153 unit of account, 155 constitution, 139 contributions capping, 1992 Fund Protocol, 72 full collection, 137 funding by, 141 – 143 transitional arrangements, 167 contributing oil quantities included, 141 quantities received in main contributory states, 143 receivers liability to pay contributions, 141 – 142 criteria for admissibility of claims, adoption of, 366 – 367 background to, 366 – 367 clean-up operations and preventive measures cost of measures, 383 fixed costs, 388 – 389 reasonableness of measures, 375 damage to marine environment exclusion of claims other than for costs of reasonable measures of reinstatement, 480 – 481 funding of studies, 488 reinstatement measures, 488 economic loss decided cases, 446 – 475 general criteria, 437 – 440 measures to prevent or minimise economic loss, 440 legal status of, 367 – 368 decisions compatibility between 1971 and 1992 Funds, 366 – 367 economic loss, 446 – 475 records of, 143 role in maintaining international uniformity, 366 – 368 Director of the Funds, 137 , 138 , 139 , 141 chief administrative officer, 137 , 140 claims settling authority, 159 contributions, collection, 142 Jacobsson, Måns, 141 legal representative of Funds, 141 Oosterveen, Willem, 141 same for both Funds, 138 Secretariat, head of, 138 , 141 exclusion of liability, 152 – 153 Executive Committees, 139 , 140 claims criteria for admissibility, role in developing, 366 – 367 determination and settlement, role in, 159 composition, 140 constitution, 140 establishment of, 1992 Fund, 140 functions, 140 records of decisions, 143 uniform application of Conventions, role in maintaining, 366 – 368 finance, 3 , 141 – 143 funding, 3 , 141 – 143 geographical scope, 144 – 145 headquarters, 138 indemnification of shipowners by 1971 Fund, background to, 17 , 18 – 19 subrogation against shipowner or guarantor, effect on, 165 subrogation against third parties, 166 interest payable by contributors to Funds, 142 payable by Funds to claimants, 151 effect on Funds’ liability limit, 154 payable by shipowner to claimants, 121 – 122 effect on Funds’ liability limit, 1992 Fund, 153 intergovernmental bodies, as, 3 , 138 , 139 – 140 , 366 Internal Regulations, 139 , 141 , 159 interim payments, 160 Intersessional Working Groups (1971 Fund) Fifth damage to the marine environment, claims for, 480 – 481 fixed costs, claims for, 388 payment of interest, 151 Sixth (entry into force of Protocols), 71 Seventh (criteria for admissibility of claims), 151 , 366 – 367 , 369 , 389 , 438 – 441 Intersessional Working Groups (1992 Fund) Second applicability of regime to offshore craft, 91 , 246 applicability of regime to vessels constructed or adapted for carriage of persistent oil and other cargoes, 90 Third, 77 – 78 Review of compensation regime, 77 – 78 criteria governing claims environmental damage, 487 environmental impact studies, 490 establishment to review compensation regime, 77 jurisdiction of national courts, 129 revision of conventions, decided against, 77 – 78 , 1069 “ship”, CLC 92 definition, 91 substandard shipping, 1069 Fourth conclusion, 1069 – 1070 establishment to examine non-technical measures to promote quality shipping, 78 , 1069 measures introduced by P&I Clubs, 1070 jurisdiction, 164 – 165 legal proceedings extent to which Funds bound by proceedings against shipowner, 165 intervention by Funds in proceedings against shipowner, 157 notification, 156 liability. See compensation and exclusion of liability limit of Funds’ liability, 153 – 156 amounts 1992 Fund, 153 conversion into national currency 1992 Fund, 155 distribution of available compensation, 155 – 156 natural phenomenon, 153 interest, effect of, see interest unit of account, 1992 Fund, 155 limitation of actions, see time limit for proceedings member states, 4 , 18 , 32 , 77 , 81 – 82 , 132 , 137 – 143 passim , App. 1 Memorandum of Understanding with International Group of P&I Clubs, 157 – 158 notification, proceedings under Civil Liability Conventions, 156 form of notification, 156 – 157 object, 4 , 17 – 19 , 137 , 368 – 369 oil, contributing, see contributing oil oil receivers, 142 – 144 oil reports, 142 organs, 139 – 141 P&I Clubs, co-operation with, 157 – 165 , 167 – 168 policy, 368 purpose, 4 , 17 – 19 , 137 , 368 – 369 receipts of oil, 141 – 143 receivers of oil, 141 – 143 recourse against shipowner and his guarantor, 165 – 166 against third parties, 166 charterers, 627 – 628 Funds’ subrogation to rights of shipowner, 166 , 627 reports, 142 – 143 Secretariat, 137 , 138 , 141 subrogation, 165 – 168 Funds’ subrogation to rights of shipowner, 166 , 627 Funds’ subrogation to recovery rights of other parties, 167 rights of subrogation against Funds, insurer of claimant, 167 other parties, 167 – 168 time limit for proceedings, claim for compensation, 156 notification of proceedings under CLC, 156 legal action against Fund, 157 Working Groups. See Intersessional Working Groups Irish Stardust , 103 Iron Baron , 256 ISM Code, 63 criminal offences, 1143 – 1144 Oil Pollution Act 1990 (United States), 63 P&I cover, 748 ship management, 661 ITIA (International Tanker Indemnity Association), 14 ITOPF (International Tanker Owners Pollution Federation Ltd) establishment, 13 P&I Clubs, 733 publications, 359 response to oil spills, 74 technical issues, 359 – 363 , 375 – 379 , 478 – 479 technical services, 7 , 74 , 359 – 363 TOVALOP, 13 – 14 Ixtoc , 47 Jacobsson, Måns, 141 Japan, 71 Jettison MARPOL 73/78, 838 salvage, 604 Joint and several liability bareboat charters, 646 – 647 Bunkers Convention, 265 – 261 CERCLA (United States), 310 , 331 charterers, 611 Civil Liability Convention 1969, 95 Deepwater Port Act (United States), 45 Hazardous and Noxious Substances Convention 1996, 278 Oil Pollution Act 1990 (United States), 197 ship management, 651 , 652 Trans-Alaska Pipeline Authorization Act (United States), 42 Joint Operations Center, 930 Jones, Walter, 54 Jose Marti , 104 , 147 Judgments. See Enforcement of judgments, Recognition of judgments Judicial review CERCLA (United States), 329 – 330 , 332 – 335 natural resources, 505 , 520 , 528 standards, 528 – 529 Jupiter , 432 – 433 Jurisdiction Admiralty, 177 – 180 Bunkers Convention, 265 – 266 Civil Liability Conventions, 15 , 112 , 128 – 131 incidents affecting non-CLC states, 131 incidents affecting only CLC states, 130 incidents affecting two states subscribing to different versions, 131 coastal state control, 1062 , 1064 , 1065 competent courts, 128 – 129 conduct, 130 Deepwater Port Act (United States), 45 enforcement of ship safety rules, 1059 exclusive, 121 , 128 – 130 financial responsibility, 57 Hazardous and Noxious Substances Convention 1996, 293 incidents affecting more than one state, 129 – 131 insurance, 128 IOPC Funds, 164 – 165 judgments recognition and enforcement, 128 limitation funds, 11 , 121 , 128 – 130 limitation of liability, 130 Oil Pollution Act 1990 (United States), 54 , 58 , 196 , 225 – 228 pollution prevention, 1051 , 1055 , 1056 , 1064 port state control, 1055 , 1056 , 1059 Torrey Canyon , 129 United States, 177 – 180 advantages of, 4 – 5 venue, 225 – 228 Kamina , 1011 Karin B , 1017 Kasuga Maru No. 1 , 412 Khark V , 909 – 910 Khian Sea , 632 Kirki , 914 Knowledge. See also Privity and knowledge Clean Water Act (United States), 187 criminal offences, 1133 – 1136 , 1141 – 1142 hazardous and noxious substances, 883 negligence, 238 – 239 United States, 238 – 239 Kristal , 1013 Kure , 255 Kuroshima , 203 Kuzbass , 73 Labelling containers, 634 hazardous and noxious substances, 634 US hazardous and noxious substances, 299 , 301 Laura D’Amato criminal proceedings accidental spill, 1088 , 1100 chief officer, 1102 fine, mitigation, 1102 master, 1076 parties liable to prosecution, 1076 Law of the Sea Convention, 1052 – 1055 , 1128 LDC. See Dumping at sea, London Dumping Convention 1972 Leasing, 711 , 714 – 718 , 724 – 725 Legal proceedings. See also Claims, Jurisdiction California, 60 CERCLA (United States), 309 – 310 Civil Liability Conventions, 16 , 131 – 132 limitation funds, 120 – 121 concursus of claims, 226 Exxon Valdez , 48 – 49 financial responsibility, 58 , 60 , 219 – 220 , 224 – 225 guarantors, 60 , 131 insurance, 59 , 60 , 131 IOPC Funds, 147 – 149 , 164 – 165 intervention, 156 notice, 156 Oil Pollution Act 1990 (United States), 226 – 227 Virginia, 60 Lender liability Asset Conservation Act (United States), 722 – 725 bareboat charters, 711 CERCLA (United States), 712 – 715 , 719 – 726 clean-up costs, 722 Civil Liability Conventions, 711 – 712 companies, 715 damages, 722 Environmental Protection Agency Final Rule, 721 – 725 exclusions, 711 – 712 extension of credit, 724 facilities, 720 – 721 , 723 financial responsibility, 713 Fleet Factors decision, 719 – 721 guarantors, 713 Hazardous Waste Conventions, 711 incentives, 724 indemnities, 713 , 716 insurance, 713 – 715 leasing, 710 – 711 , 714 – 719 , 724 – 725 limitation of liability, 714 – 715 mortgages, 710 – 711 , 713 – 714 negligence, 711 – 712 Oil Pollution Act 1990 (United States), 713 , 714 , 725 – 726 operators, 711 – 712 P&I Clubs, 713 pledges, 714 purchase options, 716 – 718 sale and leaseback, 717 – 718 secured creditors, 711 , 712 , 719 – 721 , 723 security interest, 724 shares, 714 ship finance, 710 – 726 state law, 725 – 726 United States, 710 – 726 Letters of credit, 219 , 222 Liability. See also Fault, Liability funds, Joint and several liability, Limitation of liability, Strict liability alter egos , 657 – 665 bareboat charters, 610 , 646 cargo owners, 608 – 636 CERCLA (United States), 309 – 310 , 319 – 323 , 325 – 327 , 338 – 352 charterers, 608 – 636 Civil Liability Convention 1969, 15 , 85 , 125 Civil Liability Convention 1992, 72 , 108 – 111 claims, 355 Clean Water Act (United States), 33 – 37 , 38 , 184 – 185 Fund Convention 1992, 72 guarantors, 127 Hazardous and Noxious Substances Convention 1996, 280 – 286 hazardous waste, 338 – 352 insurance, 127 – 128 IOPC Funds, 146 – 147 , 149 – 150 , 152 – 153 lender liability, 714 – 715 maritime authorities, 691 – 692 , 698 – 704 . See also Maritime authorities, liability negligence, 238 – 239 Oil Pollution Act 1990 (United States), 55 parent/subsidiary, 658 – 665 pilotage, 692 – 697 . See also Pilots, liability Refuse Act (United States), 182 – 183 salvage, 590 – 598 salvor’s insurance, 604 – 606 . See also Salvors shareholders, 660 ship management, 651 – 657 shipowners, 85 , 146 – 147 , 149 – 150 stowage, 633 – 634 terminal operators, 617 – 619 Torrey Canyon , 11 – 12 Trans-Alaska Pipeline Authorization Act (United States), 44 United States, 20 – 21 , 238 – 239 vicarious, 615 Liability funds Deepwater Port Liability Fund, 46 offshore Oil Pollution Compensation Fund, 41 Oil Pollution Act 1990 (United States), 53 – 54 , 55 , 195 , 210 – 216 Oil Spill Liability Trust Fund, 55 , 61 , 211 – 216 state law, 47 – 48 TAPAA fund, 42 – 44 Liens. See Maritime liens Lightering, 860 , 875 – 876 , 962 – 963 , 972 , 973 Lights, 104 Lilar, Albert, 14 , 17 Limburg collision act of terrorism, 669 terrorism exclusion of liability under CLC, 100 Limitation of actions. See Time limits Limitation funds apportionment, 121 , 130 arrest, 132 – 136 charterers, 627 Civil Liability Convention 1969, 113 – 114 Civil Liability Convention 1992, 121 clean-up costs, 372 – 373 , 375 conversion into national currency, 121 decrees, 121 distribution, 121 , 122 – 125 , 130 , 150 interim, 122 – 124 enforcement of judgments, 132 – 136 establishment, 120 – 122 expenses, 124 – 125 financial responsibility, 58 Fund Conventions, 120 – 121 , 122 insurance, 120 , 124 interest, 121 – 122 IOPC funds, 120 , 124 , 150 – 151 , 154 – 156 , 168 jurisdiction, 11 – 12 , 121 , 128 – 130 legal proceedings, 120 – 121 limitation of liability, 119 – 125 Limitation of Liability Convention 1957, 16 national currency, conversion into, 121 national laws, 120 , 124 prevention, 122 , 124 reserve for outstanding claims, 122 SDRs, 121 settlements, 120 , 123 state law, 47 – 48 , 54 subrogation, 120 , 123 two-tier, 17 Limitation of liability, 785 – 804 . See also Limitation funds, Limitation of Liability Convention 1957, Limitation of Liability Convention 1976 acts or omissions, 119 actual fault or privity, 116 – 117 , 119 , 791 – 794 alter egos , 119 , 791 – 792 Amoco Cadiz , 27 – 28 amount of liability limit, 81 , 114 , 790 , 800 arrest of ships, 132 – 133 , 135 – 136 Bermuda, 11 bunker spills, 6 , 262 – 264 , 798 calculation of limitation tonnage, 790 – 791 , 800 cargo interests, 607 CERCLA (United States), 320 – 321 , 327 Charlotte , 792 charterers, 607 , 628 , 637 – 638 , 789 – 790 slot charterers, 638 sub-charterers, 638 Civil Liability Convention 1969, 14 – 17 , 27 – 29 , 85 , 106 , 113 – 125 , 131 Civil Liability Convention 1992, 72 , 113 , 117 – 124 claims subject to limitation, 788 – 789 , 794 – 799 exclusions, 795 – 796 clean-up, 24 clean-up expenses and preventive measures, 375 , 798 cost of preventive measures by owner, 798 – 799 environmental damage, 797 – 798 pure economic loss, 797 recourse claim, 799 third parties, 799 Clean Water Act (United States), 33 – 34 , 37 colliding ships claims by parties suffering pollution damage, 677 – 678 claims by owners of colliding ship (contribution claims), 687 recourse claims by compensation bodies, 688 – 689 conduct barring, 116 – 117 , 119 , 130 , 149 , 791 – 794 , 801 – 803 “actual fault”, 792 – 793 “owner”, 791 – 792 “damages”, 788 – 789 Deepwater Port Act (United States), 46 financial responsibility, 225 France, 10 – 11 Fund Convention 1971, 72 , 73 , 116 – 117 general average, 796 gold francs, 154 Hazardous and Noxious Substances Convention 1996, 272 , 278 , 280 , 283 – 284 importance, 113 insurance, 127 – 128 , 709 international conventions, 786 – 787 Brussels Convention 1957, 787 – 794 . See also Limitation of Liability Convention 1957 London Convention 1976 (LLMC), 794 – 803 . See also Limitation of Liability Convention 1976 IOPC Funds, 137 , 145 , 148 – 149 , 153 – 156 jurisdiction, 130 limitation funds, 113 – 114 , 120 – 125 Marion , 792 – 793 Nissos Amorgos , 115 Oil Pollution Act 1990 (United States), 53 , 55 , 57 , 194 , 197 , 207 – 212 onus of proof, 794 , 803 Outer Continental Shelf Lands Act Amendments (United States), 40 – 41 P&I, 710 parties, 789 – 790 , 799 salvors, 789 “personal” act or omission, 801 pilot, 697 privity and knowledge, 20 – 21 , 23 – 24 , 793 responsible party, 193 – 194 SDRs, 114 Sea Empress , 115 – 116 ship management, 792 , 651 shipowners, 16 , 116 – 117 small tankers, 118 special compensation, 567 – 568 , 796 state of mind of person liable, 801 intent to cause loss, 802 recklessness with knowledge, 802 “such loss”, 803 strict liability, 13 – 15 , 113 tonnage, 115 , 119 calculation of limitation, 115 – 116 , 118 – 119 Torrey Canyon , 10 Trans-Alaska Pipeline Authorization Act (United States), 42 – 44 United Kingdom, 9 – 10 United States, 3 , 7 – 9 , 19 – 25 , 47 – 48 Amoco Cadiz , 27 – 28 Shipowner’s Limitation of Liability Act 1851 (United States), 32 wreck removal, 798 , 996 – 997 Limitation of Liability Convention 1957, 787 – 794 actual fault or privity, 16 , 116 , 119 amount of liability limit, 790 arrest of ships, 133 , 135 calculation of limitation tonnage, 790 – 791 cargo interests, 16 Civil Liability Convention 1969, 16 , 113 claims subject to limitation, 788 – 789 “damages”, 788 – 789 conduct barring limitation, 791 – 794 “actual fault”, 792 – 793 “owner”, 791 – 792 onus of proof, 794 “privity”, 793 clean-up costs, 16 Hazardous and Noxious Substances Convention 1996, 283 limitation funds, 16 parties entitled to avail themselves of limitation, 789 – 790 salvors, 789 charterers, 789 – 790 SDR Protocol 1979, 787 shipowners, 16 – 17 tonnage, 16 Limitation of Liability Convention 1976 (LLMC), 794 – 803 Aegean Sea charterers’ liabilities, 637 – 638 claims subject to limitation, 794 – 795 amount of liability limit, 800 bunker spills, 262 – 264 , 798 calculation of limitation tonnage, 800 charterers’ liabilities, 637 – 638 slot charterers, 638 sub-charterers, 638 Civil Liability Conventions, relationship with, 113 , 795 – 796 claims subject to limitation under LLMC, 794 – 799 bunker pollution, 262 – 264 , 798 claims excluded, 795 – 796 clean-up expenses and preventive measures, 798 environmental damage, 797 – 798 owner’s expenses, 798 – 799 pure economic loss, 797 recourse claim, 799 third parties, 799 wreck removal, 798 , 996 – 997 colliding ships claims by parties suffering pollution damage, 677 – 678 claims by owners of colliding ship (contribution claims), 687 recourse claims by compensation bodies, 688 – 689 conduct barring limitation, 801 – 803 onus of proof, 803 “personal” act or omission, 801 state of mind of person liable, 801 intent to cause loss, 802 recklessness with knowledge, 802 “such loss”, 803 general average, 796 hazardous and noxious substances liability for damage by, 283 Hazardous and Noxious Substances Convention 1996 absence of linkage with, 283 – 284 offshore craft, 248 – 249 , 251 parties entitled to limit liability, 799 charterers, 637 salvors, 567 shipowner, 799 Protocol 1996, 568 , 803 – 804 salvors, 567 – 568 , 594 – 596 , 789 “ship”, 800 aircushion vehicles, 800 floating platforms, 800 mobile drilling units, 800 offshore craft, 248 – 249 , 251 “shipowner”, 799 special compensation, 567 – 568 , 796 tonnage, 800 wreck removal, 798 , 996 – 997 Limitation periods. See Limitation of actions Litigation. See Legal proceedings Lloyd’s Open Form arbitration, 538 economic loss, 544 enhanced awards, 545 expenses, 545 Funding Agreement 1980, 546 Funding Agreement 1990, 548 increment, 545 International Symposium 1979, 544 liability, 544 LOF 80 , 538 , 543 – 547 LOF 90 , 547 – 548 LOF 95 , 537 , 547 – 549 negotiations, 544 no cure, no pay, 536 – 537 , 545 P&I Clubs, 544 , 736 – 737 pollution fund, 544 prevention, 545 – 546 revision, 544 – 549 , 598 safety-net approach, 256 , 396 , 544 – 547 , 550 , 736 salvage, 374 , 392 – 393 , 395 – 397 , 536 Salvage Convention 1989, 393 , 396 – 397 , 402 – 404 , 537 , 545 – 548 self-insurance, 546 special compensation, 560 , 562 , 564 – 568 terms, 544 – 546 United States, 599 Local authorities. See Public authorities LOF. See Lloyd’s Open Form London Dumping Convention 1972 (LDC), 1001 – 1013 background, 1001 black list, 1006 – 1007 Brent Spar , 1008 contamination risks, 1010 – 1011 controls, 1005 – 1013 decommissioning of offshore structures, 1008 , 1013 “dumping”, definition, 1002 – 1003 EEZ, dumping beyond, 1005 explosion risks, 1012 grey list, 1007 high seas, dumping on, 1005 garbage, 1089 jurisdiction coastal state, 1004 – 1005 flag state, 1003 state where material loaded, 1004 permits criteria, 1007 – 1009 general permits, 1007 special permits (grey list), 1007 pollution avoidance, 1012 – 1013 Protocol 1996, 1013 – 1014 scope of application, 1002 – 1005 coastal state, 1004 – 1005 flag state, 1003 jurisdiction of contracting states, 1003 – 1005 state where material loaded, 1004 “waste”, definition, 1002 Loss of image claims, 51 Loss of life, 538 Loss of profit Civil Liability and Fund Conventions 1992, 358 fisheries, 452 natural resources, 515 tourism, 460 Loss of use or enjoyment, 41 , 472 Louisiana economic loss, 435 – 436 Louisiana Offshore Oil Port (LOOP), 45 Magnuson Act (United States), 855 Malicious acts, 99 , 100 Managers. See Ship management Mandatory Excess Insurance Facility, 61 Manning alcohol testing, 865 certificates, 864 – 865 criminal offences, 1147 drug testing, 865 Exxon Valdez , 873 foreign tank vessels, 866 merchant mariner’s document, 865 National Contingency Plan, 944 Oil Pollution Act 1990 (United States), 864 – 866 person in charge, 864 – 866 salvage, 891 Tank Vessel Act 1936 (United States), 861 tankers, 873 – 874 training, 866 US Coast Guard, 864 – 866 US tank vessels, 864 – 865 Marine Debris Co-ordinating Committee, 864 Marine environment. See also Environmental damage, Natural resources bunker spills, 798 damage to, claims for international conventions, 480 – 490 Civil Liability Convention 1969, 480 – 481 Civil Liability Convention 1992, 482 costs of reinstatement, restoration, 487 Fund Convention 1971, 481 Resolution No. 3 of 1971 Fund, 481 – 482 Fund Convention 1992, 482 funding of studies, 488 – 490 governmental bodies, claims by, 482 – 486 Hazardous and Noxious Substances Convention 1996, 490 Protocols 1984 and 1992, 482 reinstatement, costs of, 487 – 488 restoration, costs of, 487 – 488 United States, position in. See Natural resources Deepwater Port Act (United States), 45 lightering, 875 – 877 MARPOL 73 /78, 808 , 823 natural recovery, 361 – 362 , 478 , 521 – 522 natural resources, 477 – 532 OPRC 1990, 921 – 927 Outer Continental Shelf Lands Act Amendments (United States), 40 – 41 policy considerations, compensation, 478 – 480 Tank Vessel Act 1936 (United States), 855 , 858 – 862 technical issues, 359 – 363 , 478 – 480 United States, 855 – 861 passim , 875 . See also Natural resources Marine insurance. See Insurance, Hull and cargo insurance, P&I Clubs Marine Preservation Association, 976 Marine property insurance. See General average, Hull and cargo insurance Marine Spill Response Corporation, 975 – 976 Maritime authorities, liability, 691 – 692 , 698 – 704 cause of incident, 698 – 702 charts, 701 dredged channels, 701 – 702 lights and aids, 699 – 700 unsafe port, 698 – 702 wrecks and hazards, 699 immunity from suit, 702 – 704 pilots independent fault of employer, 695 – 696 vicarious liability for acts of, 693 – 695 response to incident, 702 – 704 inadequate response, 703 spill from response vessel, 704 unreasonable measures, 703 – 704 “Maritime lepers”, 909 Maritime liens Admiralty jurisdiction, 178 – 179 lenders, 713 salvor’s security, 567 special compensation, 567 United States, 178 Maritime Transportation Security Act 2002 (US), 70 Marketing economic loss, 440 – 441 fisheries, 454 , 458 – 459 tourism, 467 – 468 MARPOL 73/78, 821 – 847 . See also International rules air pollution, 645 , 840 – 847 , 862 amendments, 824 , 829 – 830 , 840 , 841 , 845 Annex I (oil), 824 – 833 Annex II (noxious liquid substances), 834 – 837 Annex III (harmful substances in package forms), 838 Annex IV (sewage), 838 – 839 Annex V (garbage), 839 – 840 Annex VI (air pollution), 840 – 845 ballast, 818 , 821 , 829 , 867 , 871 bilge, 821 , 828 , 834 , 1079 – 1080 certification, 824 , 826 – 827 , 834 – 835 , 839 , 841 controlled discharges, 828 – 829 criminal offences, 64 , 1074 – 1154 passim double hulls, 829 – 831 , 867 , 870 enforcement, 847 foreign flag vessels in US, 862 garbage, 808 , 839 – 840 , 862 , 864 , 1075 , 1088 , 1089 – 1090 greenhouse gases, 840 , 845 , 847 hazardous or noxious substances, 881 IMO Marine Environment Protection Committee, 816 , 826 , 844 – 845 implementation, 845 , 847 incineration, 843 – 844 inspection, 824 , 830 – 831 , 837 jettison, 838 , 1088 Marine Debris Coordinating Committee, 864 marine environment, 808 , 823 MARPOL 73 , 823 – 824 MARPOL 78 , 823 – 824 National Contingency Plan, 939 noxious liquid substances in bulk, 823 , 834 – 837 oil, 824 – 833 OILPOL 54 , 821 – 823 OPRC 1990, 892 – 893 , 923 ozone depleting substances, 840 , 841 , 844 packages, 823 , 838 , 862 , 881 port state control, 838 prevention, 821 – 847 , 855 , 858 – 859 , 862 – 864 reception facilities, 822 – 833 passim , 837 , 839 , 840 , 844 reporting, 892 – 895 , 897 response measures, 896 – 898 United States, in, 939 , 961 , 963 , 966 – 967 , 980 , 981 , 982 sewage, 823 , 838 – 839 , 862 , 1089 shipboard oil emergency plans, 833 , 896 – 897 , 922 , 980 , 981 special areas, 826 , 834 , 840 , 1089 standards 824 – 825 , 827 , 835 , 836 state of registry, 847 sulphur, 840 , 842 – 845 surveys, 824 – 827 , 834 – 835 , 839 , 841 Tank Vessel Act 1936 (United States), 855 , 858 – 861 tankers, 821 – 843 passim United States, 855 , 858 – 859 , 862 – 864 US Coast Guard, 863 – 864 vessel construction, 824 – 835 passim vessel response plans, 891 , 896 – 898 volatile organic compounds, 840 , 843 washing, 822 – 838 passim Maslov, G.A., 14 Masters agency of necessity, 895 , 896 authority, 895 – 896 Clean Water Act (United States), 186 delay, 891 , 893 , 895 reporting incidents, 891 , 893 – 894 response measures, 891 , 893 – 898 passim salvage contract, 895 – 896 seeking assistance, 895 – 896 Media reports, 51 , 52 , 64 , 68 , 69 , 136 , 363 , 415 , 441 , 457 , 462 , 559 , 907 , 1103 Medical practice, 464 Medina Princess , 766 Mega Borg , 52 , 951 MEIF, 61 Memoranda of Understanding International Group of P&I Clubs, 157 – 158 IOPC Funds, 157 – 158 Paris Memorandum, 1060 – 1061 port state control, 1059 – 1062 “Methodika” formula, 481 , 483 , 486 – 487 Metula , 360 Migratory Bird Treaty Act (US) criminal liability for violations, 1130 – 1131 Milad 1 , 95 Misconduct. See Wilful misconduct Misrepresentation insurance, 706 , 708 P&I Clubs, 744 utmost good faith, 744 Mitchell, George, 52 , 53 Mobil, 62 Mobile offshore units, 243 , 276 Mont Louis , 270 Mooring fees, 472 Morris J. Berman , 109 , 712 , 861 , 874 , 1138 – 1142 Mortgages insurance, 707 – 710 liens, 706 – 707 Oil Pollution Act 1990 (United States), 705 , 707 priming of, 707 sale, 707 ship finance, 705 , 707 MSC Ariane , 1101 MSC Napoli , 916 , 920 Müller, Walter, 15 Multi-party actions. See Class actions Nagasaki Spirit , 374 , 394 , 537 , 547 , 548 , 556 – 561 , 564 , 566 , 568 , 590 , 667 , 767 , 788 Nairobi Convention on Wreck Removal 2007 (WRC), 990 – 1000 background, 990 certification and direct action, 999 compulsory insurance, 999 direct action, 999 disputes, 999 hazard, determination of, 994 main provisions, 990 – 991 relationship with other liability regimes, 997 – 999 rights and obligations as to wrecks, 993 – 999 reporting, 994 locating and marking, 994 removal, 995 – 999 scope of application, 991 – 993 “affected state”, 992 – 993 definitions, 992 – 993 exclusions, 991 geographical scope, 991 “hazard”, 992 – 993 “maritime casualty”, 992 “registered owner” and “operator of the ship”, 993 “removal”, 993 “ship”, 992 “wreck”, 992 time limits, 999 Nakhodka , 73 , 117 , 155 , 382 , 459 , 751 causeway, construction of, 382 – 383 incident, 73 maximum amount of compensation (date of conversion into national currency), 155 marketing campaign, 459 reasonableness of preventive measures, 382 – 383 recourse action by IOPC Fund against insurer, 117 , 751 Nancy Orr Gaucher , 98 , 410 – 411 National Contingency Plan (United States), 20 , 929 – 985 passim area committees, 945 area contingency plans, 945 – 947 assessment, 948 – 949 , 955 assistants, 941 – 943 Captain of the Port, 944 CERCLA (United States), 47 , 220 – 224 , 295 – 344 , 931 – 958 , 965 – 966 , 1137 chemicals, 958 – 959 clean-up orders, 940 Clean Water Act (United States), 38 , 940 , 945 – 946 , 954 – 959 communications, 939 – 940 compensation, 958 containment, 949 costs, 949 countermeasures, 949 Department of Agriculture, 934 – 935 Department of Commerce, 934 – 935 Department of Defense, 934 – 935 , 942 Department of Energy, 934 – 935 Department of Health and Human Services, 934 – 935 Department of Interior, 934 – 936 Department of Justice, 934 – 936 Department of Labor, 934 – 936 Department of State, 934 – 937 Department of Transportation, 934 – 936 determinations, 940 discovery, 947 , 954 – 957 dispersants, 958 – 959 disposal, 949 District Response Groups, 943 District Response Advisory Team, 943 documentation, 949 emergencies, 929 , 931 , 935 Environmental Protection Agency, 930 , 934 – 935 , 940 , 944 – 945 , 947 , 952 – 953 , 958 – 959 Environmental Response Team, 850 Exxon Valdez , 51 , 943 , 946 , 951 – 952 federal regional contingency plans, 944 – 945 fisheries, 945 – 946 FOSCs, 932 – 945 , 947 – 959 funding, 953 General Services Administration, 937 guidance, 949 hazardous and noxious substances, 935 , 939 – 941 , 943 – 944 , 947 , 954 – 956 , 958 HAZWOPER, 943 – 944 health and safety at work, 943 – 944 information, 944 initiation of action, 948 – 949 Local Emergency Planning Committee, 945 manning, 934 , 939 MARPOL, 939 National Incident Commanders, 952 National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, 935 , 942 , 946 , 958 national response priorities, 949 – 950 national response system, 934 , 944 national response team, 934 – 938 National Response Unit, 941 , 953 National Strike Force, 941 National Strike Force Co-ordination Center, 941 – 942 natural resource damage assessment, 958 natural resources, 516 , 518 , 942 , 949 , 957 – 959 notice, 939 – 940 , 954 – 957 Nuclear Regulatory Commission, 937 Occupational Safety and Health Administration, 936 , 943 – 944 Oil Pollution Act 1990 (United States), 55 – 56 , 198 , 214 – 216 , 933 , 945 , 948 – 954 Oil Spill Liability Trust Fund, 214 – 215 , 941 , 949 – 950 , 953 Oil Spill Response Organization, 942 on-scene co-ordinators, 938 – 939 operations, 940 – 941 , 947 – 949 participation by other persons, 958 penalties, 954 PIAT, 942 planning and preparedness, 944 public authorities, 939 – 940 purpose, 932 – 933 regional contingency plans, 944 regional response teams, 938 , 944 removal action, 955 – 957 removal site evaluation, 955 reporting, 954 – 955 responsible parties, 947 – 949 salvage, 942 Scientific Support Co-ordinators, 942 scope, 933 – 934 sensitive environments, 946 – 947 special teams, 941 – 943 Spills of National Significance, 947 , 952 – 953 substantial threats to public health or welfare, 950 – 952 Superfund, 956 , 958 threat removal, 955 – 957 three release scenarios, 950 – 953 training, 938 , 943 – 944 trustees for natural resources, 957 – 958 Unified Command System, 948 US Coast Guard, 934 , 940 , 941 – 944 , 947 volunteers, 943 – 944 wildlife, 945 – 947 , 948 , 950 – 951 , 957 worst case discharges, 952 – 953 National courts economic loss, 441 – 446 IOPC Funds, 367 National Incident Commanders, 952 National Interagency Incident Management System, 978 , 983 – 984 National laws. See also individual countries , State law actual fault or privity, 793 application, 5 arrest of ships, 133 bunker spills, 257 – 266 claims, 364 – 365 clean-up costs, 373 – 375 economic loss, 417 – 430 fisheries, 451 insurance, 127 intervention, 922 IOPC Funds, 168 limitation funds, 120 – 121 , 124 non-persistent oil, 5 – 6 parties not liable under conventions, 6 – 7 remedies, 5 settlement, 122 National Multiagency Oil and Hazardous Materials Contingency Plans, 929 – 930 National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), 935 National Pollution Funds Center, 214 National Preparedness for Response Exercise Program, 969 National Resource Council, 603 National Response Corporation, 976 National Response Framework, 952 , 987 – 988 National Scheduling Co-ordinating Committee, 987 National Vessel Traffic Services Regulations, 879 – 879 Natural disasters. See Disasters Natural phenomenon Civil Liability Conventions, 99 – 100 IOPC Funds, compensation limit, 153 Natural resources, 477 –534 administrative records, 520 , 527 – 528 Antonio Gramsci , 481 , 483 assessment of damage, 478 , 501 – 502 , 506 – 515 , 529 – 532 baseline level of services, 507 – 508 , 519 , 521 , 523 Braer , 488 causation, 493 CERCLA (United States), 309 , 319 , 337 , 501 – 515 , 531 – 532 Civil Liability Convention 1971, 480 – 490 Civil Liability Convention 1992, 480 – 490 clean-up, 531 Clean Water Act (United States), 34 , 185 , 302 , 498 – 501 , 506 – 515 common law, 491 – 496 contingency planning, 517 Contingency Valuation Methodology, 479 – 480 costs, 478 , 487 – 488 , 508 , 517 , 531 – 532 damage, 477 – 532 damages, 478 , 479 – 480 , 491 – 505 , 515 – 528 double recovery, 515 , 532 measure of, 494 , 499 – 503 , 509 – 510 , 515 – 516 Deepwater Port Act, 44 – 45 definition, 501 Department of the Interior final rules, 502 – 515 , 529 diminution in value, 478 double recovery, 513 , 531 economic loss, 482 emergency restoration, 518 Exxon Valdez , 477 federal trustees, 515 – 531 , 958 Final Restoration Plan, 527 fisheries, 491 , 493 – 494 , 518 – 519 Fund Convention 1971, 480 – 486 Fund Convention 1992, 482 , 486 – 490 funding of studies, 488 – 490 geographic information system, 512 government bodies, 482 – 486 guidance, 529 Habitat Equivalency Analysis, 524 habitats, 478 , 529 Haven , 484 – 485 hazardous and noxious substances, 506 – 507 , 511 – 514 information, 512 – 513 , 517 , 520 – 523 , 527 – 529 injury determination, 519 – 522 injury quantification, 519 – 522 IOPC Funds, 480 – 481 , 484 , 487 , 490 judicial review, 505 , 520 , 528 limitation of actions, 233 living resources, 491 , 494 – 495 loss of profits, 515 marine environment, 497 – 498 National Contingency Plan, 516 , 518 , 942 , 949 , 957 – 958 natural recovery, 521 – 522 negligence, 492 NOAA final rule, 517 – 518 , 520 – 521 , 523 – 530 non-use rules, 530 – 531 notice, 520 nuisance, 492 Oil Pollution Act 1990 (United States), 53 , 62 , 214 – 216 , 233 , 514 – 528 , 530 – 531 Oil Spill Liability Trust Fund, 214 , 528 Outer Continental Shelf Acts Amendment (United States), 497 – 498 P&I Clubs, 734 parens patriae doctrine, 495 – 496 Patmos , 484 policy considerations, 479 – 480 pollution damage, 482 , 492 potential responsible parties, 491 pre-emption provisions, 531 property damage, 479 proprietary interest, 478 – 480 , 495 – 496 reasonableness, 487 response, 519 responsible party participation, 520 , 528 restoration, 478 , 487 – 488 , 494 , 498 , 509 – 510 clean-up versus, 531 emergency, 518 implementation, 527 – 528 planning, 520 – 527 regions, 527 selection, 523 retribution, 479 SARA (United States), 502 scaling, 524 – 526 standards, 522 – 524 , 529 – 532 , 555 – 558 state law, 495 – 496 strict liability, 493 technical issues, 359 , 478 – 479 time limits, 510 – 511 Torrey Canyon , 477 Trans-Alaska Pipeline Authorization Act (United States), 497 trespass, 493 United States, 478 , 480 , 491 – 532 valuation, 478 – 480 , 488 , 494 wetlands, 495 wildlife, 491 Navigation acts or omissions, 104 – 105 aids, 101 – 104 improving, 103 – 104 maintenance, 101 – 104 bulletins to ships, 104 Canada, 103 – 104 charts, 104 Civil Liability Convention 1969, 101 – 104 contributory negligence, 101 , 104 Irish Stardust , 103 – 104 Jose Marti , 104 lights, 104 navigable laws, 178 – 179 negligence, 103 , 104 – 105 Nissos Amorgos , 104 pilots, 104 – 105 Torrey Canyon , 11 Tsesis , 101 – 102 Negligence. See also Actual fault or privity, Contributory negligence alter egos , 663 Amoco Cadiz , 112 bareboat charter, 616 carelessness, 102 cargo owners, 614 causation, 237 – 238 CERCLA (United States), 337 charterers, 608 , 615 – 616 , 622 Civil Liability Convention 1969, 101 – 102 , 112 – 113 Clean Water Act (United States), 38 , 189 – 191 contingency plans, 238 – 239 criminal offences, 1149 damages, 237 Deepwater Port Act (United States), 44 – 46 definition, 492 due diligence, 238 economic loss, 237 , 417 , 422 , 429 , 435 “entrustment”, 616 environmental damage, 553 Exxon Valdez , 1148 foreseeability, 236 – 237 hazardous and noxious substances, 295 – 302 Hazardous and Noxious Substances Convention 1996, 282 , 290 International Chamber of Shipping, Bridge Procedure Guide , 238 intervening events, 237 – 238 IOPC Funds, 146 , 152 – 153 knowledge, 238 – 239 lender liability, 712 liability potential grounds for, 238 – 239 natural resources, 491 navigation, 11 , 91 , 103 , 104 – 105 Oil Pollution Act 1990 (United States), 201 , 206 – 208 Outer Continental Shelf Lands Act Amendments (United States), 41 proportionality, 236 proximate cause, 236 – 238 res ipsa loquitur , 238 – 239 salvage, 591 – 592 Salvage Convention 1989, 553 – 554 ship management, 652 , 654 subsidiaries, 663 – 664 terminal operators, 617 – 618 third parties, 190 – 191 Torrey Canyon , 11 United Kingdom, 9 United States, 235 – 239 , 295 – 302 US hazardous and noxious substances, 295 – 302 Nestucca , 87 New Carissa bunker pollution, notable incident, 255 dumping at sea, 980 , 1013 incident, 66 intervention by US authorities, 905 litigation between owners and US Government, 206 master not responsible party under OPA, 192 media reports, 907 non-tank vessel response plan regulations, led to, 64 , 66 , 980 salvage efforts criticism, 602 calls for protection from liability, 602 shelling of stranded ship, 905 sinking by US Navy, 905 , 1013 woodchip carrier misdescribed as “tanker”, 907 New Jersey, 613 New York cargo owners, 613 – 614 charterers, 612 – 613 New York and Other Harbors Deposit of Refuse Prohibition Act 1888, 182 Nissos Amorgos , 109 , 115 , 136 , 475 No cure, no pay, 393 – 394 , 398 , 536 , 542 , 543 , 545 , 598 – 599 Non-persistent oil bunker spills, 257 – 258 Civil Liability Convention 1969, 96 definition, 96 Fund Convention 1971, 96 hazardous or noxious substances, 6 incident involving, 6 national laws, 6 United States, 6 Non-technical measures to promote quality shipping, 78 , 1069 – 1070 North Cape , 861 Norway. See Blue Lady Notice Clean Water Act (United States), 186 – 188 criminal offences, 156 , 1144 insurance, 126 intervention, 904 IOPC Funds, 156 – 157 legal proceedings, 156 – 157 National Contingency Plan, 939 – 940 , 947 , 954 – 957 natural resources, 519 – 520 response measures in the United States, 967 Noxious liquid substances response in US, 960 , 979 – 980 , 981 Noxious substances. See Hazardous and noxious substances Nuisance damages, 239 economic loss, 435 natural resources, 492 , 499 private, 239 , 492 public, 239 , 492 United States, 234 – 235 , 492 OBOs, 89 OCIMF charterers, 622 CRISTAL, 17 details of, 17 Lloyd’s Open Form, 546 Occurrences Civil Liability Convention 1969, 128 time limits, 128 OECD Decision on waste shipments, 1016 – 1042 passim. See also Shipment of waste dismantling of ships, 1030 – 1042 , passim Offshore craft, 243 – 254 insurance, 253 – 254 limitation of liability, 248 – 249 , 251 liability for pollution, 244 compensation conventions, under, 244 – 248 applicability, 244 certification, 248 CLC 69, 244 – 245 CLC 92, 245 – 248 “ship”, 247 Fund Convention 1992, 245 – 248 insurance against, 253 – 254 limitation of, 248 – 249 , 251 national laws, under, 249 – 251 basis of liability, 250 – 251 limitation of liability, 251 United States, 249 – 251 MARPOL Annex I applicability, 825 – 826 , special requirements, 833 OPOL, 251 – 253 Second Intersessional Working Group, 1992 Fund, 246 Slops , 247 voluntary industry arrangements, 251 – 253 Offshore facilities financial responsibility, 218 – 220 Oil Pollution Act 1990, 192 – 193 Offshore operations clean-up, 376 lightering, 875 – 876 Offshore Oil Pollution Fund, 40 , 41 Offshore Pollution Liability Agreement (OPOL), 251 – 253 Oil. See also Non-persistent oil, Persistent oil barges, 87 – 88 bulk, in, 86 – 92 , 378 bunker spills, 257 CERCLA (United States), 338 , 340 – 351 Civil Liability Convention 1969, 95 – 96 Civil Liability Convention 1992, 95 – 96 Clean Water Act (United States), 185 crude, 360 definition, 88 , 95 – 96 , 146 , 185 , 195 , 257 , 901 Hazardous and Noxious Substances Convention 1996, 270 , 274 , 276 , 279 hazardous waste, 338 – 352 intervention, 901 IOPC Funds, 145 – 146 Oil Pollution Act 1990, 195 response measures in the United States, 932 – 959 technical issues, 360 Oil and gas industry Outer Continental Shelf Lands Act Amendments, 40 Trans-Alaska Pipeline Authorization Act, 42 Oil/Bulk/Ore carriers, 89 Oil companies charterers and cargo owners, 607 – 649 Oil Companies Institute for Marine Pollution Compensation Ltd. See OCIMF Oil filtering equipment bypassing, 64 , 69 , 825 , 1077 , 1127 , 1150 cleaning, 1080 criminal offences, 1149 – 1154 Frances Hammer , 1149 inefficiency, 1080 inspections and investigations, 1095 malfunction, 825 MARPOL requirement, 825 , 828 , 1080 misuse of, 864 offences rise in number of, 864 parties liable to prosecution, 1077 OILPOL 54 , 822 OILPOL 1969 amendments, 822 operation of, 1150 , 1153 false statements and obstruction of justice, 1136 industry guidance on, 825 , 1081 , 1084 performance, 1080 required for machinery spaces of ships, 825 , 828 , 1080 specifications, 1080 Oil industry controls on ship safety standards, 1070 – 1071 Oil major approval clauses, 644 Oil Pollution Act 1990 (United States), 4 , 52 – 69 , 864 – 879 act of God, 201 – 203 act of sole-fault third party, 203 – 207 act of war, 203 acts or omissions, 193 advertisement, 217 alcohol testing, 865 alter egos , 658 , 660 , 664 – 665 background, 52 – 55 bareboat charters, 192 , 610 , 646 bills, 52 Administration, 52 – 53 Senate, 51 – 53 bunker spills, 266 burden of proof, 212 Canada, 55 cargo interests, 53 , 195 , 612 causation, 195 causes of action, 177 CERCLA (United States), 55 , 195 certificates financial responsibility, 56 , 195 , 220 registry, 864 changes, 56 charterers, 610 – 612 , 612 – 613 , 628 – 629 , 796 , 799 Civil Liability Convention 1969, 53 – 55 Protocol, 71 claims procedure, 53 , 55 , 216 – 218 class actions, 226 classification societies, 63 clean-up costs, 53 – 55 , 177 , 194 , 197 – 201 , 207 , 211 – 218 , 228 – 229 , 234 Clean Water Act (United States), 32 – 33 , 36 , 54 , 184 – 185 , 191 – 192 , 203 – 208 , 218 , 303 collisions, 194 common law, 235 compensation, 55 concursus provisions, 58 , 226 conduct, 210 conformity with other legislation, 55 continental shelf, 207 contingency plans, 62 contribution, 212 – 214 , 233 controversial issues, 56 – 62 criminal liability, 53 , 64 , 69 , 205 , 1128 , 1131 – 1137 damages, 53 – 55 , 177 , 193 – 194 , 197 – 201 , 207 , 211 – 212 , 214 – 218 , 228 – 229 , 233 expanded, 62 natural resources, 515 – 528 Deepwater Port Act (United States), 44 , 193 , 212 – 214 defences, 53 , 201 – 207 designated sources, 216 – 217 discharge of oil, 195 – 196 discharge removal equipment, 877 – 878 double hulls, 866 – 870 drafting, 210 drug testing, 865 dry cargo vessels, 64 , 66 economic loss, 197 , 200 , 417 , 426 – 427 , 432 – 434 effect of 11 Sept. attacks, 69 – 71 equipment, 877 – 878 escort vessels, 876 – 877 exclusive economic zones, 177 , 196 , 866 Exxon Valdez , 52 – 54 facilities, 192 – 193 , 196 , 207 , 211 failure to report, 211 – 212 Final Rule, 224 financial responsibility, 54 , 55 , 218 – 225 certificates of, 57 fines, 54 Fund Convention 1971, 53 – 55 Protocol, 71 good faith, 210 gross negligence, 208 – 209 guarantors, 216 – 218 hazardous and noxious substances, 54 , 55 , 635 high risk vessels, 63 history, 63 , 199 , 210 , 214 , 216 indemnities, 212 – 214 individual state laws, 64 , 65 – 66 inspections, 192 insurance, 205 , 647 Interim Final Rule, 61 , 220 – 221 , 224 International Maritime Organization, 63 ISM Code, 63 joint and several liability, 197 judgments, 225 jurisdiction, 54 , 58 , 196 , 218 , 225 – 227 jury trial, 227 – 228 , 528 legal proceedings, 213 – 228 , 233 lender liability, 713 , 725 – 726 liability, 55 , 192 – 212 liability fund, 53 – 55 , 195 , 211 , 214 – 216 , 228 – 233 lightering, 875 – 876 limitation of actions, 233 limitation of liability, 53 – 54 , 55 , 57 , 64 , 66 – 69 , 194 , 197 , 207 – 212 main provisions, 55 – 56 manning standards, 864 – 866 foreign tank vessels, 866 US tank vessels, 864 – 865 mobile offshore units, 207 monitoring, 63 mortgages, 706 – 707 National Contingency Plans, 53 , 54 , 56 , 197 – 198 , 214 , 945 – 946 , 949 – 956 , 953 National Vessel Traffic Services Regulations, 878 – 879 natural resources, 53 – 54 , 62 , 215 – 216 , 233 , 515 – 519 , 531 – 532 navigable waters, 196 negligence, 201 , 206 , 208 – 209 offshore facilities, 193 “oil”, 195 Oil Spill Liability Fund, 55 , 56 , 61 , 195 , 211 , 214 – 216 , 228 – 233 Outer Continental Shelf Lands Act (United States), 214 – 215 , 218 P&I Clubs, 56 – 61 , 63 exclusion clauses, 56 penalties, 53 , 54 , 56 , 228 permits, 195 persistent oil, 56 “petroleum”, 195 – 196 pilots, 204 pipelines, 193 port state control, 63 Posavina , 213 pre-emption provisions, 52 – 55 , 57 – 58 , 177 , 228 – 233 prevention, 55 – 56 Prince William Sound provisions, 56 property damage, 407 proximate cause, 205 – 206 , 209 – 210 punitive damages, 200 – 201 purpose, 177 ramifications, 56 – 71 reform, 728 refusal to cooperate, 211 – 212 reinsurance, 56 relationship to other law, 228 – 233 reporting, 55 , 201 response, 56 , 635 United States, in, 871 , 931 – 932 , 964 – 967 , 985 responsible party, 58 , 59 , 192 – 207 , 210 – 216 , 216 – 218 , 225 , 228 agents, 53 restoration, 62 salvage, 599 – 602 savings clause, 228 – 229 settlement, 233 ship management, 656 – 657 shipowners, 60 – 62 , 192 – 193 ships, 192 – 193 single ship companies, 63 standards, 814 state immunity, 206 state law, 52 – 55 , 228 – 233 , 234 strict liability, 53 , 197 structural measures, 866 subrogation, 233 Tank Vessel Act 1936 (United States), 860 – 861 tankers, 866 – 874 , 876 – 877 territorial seas, 196 third parties, 53 , 193 – 194 , 203 – 206 , 210 , 212 threats of discharge, 195 – 196 towing vessels, 874 – 875 Trans-Alaska Pipeline Authorization Act (United States), 195 , 214 , 218 treaties and conventions, 55 uniformity of laws, 177 US Coast Guard, 55 – 56 , 62 – 64 , 64 , 864 – 865 venue, 225 – 228 vessel communications equipment, 877 war, 203 wilful misconduct, 201 , 208 – 209 Oil Spill Liability Trust Fund, 55 , 195 , 211 , 214 – 216 clean-up costs, 214 – 216 damages, 214 – 215 emergency fund, 215 fines, 228 funding, 214 – 215 limitation of actions, 215 – 216 , 233 National Contingency Plan, 940 – 941 , 949 – 950 National Pollution Funds Center, 214 natural resources, 215 – 216 , 528 principal fund, 215 penalties, 228 response measures in the United States, 964 Oil Spill Preparedness, Response and Co-operation Convention 1990. See OPRC Convention Oil spray, windblown, 409 , 471 OILPOL 54 amendments, 822 – 823 ballast, 822 , 823 load-on-top system, 822 – 823 MARPOL 73/78, 823 penalties, 822 prevention, 821 – 823 shore reception facilities, 822 tank cleaning, 822 – 823 United States, 823 Oily Water Separator Systems Task Force (OWSSTF), 69 Oily Water Separators (OWS). See Oil filtering equipment Omnibus Rule, 731 , 738 One-ship companies, 652 – 653 , 657 Onshore operations, clean-up, 378 – 379 Onus of proof. See Burden of proof Oosterveen, Willem, 141 OPA–90 (United States). See Oil Pollution Act 1990 Operators. See Ship management OPRC 1990, 921 – 927 clean-up costs, 408 contingency plans, 924 – 925 co-operation, 925 – 926 costs, 925 – 926 emergencies, 921 entry into force, 921 expenses, 925 – 926 Exxon Valdez , 921 facilities, 922 – 923 guidelines, 923 , 927 Gulf War, 925 hazardous and noxious substances, 922 “incident”, 922 information, 925 institutional arrangements, 927 International Maritime Organization, 923 – 927 MARPOL, 923 movement of personnel and materials, 926 national and regional systems, 923 – 925 objectives, 921 – 922 oil pollution report, 923 port state control, 923 public authorities, 923 – 925 reporting, 923 research and development, 926 response capability, 924 – 925 measures, 921 – 927 scope, 922 “ships”, 922 – 923 SOPEP, 922 – 923 technical co-operation, 926 vessel response plans, 896 – 898 Orimulsion, 96 Otapan , 1039 – 1041 Oued Gueterini , 408 Outer Continental Shelf Lands Act Amendments (United States), 32 , 40 – 41 clean-up costs, 40 – 41 criminal offences, 41 damages, 40 – 41 defences, 40 – 41 disasters, 40 – 41 economic loss, 41 financial responsibility, 41 , 218 fines, 41 fishing vessels, 40 limitation of liability, 40 – 41 marine environment, 40 natural resources, 40 , 497 – 498 negligence, 40 – 41 Offshore Oil Pollution Compensation Fund, 40 – 41 oil and gas exploration, 40 Oil Pollution Act 1990 (United States), 55 , 218 penalties, 41 privity or knowledge, 40 Submerged Lands Act (United States), 40 Owners. See also Shipowners definition, Civil Liability and Fund Conventions, 85 – 86 , 144 Owners of colliding ships. See Colliding ships Ozone depleting substances, 840 – 842 , 887 Packages, 838 Padre Island , 60 , 751 P&I Clubs, 727 –752. See also International Group of P&I Clubs actual fault or privity, 749 arbitration, 729 arrest of ships, 136 Articles of Association, 729 bareboat charters, 646 – 648 Blue Cards, 126 , 750 catastrophe losses, 730 – 732 Certificates of Financial Responsibility, 56 – 57 , 750 certification, 126 – 127 charterers, 642 Civil Liability Convention 1969, 126 – 127 , 132 , 134 , 136 claims office, 158 clean-up, 382 , 734 clean-up costs, 733 Clean Water Act (United States), 39 confiscation, 737 – 738 contamination, 734 contracts, 729 , 746 – 747 contributions, 56 costs, 732 – 733 , 738 – 740 compliance with official orders, 733 cover for fines and penalties, 737 accidental discharges, 737 confiscation, 738 intentional discharges, 737 criminal offences, 1149 damage, 734 damages, 734 – 735 defences, 740 – 749 development, 727 – 728 dispute resolution, 729 exclusions, 740 – 749 geographical, 745 exclusive economic zones, 745 expenses, 732 – 736 , 738 – 740 Exxon Valdez , 738 – 745 Fanti , 751 financial responsibility, 39 , 57 – 61 hull policy under, 745 – 746 fines, 737 – 738 Fund Convention 1971, 32 general average, 755 – 756 , 759 , 763 , 765 General Excess Loss Reinsurance Contract, 731 – 732 guarantors, 743 Hazardous and Noxious Substances Convention 1996, 280 history, 727 – 728 illegal, hazardous and improper adventures, 747 indemnities, 59 , 706 , 734 , 738 , 742 , 747 Institute Clauses, 746 International Group. See International Group of P&I Clubs International Tanker Indemnity Association, 14 IOPC Funds, 157 – 159 , 167 – 168 ISM Code, 748 ITOPF, 733 legal structure, 728 – 729 lender liability, 713 liability, 732 liability insurance, 750 – 751 limitation of liability, 710 , 740 , 745 – 746 limits, 740 – 749 Lloyd’s Open Form, 536 , 736 – 737 loss, 734 management, 729 Marine Insurance Act 1906, 729 , 737 – 738 , 740 – 744 misrepresentation, 744 natural resources, 734 non-disclosure, 744 non-recovery of, 706 – 707 oil, 732 , 745 – 746 Oil Pollution Act 1990 (United States), 56 – 57 , 747 exclusion clauses, 57 Omnibus Rule, 731 , 738 Padre Island , 751 pay to be paid, 116 , 127 , 132 , 749 penalties, 737 – 738 policy defence, 59 pollution liability risks oil, 732 practice concerning cover for, 730 scope of cover, 732 – 740 Pooling Agreement, 730 prevention, 732 – 733 , 735 , 739 – 740 proximate cause, 735 public authorities, 732 – 733 punitive damages, 734 – 735 radioactive contamination, 748 reinsurance, 57 , 731 role, 727 Rules, 729 , 735 – 740 , 745 – 749 salvage, 393 , 394 – 395 , 397 , 401 , 540 – 541 , 735 – 736 Salvage Convention 1989, 402 , 404 , 554 security, 705 – 706 seaworthiness, 740 – 742 self-insurance, 59 – 60 Shoreline Mutual Insurance Association, 61 – 62 special compensation, 559 – 560 , 566 – 568 , 736 sue and labour, 733 , 738 – 740 Terrorism Risk Insurance Act (US), 70 – 71 third parties, 749 TOVALOP, 14 , 643 undertakings, 57 United States, 732 , 734 , 745 , 747 unpaid calls, 749 US Coast Guard, 61 utmost good faith, 744 war risks, 747 warranties, 747 wilful misconduct, 733 – 734 , 737 , 742 – 743 Parens patriae doctrine, 495 – 496 Parent/Subsidiary liability, 658 – 665 Paris Memorandum of Understanding, 1060 Partial loss, 775 Particular average, 774 – 778 Partnerships, 660 Patmos , contributory negligence of claimant, 105 marine environment, claim for damage to expert evidence, 479 , 484 – 485 claim in Italian courts, 484 – 485 rejection of by 1971 Fund, 484 – 485 , 760 salvage and related operations, costs claimed as preventive measures motive for which measures taken, 394 primary purpose test, 396 , 397 salvage on “no cure, no pay” terms, 398 territorial scope of CLC 69 and Fund Convention 1971, 83 Pavlov , 1083 Penalties. See also Fines administrative, 189 – 190 CERCLA (United States), 314 , 324 , 329 , 352 Clean Water Act (United States), 39 , 188 – 191 criminal offences, 1130 , 1133 – 1136 , 1137 – 1138 Deepwater Port Act (United States), 44 financial responsibility, 218 guidance, 1144 Hazardous and noxious substances, 882 – 883 hazardous waste, 351 – 352 National Contingency Plan, 942 New York and Other Harbors Deposit of Refuse Prohibition Act 1888, 182 Oil Pollution Act 1990 (United States), 53 – 54 , 55 , 56 Oil Spill Liability Trust Fund, 228 OILPOL 54 , 47 – 48 , 822 Outer Continental Shelf Lands Act Amendments (United States), 41 Ports and Waterways Safety Act (United States), 857 Tank Vessel Act 1936 (United States), 861 United States, 7 – 9 wrecks, 184 Pennsylvania Rule, 618 Perils of the sea Civil Liability Convention 1969, 99 Permits CERCLA (United States), 330 discharge, 195 Oil Pollution Act 1990 (United States), 195 Persistent oil bunker spills, 257 Civil Liability Convention 1969, 96 definition, 6 , 96 Fund Convention 1971, 96 Oil Pollution Act 1990, 56 orimulsion, 96 technical issues, 360 Personal injuries claims, 357 clean-up, 390 – 391 Hazardous and Noxious Substances Convention 1996, 276 – 277 inhalation of smoke, 356 – 357 inhalation of windblown spray, 356 – 357 property damage, 413 Piercing the corporate veil, 85 , 657 – 665 Pilots, 104 – 105 Pilots, liability, 692 – 697 Bunkers Convention, 697 CLC, 696 – 697 HNS Convention, 697 immunity from suit, 696 – 697 independent fault, 695 – 696 legal framework, 692 limitation of liability, 697 vicarious liability of employer, 693 – 695 pilotage authority, 693 – 695 liability to shipowner, 694 liability to third parties, 694 – 695 shipowner, 693 Pipelines, 193 Places of refuge for ships, 394 , 891 – 892 , 905 – 921 . See also Ports of refuge Andros Patria , 908 – 909 background, 905 – 908 Castor , 894 , 910 – 911 , 916 Christos Bitas , 541 conditions of access, 759 , 767 – 768 “Flying Dutchmen”, 909 general average, 755 , 764 , 767 , 768 , 770 IMO Guidelines, 894 , 916 – 920 coastal states, 918 compensation to ports, 919 contingency planning, 918 decision-making process, 919 event-specific assessment, 918 – 919 implementation, 920 masters, 917 – 918 salvors, 917 – 918 Khark V , 909 – 910 Prestige , 76 , 691 – 692 , 891 – 892 , 894 , 911 – 913 public reactions, 76 , 913 , 918 refusal of access, 541 , 691 , 703 , 892 , 907 , 911 – 913 request for access, 894 , 905 , 908 – 916 decision at political level, 908 – 913 decision by independent body, 913 – 916 Tong Cheng , 920 Plant, 384 , 387 – 388 PLATO, 31 Pleasure craft, 408 , 598 Pledges, 714 Poincaré francs. See Gold francs “Polluter pays” principle, 33 , 68 , 929 , 960 Pollution damage. See also Environmental damage, Marine environment international conventions, admissibility and assessment of claims, 105 – 107 , 364 – 369 . See also Criteria for admissibility of claims (IOPC Funds) clean-up costs, 372 – 392 . See also Clean-up costs economic loss, 415 – 475 . See also Economic loss general principles, 364 – 369 marine environment, damage to, 477 – 490 See also Marine environment personal injuries, 359 , 391 . See also Personal injuries preventive measures, 371 – 406 . See also Preventive measures property damage, 407 – 413 . See also Property damage definitions Civil Liability Convention 1969, 105 , 356 – 357 Civil Liability Convention 1992, 106 , 358 Fund Convention 1971, 356 Fund Convention 1992, 144 , 358 liability and compensation for Civil Liability Conventions, 85 , 92 Fund Conventions, 145 , 150 technical considerations effects of oil spills, short- and long-term, 359 – 360 problems associated with preventive measures, clean-up and restoration, 362 public perceptions and their effect, 363 Pollution Liability Agreement among Tanker Owners (PLATO), 31 Pollution prevention. See MARPOL 73/78, Prevention of pollution, Preventive measures Polvglory , 631 Popp, Alfred, 271 , 272 Port state control, 1055 – 1062 administration, 1059 – 1062 inspections, 1057 , 1061 insurance, 126 International Maritime Organization, 1060 MARPOL 73/78, 838 , 1056 “naming and shaming”, 1062 Oil Pollution Act 1990 (United States), 71 OPRC 1990, 923 Paris Memorandum of Understanding, 1061 – 1062 publicity, 1061 regional agreements, 1055 – 1062 enforcement in port, 1055 – 1057 assistance to other states, 1057 detention of ships, 1057 institution of proceedings, 1055 – 1057 investigation, 1055 – 1057 jurisdiction, 1055 , 1056 , 1059 safeguards, 1057 – 1059 foreign vessels, 1057 – 1058 limits on penalties, 1059 suspension of proceedings, 1058 – 1059 rules, 1055 – 1062 sanctions, 1061 – 1062 vessel response plans, 896 – 898 Portfield , 399 – 400 Ports. See also Port state control, Ports and Waterways Safety Act 1972 (United States) admittance, 540 – 541 , 905 – 916 charterers, 630 – 633 closure of, claims resulting from, 469 – 470 coastal states, 905 – 916 congestion, 554 co-operation, 909 – 913 general average, 767 – 768 , 770 public authorities, 908 – 916 response measures, 905 – 916 safe, 630 – 633 salvage, 541 , 908 – 909 Salvage Convention 1989, 554 – 555 security, 918 – 919 Ports and Waterways Safety Act 1972 (United States), 25 , 856 – 858 ballast, 856 criminal offences, 858 , 1138 environmental damage, 856 hazardous and noxious substances, 857 operation of vessels, 857 penalties, 858 purpose, 856 state waterways, 857 Tank Vessel Act 1936 (United States), 855 , 858 – 862 Torrey Canyon , 856 US Coast Guard, 856 – 858 vessel traffic, 856 – 858 Ports of refuge, 758 – 770 passim. See also Places of refuge for ships access problems, 76 , 541 , 554 , 906 compensation to, 919 conditions of access, 764 , 906 general average, 755 , 764 , 767 , 768 , 770 MSC Napoli , 916 , 920 P&I cover, 733 proposed sites, 918 repairs in, 394 , 759 , 774 Power stations, 408 Precautions CERCLA (United States), 311 – 312 general average, 764 , 766 – 767 , 770 salvage, 769 Pre-emption provisions, 47 , 52 – 55 alter egos , 665 charterers, 612 Clean Water Act (United States), 54 natural resources, 531 Oil Pollution Act 1990 (United States), 52 – 58 , 177 , 226 , 228 – 237 United States, 21 – 23 , 25 Presidente Rivera , 52 , 422 – 423 Press. See Media reports Prestige access to places of refuge. See places of refuge access to territorial sea and EEZ, refusal of, 901 , 1064 , 1120 Bahamas Maritime Authority (BMA) report by, 912 , 1108 bibliography, 77 changes in law and practice, led to Bunkers Convention, 76 coastal state control, 1064 – 1065 concerns about criminalization, 1120 EU Directive on Criminal Sanctions for Ship-source Pollution, 1073 , 1115 , 1119 IMO Guidelines on Places of Refuge, 917 Maritime Assistance Services (MAS), 894 measures of disputed validity in international law, 901 , 1064 , 1120 quality shipping, measures to promote, 1068 single hull tankers accelerated phase-out, 830 ban on carriage of heavy grades of oil, 830 Special Coastal Maritime Courts, France, 1083 STOPIA and TOPIA, 168 Supplementary Fund, 168 unilateral measures, 816 CLC 92 and Fund Convention 1992 admissibility of claims subsea pumping operations, 381 , 998 channelling provisions classification societies, 111 , 129 interim payments crediting to shipowner, 161 restrictions on, 161 limitation fund, CLC 92 payment into court, 124 , 163 maximum amount of compensation date of conversion into national currency, 155 classification society channelling provisions, CLC 92, 111 litigation against in US, 111 , 129 , 235 coastal state authorities hardening of attitudes towards industry, 1065 report by, 912 – 913 response to incident, criticized, 691 , 1107 treatment of master criticized, 1107 – 1108 cited as precedent for action taken in Tasman Spirit incident, 1108 – 1109 criminal proceedings bail, 1108 , 1110 delay before trial, 1110 European Court of Human Rights, 1108 imprisonment, international restrictions on, 1097 – 1099 offence relating to response measures, prosecution alleging, 1099 detention of master, 1074 , 1106 – 1107 EU maritime policy, effect on, 79 European Parliament Parliamentary report on incident, 1108 , 1121 – 1122 fair treatment of defendants, 1106 – 1108 , 1120 flag state authorities report by, 912 France impact of pollution, 1118 reaction to incident of French President, 1118 heavy fuel oil, 76 , 360 incident, 76 , 911 – 913 intervention by authorities, 901 maritime casualty, right of intervention in case of, 901 , 1064 – 1065 passage through territorial sea and EEZ refusal by authorities, 901 places of refuge refusal of access by authorities, 691 , 911 – 913 consequences of policy highlighted by incident, 892 , 907 , 910 – 913 passim potential liability of authorities, 703 public reactions to, 76 , 913 report of investigation by coastal state, 912 – 912 report of investigation by flag state, 912 report on incident by European Parliament, 1108 , 1121 – 1122 Royal Decree, domestic compensation fund, 129 Spanish authorities. See coastal state authorities Third Intersessional Working Group, 1992 Fund, 75 – 76 , 172 wreck removal subsea pumping operations, 998 Prevention of pollution. See also MARPOL 73/78, Preventive measures, Standards Clean Air Act (United States), 883 – 889 enforcement, 1051 – 1071 international rules, 807 – 853 marine environment, 812 , 838 Magnuson Act (United States), 855 Oil Pollution Act 1990 (United States), 55 , 63 – 65 , 859 – 860 , 869 – 870 OILPOL 54 , 821 – 823 Ports and Waterways Safety Act (United States), 856 – 858 standards, 1051 – 1071 Tank Vessel Act 1936 (United States), 858 – 862 Preventive measures. See also Prevention of pollution admissibility claims for compensation. See under compensation in general average. See general average bunker spills, 257 , 259 , 264 charterers, taken by, 639 – 644 TOVALOP Charterparty Clause, 643 – 644 Civil Liability Conventions definitions CLC 69, 52 – 94 , 391 – 393 CLC 92, 92 – 94 , 391 – 393 clean-up. See Clean-up clean-up costs. See Clean-up costs compensation industry schemes TOVALOP, original form, 14 international conventions admissibility and assessment of claims, 364 – 369 definitions Civil Liability Convention 1969, 85 – 98 , 356 – 358 Civil Liability Convention 1992, 105 , 356 – 357 Fund Convention 1971, 144 , 356 – 357 Fund Convention 1992, 144 , 357 Hazardous and Noxious Substances Convention 1996, 277 owner’s expenses. See owner’s expenses national laws, 374 – 375 . See also United States contingency plans. See Contingency plans contractors, measures taken by, 373 – 374 , 590 costs, 383 – 390 fixed and additional costs, 383 – 388 IOPC Funds, practice, 388 – 389 plant and equipment, 387 – 388 salaries, 386 – 387 reasonableness, 383 residual value of equipment, 389 – 390 co-operation, see OPRC 1990 dispersants, use of, 378 economic loss caused by preventive measures, 390 – 391 measures to avoid or minimise economic loss general criteria, 440 – 441 marketing campaigns, fishing industry, 458 – 459 tourism promotion campaigns, 467 – 469 Eleni V , 377 escape of oil, measures to prevent or minimise, 379 – 382 . See also salvage and related operations expenses. See costs Exxon Valdez , 379 Fund Convention 1971, 144 , 356 – 357 Fund Convention 1992, 144 , 357 general average admissibility in general average of costs of preventive measures, 755 – 768 York–Antwerp Rules 1974, 759 – 762 York–Antwerp Rules 1994, 762 – 768 clean-up costs, 763 – 764 costs incurred as part of an operation for the common safety, 764 – 767 government authorities. See Government authorities Hazardous and Noxious Substances Convention 1996, 277 insurance. See marine property insurance and P&I Clubs intervention by state. See Intervention Convention 1969 Limitation Convention 1976, 263 – 264 limitation funds. See owner’s expenses Lloyd’s Open Form cost of operations under. See salvage and related operations LOF 1980, 560 locus standi , 372 – 375 loss or damage caused by, 390 – 391 marine property insurance cargo general average, 770 – 774 hull collisions, preventive measures undertaken as a result of, 779 – 781 general average, 770 – 774 particular average, 774 – 778 cost of repairs, 775 – 777 Pollution Hazard Clause, 777 Running Down Clause, 779 – 781 total loss, 774 – 775 marketing campaigns, 440 – 441 , 458 – 459 , 467 – 469 offshore operations, 376 – 378 onshore operations, 378 – 379 owner expenses as claim against limitation fund Civil Liability Conventions, 124 , 373 Hazardous and Noxious Substances Convention 1996, 286 Limitation Convention 1976, 263 compensation from HNS Fund, 289 – 290 compensation from IOPC Funds, 150 , 373 P&I cover, 732 P&I cover cost of preventive measures, 732 salvors, liability to, 735 – 736 sue and labour expenses, 738 – 740 personal injury, caused by, 391 persons entitled to claim compensation, 372 – 375 Pollution Hazard Clause, 777 pre-spill costs, 404 – 406 property damage cleaning versus replacement, 411 purpose of measures, 391 – 392 . See also under salvage and related operations problems in ascertaining, 394 public expectations, 363 , 376 reasonableness, 375 – 383 recovery of oil at sea, 377 rehabilitation of wildlife, 379 reinstatement, 358 , 487 restoration, 358 , 487 salvage and related operations admissibility of costs as preventive measures, 392 – 404 dual purpose operations, 400 – 402 objectives of modern salvage operations, 393 primary purpose test, 397 – 399 variations on, 399 – 400 purpose of operations, problems in ascertaining, 394 Salvage Convention 1989, operations under, 402 – 404 Salvage Convention 1989. See under salvors salvors duties in relation to environment, 553 compensation outside law of salvage, 587 – 590 remuneration Lloyd’s Open Form 1980, 544 – 545 Salvage Convention 1989 enhanced award (Art. 13), 555 special compensation (Art. 14), 556 – 567 traditional principles, 537 – 542 state intervention. See Intervention Convention 1969 Subsea pumping operations, 381 – 382 , 998 technical issues, 362 , 375 – 379 ITOPF papers Preventive Measures and Property Damage , 359 , 362 , 376 Environmental Damage , 359 , 478 Torrey Canyon , 371 total loss, 774 – 775 tourism promotion campaigns, 467 – 469 TOVALOP Charterparty Clause, 643 – 644 United States, 855 – 889 wildlife rehabilitation, 379 Prince William Sound, Alaska, 56 Privity and knowledge Clean Water Act (United States), 34 Deepwater Port Act (United States), 45 – 46 insurance, privity to unseaworthiness, 741 limitation of liability, 21 , 23 – 24 Outer Continental Shelf Lands Act Amendments (United States), 40 – 41 United States, 21 , 23 – 24 Probo Koala , 1028 – 1029 Property damage, 407 – 413 abnormally dangerous activities, 240 boats, 408 bunker spills, 258 CERCLA (United States), 407 charterers, 638 Civil Liability Conventions, 206 , 407 – 413 clean-up costs, 407 Clean Water Act (United States), 407 cleaning, 411 consequential loss, 408 , 410 contamination, 407 – 410 desalination plants, 408 economic loss, 407 , 408 , 471 – 472 explosions, 413 Exxon Valdez , 49 facilities, 408 fire, 412 , 413 fish farms and aquacultural stocks, 408 , 410 fisheries, 408 , 410 fishing gear, 408 Fund Conventions, 407 – 413 hazardous and noxious substances, 407 Hazardous and Noxious Substances Convention 1996, 413 immovable property, 407 loss of market value, 409 movable property, 407 natural resources, 477 Oil Pollution Act 1990 (United States), 407 personal injuries, 413 pleasure craft, 407 , 408 pollution damage, 407 , 410 – 412 power stations, 407 , 408 prevention, 410 pumping operations, 410 real property, 408 – 409 replacement, 408 ships, 407 , 408 technical issues ITOPF Paper, Preventive Measures and Property Damage , 359 , 362 , 376 windblown oil spray, 409 Proportionality intervention, 902 – 905 negligence, 236 Proprietary rights clean-up costs, 374 – 375 economic loss, 430 natural resources, 478 Protection and Indemnity Clubs. See P&I Clubs Provisional payments. See Interim payments Proximate cause Civil Liability Convention 1969, 99 economic loss, 433 hazardous and noxious substances, 297 – 301 insurance, 734 Oil Pollution Act 1990 (United States), 204 , 206 , 209 negligence, 236 – 238 P&I Clubs, 734 total loss, 776 US hazardous and noxious substances, 297 – 301 United States, 236 – 238 , 298 war risks, 99 Proximity claims, 357 economic loss, 438 , 442 – 447 , 453 – 455 , 462 – 466 fisheries, 470 – 471 tourism, 463 – 466 Public authorities arrest of ships, 132 – 133 Civil Liability Convention 1969, 108 clean-up, 373 , 375 clean-up costs, 375 , 389 , 405 contingency plans, 892 National Contingency Plan, 892 OPRC 1990, 892 P&I Clubs, 733 ports, 698 – 702 tourism, 466 United Kingdom, 9 Public expectations and perceptions adverse publicity, economic effects. See economic effects clean-up operations influence on oil spill response measures, 362 – 363 , 376 unrealistic expectations, 362 , 376 economic effects, 363 cost of measures to prevent or minimise, 440 – 441 fishing and related industries destruction of fish stocks to preserve public confidence, 447 – 449 marketing campaigns, fishing industry, 458 – 459 prices and sales, reductions in, 457 – 458 tourism establishments outside polluted area, 461 – 462 Exxon Valdez , 363 tourism promotion campaigns, 467 – 469 “touristic image”, loss of, 468 nature and extent of damage, 363 Public law Torrey Canyon , 10 – 12 Publicity. See Media reports, Public expectations and perceptions Pumping operations, 410 Quality United States, 8 , 20 – 21 water pollution, 8 , 20 – 21 Radioactive substances Hazardous and Noxious Substances Convention 1996, 275 , 277 , 279 P&I Clubs, 748 Radioactive waste shipment, 1027 – 1028 Reasonableness CERCLA (United States), 327 – 328 clean-up, 382 – 383 , 385 clean-up costs, 383 – 385 natural resources, 508 prevention, 382 Reception facilities, 833 Recognition of judgments Civil Liability Convention 1969, 116 , 128 – 133 enforcement of judgments, 131 mutual, 128 – 129 Recycling CERCLA (United States), 338 , 343 hazardous waste, 338 , 343 , 346 – 347 , 351 Recycling of ships. See Dismantling of vessels Refuge. See Places of refuge for ships Refuse Act (United States), 182 – 184 criminal liability for violations, 1129 – 1130 Regional contingency plans, 921 , 930 , 938 , 944 Registration of ships Civil Liability Conventions, 83 Hazardous and Noxious Substances Convention 1996, 272 – 273 MARPOL, 73/78, 847 Reinstatement. See Restoration Reinsurance financial responsibility, 218 – 225 General Excess Loss Reinsurance Contract, 731 International Group of P&I Clubs, 56 – 57 Oil Pollution Act 1990 (United States), 55 – 64 P&I Clubs, 173 , 730 – 732 Remediation. See Clean-up costs, Restoration Remedies CERCLA (United States), 306 , 333 charterers, 607 Civil Liability Convention 1969, 102 , 107 – 113 clean-up costs, 374 – 375 collision, 779 government authority, 102 – 103 Hazardous and Noxious Substances Convention 1996, 269 IOPC Funds, 137 national laws, 5 Remoteness fisheries, 415 Removal of wrecks, 990 – 1000 . See also Wreck Removal Repairs clean-up, 390 costs, 774 – 775 Fund Convention 1971, 404 , 480 general average, 755 marine property insurance, 753 total loss, 774 – 779 Reporting requirements CERCLA (United States), 303 Clean Water Act (United States), 186 – 188 , 303 coastal states, 892 contracts, 895 criminal offences, 1135 – 1136 guidelines, 892 – 894 , 897 – 898 hazardous and noxious substances, 892 – 896 incident reporting procedure, 897 inconsistent practices, 894 jurisdiction, 895 MARPOL, 893 – 894 , 896 – 898 masters, 891 , 893 – 896 National Contingency Plan, 892 , 904 Oil Pollution Act 1990 (United States), 63 , 188 OPRC 1990, 896 , 921 probable discharges, 893 , 897 , 923 response measures in the United States, 942 salvage, 891 , 893 , 895 – 896 telecommunications, 893 Res ipsa loquitur charterers, 619 Inverpool , 12 negligence, 238 United States, 238 Research and development, 926 Residues, 88 – 91 , 259 , 274 – 275 , 835 – 837 Resource Conservation and Recovery Act 1976 (United States) CERCLA, 302 , 338 , 954 Response measures, 891 – 988 . See also Response measures in United States cargo interests, 639 – 642 CERCLA (United States), 303 – 307 , 315 – 316 , 324 – 325 charterers, 643 – 644 clean-up costs, 405 , 431 – 432 Clean Water Act (United States), 184 coastal states, 14 , 897 contingency plans, 892 costs, 639 – 642 definition (CERCLA), 304 discharge, steps to control, 898 EC vessel traffic monitoring system, 920 – 921 emergencies, 896 – 897 Exxon Valdez , 48 general average, 764 – 767 guidance, 897 – 898 inconsistent practices, 894 information, 893 – 894 , 898 International Maritime Organization, 892 – 895 International Oil Pollution Prevention Certificate, 896 intervention, 899 – 905 IOPC Funds, 158 ITOPF, 74 lightering, 860 list of persons to be contacted, 897 – 898 mandatory provisions, 897 – 898 MARPOL, 896 – 898 master’s authority to seek assistance, 895 – 896 national contingency plans, 892 National Response System (OPRC), 923 – 924 natural resources, 477 – 478 oil company clauses, 643 Oil Pollution Act 1990 (United States), 64 , 66 , 68 OPRC 1990, 892 – 893 , 896 places of refuge for ships in need, 905 – 921 port state control, 896 port admittance, 891 , 909 public authorities, 892 regularly visited ports, 898 reporting, 897 responsible party, 192 – 195 salvage, 536 , 891 , 893 , 895 – 891 seeking assistance, 892 – 896 shipboard oil pollution emergency plan, 896 – 897 SOPEP, 896 special compensation, 589 – 590 state intervention, 899 – 905 territorial seas, 903 – 904 Torrey Canyon , 899 TOVALOP Charterparty Clause, 643 vessel response plans, 896 – 899 Response measures in the United States, 929 – 988 . See also National Contingency Plan Area Contingency Plans, 944 – 945 area exercises, 986 – 987 Argo Merchant , 931 barges, 971 bulk oil, 961 – 962 Canada, 962 CERCLA (United States), 931 – 936 clean-up, 931 , 942 – 945 , 949 Clean Water Act (United States), 932 contact list, 969 contingency plans, 929 – 944 costs, 958 , 964 – 966 , 984 Department of Homeland Security, 934 , 952 development, 971 – 974 dispersants, 958 – 959 drills, 985 – 986 emergencies, 929 , 931 , 935 Environmental Protection Agency, 932 – 959 , 977 , 986 equipment, 976 – 979 exemptions, 961 , 963 exercise credit, 987 exercises, 985 – 987 Exxon Valdez , 931 general response plan requirements, 966 geographic-specific appendices, 970 Groups I–IV petroleum oil, 971 – 974 guidelines, 982 , 985 – 987 hazardous and noxious substances, 932 – 939 , 954 – 956 , 977 – 980 immunity, 964 – 966 Incident Command System, 983 – 984 industry co-operatives, 975 information, 939 , 941 – 945 , 949 – 952 , 966 – 971 inspection, 955 , 974 – 975 Interim Final Rule, 961 , 983 internal exercises, 985 – 986 Joint Operations Center, 930 legislation, 931 , 951 lightering, 961 – 962 , 969 , 972 – 973 , 977 – 979 maintenance, 935 , 969 , 974 – 975 , 983 , 985 – 986 Marine Preservation Association, 976 Marine Spill Response Corporation, 975 – 976 MARPOL, 961 , 966 – 967 , 979 – 982 mitigation, 567 – 568 multiple vessel transfer operations, 972 National Interagency Incident Management System, 978 , 983 – 984 National Multiagency Oil and Hazardous Materials Contingency Plan, 930 National Preparedness for Response Exercise Program, 969 National Response Corporation, 976 National Response Framework, 952 , 987 – 988 National Scheduling Co-ordinating Committee, 987 Negotiated Rulemaking Committee, 960 notification, 939 – 940 , 947 , 954 – 955 , 967 non-tank vessels, 980 – 982 noxious liquid substances, 979 – 980 , 981 oil, 929 Oil Pollution Act 1990 (United States), 930 – 933 , 939 Oil Spill Liability Trust Fund, 941 , 949 – 950 , 953 , 958 , 964 organizations, 975 – 976 performance, 961 – 964 “polluter pays” principle, 929 , 960 Preparedness for Response Exercise Program, 985 – 988 qualified individual, 960 – 970 , 977 – 978 reporting, 994 resources, 983 – 985 SARA (United States), 931 – 932 shipboard oil pollution emergency plans, 961 , 981 ships, 962 – 963 shore-based activities, 968 – 969 shoreline protection, 973 tank barges, 971 tankers, 975 , 981 terrorism, 987 – 988 . See also Terrorism Torrey Canyon , 929 , 931 training, 969 triennial exercises, 986 Unified Command Structure, 983 – 984 unmanned tank barges, 971 updates, 967 US Coast Guard, 934 , 937 – 947 , 963 , 983 , 986 vessel response plans, 959 – 983 general issues, 960 – 961 regulatory history, 961 – 964 vessel specific information, 971 Restaurants, loss of income, 461 Restoration, 477 – 532 administrative records, 520 Civil Liability Convention 1992, 480 – 489 clean-up, 477 , 531 Fund Convention 1971, 81 – 82 implementation, 527 – 528 natural resources, 478 , 507 – 512 , 520 – 528 Oil Pollution Act 1990 (United States), 52 – 64 planning, 517 – 523 regional, 527 scaling, 524 – 526 selection, 523 – 524 standards, 522 – 523 technical issues, 359 – 363 Retailers, 462 – 463 Revolving funds, 38 Rio Orinoco , 397 – 398 , 400 Risk assessment, 307 – 309 , 328 , 337 Rivers and Harbors Act 1899 (United States), 182 – 184 criminal liability for violations, 1129 – 1130 Robins rule, 421 – 423 , 425 , 432 – 433 , 435 – 437 Rowan. See Singapura Timur Rules to prevent pollution coastal state control, 1062 – 1067 enforcement, 1051 – 1071 flag state control, 1052 – 1055 industry controls on ship safety standards, 1067 – 1071 jurisdiction, 1051 , 1055 , 1056 , 1064 port state control, 1055 – 1062 Running Down Clause, 779 Safe berths, 618 , 632 Safe ports, 630 – 632 Safety of Life at Sea (SOLAS). See International rules to prevent pollution from ships Salaries, 372 , 384 , 386 – 387 , 473 Sale and leaseback, 629 Salem , 742 – 743 Salvage, 535 – 606 . See also Salvage Convention 1989 Aegean Captain , 542 agency of necessity, 895 – 896 Amoco Cadiz , 542 , 546 , 592 apportionment, 399 – 403 arbitration, 598 – 599 Atlantic Empress , 542 Blackwall criteria, 596 , 598 Bosworth , 538 – 540 bunker spills, 256 , 550 cargo interests, 538 , 581 channelling provisions, 593 – 594 charges, 754 Christos Bitas , 541 – 542 Civil Liability Convention 1969, 106 , 396 – 397 , 402 , 588 – 589 , 592 – 594 Civil Liability Convention 1992, 396 – 397 , 402 , 588 – 589 , 592 – 594 clean-up, 382 , 392 – 404 clean-up costs, 374 – 375 coastal states, 543 compensation, 603 – 604 contracts, 598 – 599 , 895 – 896 costs, 590 damages, 592 development of modern law and practice, 542 – 549 dual purpose test, 397 , 399 , 400 – 402 economic loss, 603 – 604 emergencies, 891 enhanced awards, 537 – 540 , 754 – 755 environmental damage, 394 , 536 – 549 , 587 – 590 , 597 , 603 – 604 equipment, 603 – 604 exclusions, 593 – 594 expenses, 396 , 590 , 754 – 755 Exxon Valdez , 393 fire, 603 – 604 Fund Conventions, 396 – 397 , 399 , 400 , 588 Funding Agreement 1980, 546 , 736 Funding Agreement 1990, 548 general average, 395 , 754 , 755 , 756 – 757 , 763 , 767 government bodies, 590 guarantors, 588 hazardous and noxious substances, 604 Hazardous and Noxious Substances Convention, 587 – 589 , 592 – 594 incentives, 535 , 537 , 543 – 544 , 597 indemnities, 754 industry trends, 535 , 603 – 604 Institute Clauses, 754 insurance, 540 , 588 – 589 insurance of salvors’ liability, 604 – 606 P&I Clubs, 604 – 605 special cover of liability risks, 605 – 606 absent tug cover, 605 liability for oil pollution, 606 other liability risks, 606 conditions of cover, 606 professional salvor’s cover, 605 International Group of P&I Clubs, 396 intervention, 903 IOPC Funds, 397 , 401 , 402 – 404 , 588 – 589 jettison, 604 legal framework, 536 – 537 liability, 536 , 590 – 594 Lloyd’s Open Form, 374 , 393 , 395 – 396 , 536 – 538 , 591 , 598 negotiations, 543 – 544 P&I Clubs, 735 – 736 revision, 536 , 543 – 549 terms, 544 – 545 loss of life, 537 manning, 651 marine environment, 374 marine property insurance, 740 – 741 masters, 895 – 896 Mimosa , 597 – 598 minimising damage, 535 – 549 , 587 – 590 motives, 394 Nagasaki Spirit , 556 – 557 , 559 – 565 , 566 , 590 National Contingency Plan, 602 , 942 – 943 National Resource Council assessment, 603 – 604 negligence, 591 – 592 no cure, no pay, 393 – 394 , 398 , 536 – 537 , 542 , 543 , 589 – 599 objects, 393 – 394 Oil Pollution Act 1990 (United States), 599 – 600 operations involving different measures with distinct purposes, 399 – 400 P&I Clubs, 393 , 395 – 396 , 397 , 402 , 540 , 588 , 735 – 736 pleasure craft, 599 – 600 policy, 604 pollution cases, 537 – 542 property also saved, 537 – 540 , 543 unsuccessful attempts to save property, 540 – 542 pollution damage, 590 – 594 ports, access to. See Places of refuge precautions, 767 prevention, 393 , 396 – 400 , 535 – 549 , 587 – 590 , 596 – 599 primary purpose test, 396 , 397 – 402 purpose of operations, 589 public authorities, 393 purpose of measures, 393 – 397 remuneration, 394 , 535 – 549 apportionment, 538 – 539 enhanced awards, 537 – 540 outside the law of salvage, 587 – 590 response, 393 – 394 , 599 – 600 , 895 – 896 Salvage Convention 1989, 755 salved values, 543 , 604 SCOPIC. See SCOPIC sheltered waters, 541 shipowners, 591 – 592 strict liability, 590 – 591 subrogation, 590 sue and labour, 754 terms on which the assistance is rendered, 896 third parties, 538 – 539 , 591 – 594 threat removal, 393 Tojo Maru , 591 – 592 Torrey Canyon , 541 , 542 traditional principles, 536 – 542 tugs, 891 Unified Command System, 600 United States, 596 – 604 US Open Form, 599 Velox , 539 – 540 York-Antwerp Rules, 395 Salvage Convention 1989, 536 , 546 – 547 , 549 – 568 agreements, 403 – 404 arbitration, 404 Article 13 awards, 549 , 555 – 556 Article 14, 549 , 555 background, 546 – 547 bunker spills, 256 , 550 Comité Maritime International, 546 – 547 contingency plans, 909 definitions, 550 – 553 economic loss, 550 entry into force, 547 environmental damage, 402 , 549 – 553 duties in relation to, 553 – 556 location of, 552 – 553 nature of, 550 – 551 scale of, 551 – 552 salvor’s duties, 553 – 554 shipowners, 554 – 555 expenses, 403 – 404 , 547 Fund Conventions, 402 – 404 Funding Agreements, 404 , 546 , 548 general average, 756 – 758 , 760 , 762 incentives, 549 International Group of P&I Clubs, 403 Lloyd’s Open Form, 393 , 396 – 397 , 402 – 404 , 537 , 545 , 546 – 549 , 554 marine property insurance, 754 negligence, 553 P&I Clubs, 403 , 554 – 555 , 733 physical damage, 550 – 551 ports, access to, 554 , 909 preamble, 549 preventive measures, 404 , 553 , 555 – 556 remuneration, 402 – 403 , 547 , 549 , 555 – 556 safe havens, 909 safety-net approach, 547 security, 567 shipowners, 554 special compensation, 257 , 396 , 402 – 404 , 547 , 556 – 568 , 592 standard forms, 402 – 404 United States, 598 – 599 “vessel”, 550 wreck removal, 551 Sandrien , 1031 – 1032 green list substance, not exportable as, 1025 , 1034 recycling facilities shortage of in OECD countries, 1042 Santa Anna “incident”, CLC 92 , 94 pre-spill costs, 94 “ship”, CLC 92 , 89 – 90 vessel capable of carrying persistent oil and other cargoes, 89 – 90 Santa Barbara spill, 19 – 20 Santa Clara , 332 – 333 SARA (United States) CERCLA (United States), 303 – 304 , 314 – 315 , 327 – 328 , 331 , 431 criminal offences, 1137 natural resources, 502 response measures in the United States, 931 Sarpedon, Cargo ex , 538 , 539 Scientific issues. See Technical issues SCOPIC, 404 , 536 , 568 – 587 , 736 , 758 background, 568 – 569 Code of Practice, 573 – 574 , 585 – 586 development, 569 – 570 general average, 587 insurance of liability under, 736 terms, 570 – 587 Article 13 award, 578 – 579 discount of award, 578 – 579 liability to pay remuneration, 578 assessment of remuneration, 582 incorporation, 571 invoking SCOPIC, 571 – 572 legal framework, 570 – 571 payment of remuneration, 582 – 583 pollution prevention, 577 – 578 remuneration and tariff rates, 574 – 577 bonus, 577 downtime, 576 out-of-pocket expenses, 576 – 577 portable salvage equipment, 575 – 576 salvor’s personnel, 574 – 575 tugs and other craft, 575 representatives, 579 – 580 Special Casualty Representative (SCR), 580 – 581 Special Representatives, 581 – 582 security, 572 – 573 termination, 583 – 587 contractor, by, 584 – 585 demobilization of equipment, 586 – 587 shipowner, by, 585 – 586 withdrawal, 572 – 573 Scrapping of ships, 1026 , 1029 – 1049 . See also Dismantling of vessels Scuttling, 541 , 742 – 743 , 989 SDRs conversion into national currency, 121 IOPC Funds, 153 , 155 limitation funds, 121 – 122 Limitation of Liability Convention 1976, 114 Sea Beirut , 103 Sea Empress , 73 car accident, 390 – 391 damage to property, 409 dispersants, beneficial use of, 377 – 378 economic loss. See under Economic loss false invoices, 475 fishing and related industries, 451 – 456 interest, payment of by IOPC Fund, 152 invoices, 475 limitation tonnage, calculation of under CLC 69 , 115 – 116 preventive measures, claims for damage caused by, 390 – 391 real estate, loss of market value, 409 salvage and related operations, 403 tourism, 460 , 461 , 462 , 465 , 466 , 468 trees and shrubs, damage to, 409 unlicensed activities, 474 windblown oil spray, 409 Sea Parana. See Estrella Pampeana Sea Prince , 403 , 475 Seafarers, fair treatment of. See Criminal liability Seaworthiness alter egos , 741 Exxon Valdez , 51 P&I Clubs, 740 – 742 time policies, 741 voyage policies, 741 – 742 warranties, 741 – 742 Security. See also Arrest of ships, Guarantors costs, 919 enforcement of judgments, 131 Hazardous and Noxious Substances Convention 1996, 288 – 289 insurance, 705 IOPC Funds, 145 , 147 lender liability, 713 mortgages, 705 , 706 – 707 P&I Clubs, 706 ship finance, 705 – 710 special compensation, 567 typical forms, 705 Salvage Convention 1989, 554 Segregated ballast tanks, 823 , 824 , 829 Sekco Energy , 433 Seki , 136 Selendang Ayu bunker pollution, notable incident, 255 bulk carrier misdescribed as “tanker”, 907 incident, 67 media reports, 907 Self-incrimination, 1147 Self-insurance CERCLA (United States), 336 financial responsibility, 59 – 60 , 219 , 222 P&I Clubs, 59 – 60 Set-off, 33 Settlements CERCLA (United States), 314 – 315 claims, 365 general average, 762 Hazardous and Noxious Substances Convention 1996, 289 interest, 154 IOPC Funds, 140 – 141 , 150 , 154 , 157 – 165 , 167 – 168 , 367 limitation funds, 120 , 123 national laws, 124 third parties, 167 – 168 Sewage, 838 – 839 Shareholder liability, 660 , 663 – 664 Ship finance, 705 – 726 guarantees, 707 insurance, 707 – 710 lender liability, 710 – 726 loans, 705 – 710 loss or impairment of security for loan, 705 – 710 mortgages, 705 , 707 P&I Club, 706 security, 705 – 710 Ship management, 651 – 665 acts and omissions, 653 – 654 actual fault or privity, 792 – 793 Amoco Cadiz , 653 – 654 CERCLA (United States), 656 channelling provisions, 652 , 653 , 654 Civil Liability Conventions, 651 – 655 common law, 656 – 657 contracts, 656 environment protection, 651 exclusions, 654 – 655 Fund Conventions, 651 – 655 Hazardous and Noxious Substances, 651 – 654 joint and several liability, 651 – 652 liability, 651 – 655 limitation of liability, 652 , 792 – 793 negligence, 651 Oil Pollution Act 1990 (United States), 656 – 657 one-ship companies, 652 – 653 state law, 656 United States, 656 – 657 Shipboard oil pollution emergency plans (SOPEP), 896 , 922 – 923 , 960 – 961 Shipboard marine pollution emergency plan (SMPEP), 837 , 896 – 898 Shipment of waste, 1015 – 1029 . See also Basel Convention on Transboundary Movements of Waste effects of controls, 1015 – 1016 European Waste Shipment Regulation, 1024 – 1026 export controls, 1023 – 1026 historically significant incidents, 1016 – 1017 import controls, 1022 international laws, 1017 – 1026 Karin B , 1017 Khian Sea , 1016 – 1017 legal framework, 1016 – 1027 background, 1016 national laws, 1026 – 1027 OECD Decision, 1016 – 1029 passim Probo Koala , 1028 – 1029 radioactive wastes, 1027 – 1028 regional laws, 1022 wastes from ship operations, 1028 – 1029 Shipowners alter ego , 791 – 792 CERCLA (United States), 319 – 323 , 338 – 352 charterers, 639 Civil Liability Convention 1969, 16 – 17 , 85 – 86 clean-up, 379 clean-up costs, 372 – 372 , 375 , 382 – 383 collision, 780 definition, 85 – 86 , 275 delay, 469 – 470 environmental damage, 554 – 556 expenses, 373 , 375 financial responsibility, 221 – 222 Fund Convention 1971, 18 hazardous waste, 338 – 352 indemnification, 18 , 151 IOPC Funds, 146 – 147 liability, 85 , 146 – 147 financially incapable of meeting obligations, 147 limitation of liability, 13 Limitation of Liability Convention 1957, 16 – 17 Oil Pollution Act 1990 (United States), 192 registration of ships, 85 – 86 rollback relief, 26 salvage, 591 – 592 Salvage Convention 1989, 554 – 555 Shipowner’s Limitation of Liability Act 1851 (United States), 32 Ships. See also Arrest of ships, Registration of ships, Tankers, Warships abandoned, 905 bulkers, 256 bunker spills, 256 , 257 – 258 cargo residues, 88 CERCLA (United States), 319 , 325 – 327 charterers, 619 – 623 Civil Liability Convention 1969, 86 – 92 , 131 – 132 Civil Liability Convention 1992, 86 – 92 classification societies, 622 – 623 clean-up, 379 Clean Water Act (United States), 186 combination carriers, 89 – 91 construction, 817 , 827 , 829 , 831 , 835 containers, 256 definition, 86 – 92 , 186 , 256 , 257 , 275 – 276 , 319 , 550 , 900 , 922 dry cargo, 255 – 256 ferries, 464 , 469 , 470 floating production, storage, and offloading units, 91 , 243 – 254 floating storage units, 91 , 243 – 254 Fund Convention 1971, 87 – 89 , 96 – 97 Hazardous and Noxious Substances Convention 1996, 275 – 276 , 279 – 280 , 287 incidents involving two or more, 95 , 278 inspection, 619 – 623 insurance, 86 , 131 – 132 international rules to prevent pollution from, 807 – 853 intervention, 900 , 904 IOPC Funds, 145 – 146 , 152 limitation of liability, 115 mobile offshore units, 276 OBOs, 89 – 91 oil barges, 87 – 88 Oil Pollution Act 1990 (United States), 192 OPRC 1990, 922 – 923 pleasure craft, 408 , 598 pollution incident, effect on delay, 469 diversion, 470 ferry operators, 470 river blockage or closure, 427 – 428 , 432 – 433 prevention, 807 – 853 property damage, 407 response measures in the United States, 962 – 963 sister, 657 standards, 622 , 1060 sub-standard, 622 – 623 , 1057 , 1058 , 1061 – 1062 Salvage Convention 1988, 550 slops, 88 small, 26 , 30 , 131 , 174 , 291 state-owned ships, 91 – 92 , 152 , 279 – 280 transporting oil, 87 – 91 two or more, 95 , 278 unidentified, 145 – 146 , 152 , 287 vetting, 619 – 623 yachts, 472 Ships’ Ballast Water and Sediments Control and Management, 850 – 853 Shops, 461 – 464 Shore reception facilities, 822 – 823 Shoreline Mutual Insurance Association, 61 Singapura Timur collision with Rowan , 381 Malacca Strait, collisions in, 788 subsea pumping operations, admissibility of claims, 381 wreck removal, 998 Single ship companies, 63 , 652 Sister ships, 657 Sitka II , 1086 Skinner, Samuel K., 52 , 53 Slops , 247 – 248 Slops Civil Liability Convention 1969, 88 Small ships, 26 , 30 , 131 , 174 , 291 Smogs, 883 Social security economic loss, 474 Hazardous and Noxious Substances Convention 1996, 278 public authorities, 474 Solar 1 , 174 SOLAS (Safety of Life at Sea Convention). See International rules to prevent pollution from ships Solid waste, 344 – 346 , 349 SOPEP, 833 , 896 , 922 , 980 , 981 Sovereign immunity. See State immunity Spain, 796 Special compensation arbitration, 556 , 558 – 559 , 565 – 566 assessment, 559 – 564 best endeavours, 562 – 563 bunker spills, 256 , 558 burden of proof, 565 – 567 cargo, 557 collision, 781 Common Understanding, 1989 Conference, 557 danger, apprehension of, 558 – 559 environmental damage, 557 – 561 , 565 – 567 equipment, 565 expenses, 564 – 567 explosion, 558 fair rate, 564 – 565 , 590 fire, 558 general average, 756 increment, 565 – 567 limitation of liability, 567 – 568 Lloyd’s Open Form, 560 , 562 – 563 , 567 maritime liens, 567 Nagasaki Spirit , 556 , 559 – 565 , 566 P&I Clubs, 559 , 566 – 567 personnel, 565 prevention of pollution, 560 , 565 – 567 reasonableness, 565 response, 558 – 559 risk, 558 safety-net approach, 567 salvage, 256 , 396 , 402 – 404 operations, 560 – 564 Salvage Convention 1989, 547 , 556 – 587 , 591 Article 13, 556 – 557 , 564 – 565 , 567 Article 14, 556 – 557 , 559 , 561 salved value, 557 security, 567 threat removal, 557 – 559 after service has begun, 563 immediate, 563 – 564 threat ceasing to exist before services begun, 563 towage, 564 Troilus , 564 Special Drawing Rights. See SDRs Special interest groups, 374 – 375 Spilling and non-spilling ships. See Colliding ships Spills of national significance, 947 , 968 – 969 Standards CERCLA (United States), 338 – 352 certification, 1053 charterers, 767 classification societies, 63 , 1053 – 1054 detention, 1057 double hulls, 866 – 867 emissions, 883 – 887 enforcement, 1051 – 1071 exclusive economic zones, 1063 – 1064 flag state obligations, 1052 – 1055 hazardous or noxious substances, 880 , 883 inspections, 1053 – 1054 International Maritime Organization, 1052 – 1054 judicial review, 528 – 529 law-making, 812 – 813 , 814 manning, 864 – 866 MARPOL, 1053 natural resources, 522 – 523 , 528 – 532 Oil Pollution Act 1990 (United States), 864 – 866 port states, 1055 – 1062 prevention, 1055 – 1062 prosecution, 1052 regional agreements for co-operation, 1060 – 1062 restoration, 521 – 524 safeguards, 1057 , 1065 security, 1057 ships, 620 surveys, 1053 Tank Vessel Act 1936 (United States), 858 – 862 territorial sea, 1063 – 1065 used oil, 348 – 349 violations, 1063 – 1064 Standards for pollution prevention. See Rules to prevent pollution Stanislaw Dubois , 1012 State immunity charterers, 612 – 614 Civil Liability Convention 1969, 103 , 105 conflicts of law, 178 Oil Pollution Act 1990 (United States), 206 warships, 105 State intervention. See Intervention State law (United States). See also individual states (e.g. Florida), Pre-emption provisions autonomy, need for, 19 cargo owners, 613 – 614 , 617 CERCLA (United States), 336 coastal states, 4 damages, 495 – 496 economic loss, 434 – 437 emergence of, 21 – 23 federal law, overlapping with, 46 financial responsibility, 46 , 225 forum non conveniens , 436 hazardous waste, 348 – 349 legislation, 21 lender liability, 725 – 726 liability funds, 48 limits, 25 natural resources, 495 – 496 Oil Pollution Act 1990 (United States), 52 – 55 , 228 – 233 , 234 pre-emption provisions, 22 , 25 , 47 , 48 , 53 , 55 ship management, 656 summary of oil pollution laws, 1163 – 1181 State-owned ships Civil Liability Convention 1969, 88 Hazardous and Noxious Substances Convention 1996, 279 – 280 IOPC Funds, 152 Status of conventions, 1155 – 1159 Stolt Sheaf , 384 – 385 , 387 STOPIA, 172 – 174 background, 77 , 172 1992 Fund, indemnification of, 117 , 118 , insurance of liability under, 735 MoU between International Group of P&I Clubs and IOPC Fund, 158 Stowage charterers, 627 due diligence, 634 hazardous and noxious substances, 299 , 633 – 636 IMDG Code, 634 , 882 labelling, 634 liability, 633 – 634 Oil Pollution Act 1990 (United States), 635 strict liability, 633 Texas City Disaster , 633 United States, 299 , 635 US hazardous and noxious substances, 299 Strict liability abnormally dangerous activities, 240 acts or omissions, 104 – 105 bareboat charters, 610 bunker spills, 258 CERCLA (United States), 309 – 310 , 321 charterers, 613 , 626 Civil Liability Convention 1969, 15 , 81 , 85 , 98 – 105 Clean Water Act (United States), 34 , 36 , 38 , 189 collision, 779 criminal offences, 1129 , 1130 , 1131 Deepwater Port Act (United States), 46 economic loss, 116 exceptions, 98 – 105 Florida, 21 – 23 government authorities, remedies available against, 102 – 103 hazardous and noxious substances, 295 , 297 – 300 Hazardous and Noxious Substances Convention 1996, 272 , 281 limitation of liability, 13 , 113 malicious act, 100 – 101 natural phenomenon, 99 – 100 natural resources, 493 navigational aids, 101 – 105 Oil Pollution Act 1990 (United States), 53 , 197 Refuse Act (United States), 183 salvage, 591 stowage, 633 Trans-Alaska Pipeline Authorization Act, 42 – 43 United States, 20 US hazardous and noxious substances, 295 , 297 – 302 war risks, 99 Subcontractors. See Contractors Submerged Lands Act (United States), 40 Subrogation charterers, 627 , 629 , 641 , 642 Deepwater Port Act (United States), 46 insurance, 120 , 124 , 709 IOPC Funds, 157 – 158 , 165 – 168 limitation funds, 121 , 122 limitation of actions, 233 Oil Pollution Act 1990 (United States), 233 salvage, 590 Successor corporations, 664 – 665 Sue and labour, 708 , 733 , 738 – 740 , 754 Suez crisis, 12 Sulphur, 842 Sunset Ltd , 874 Superfund. See also SARA CERCLA (United States), 303 , 308 , 319 , 329 , 337 , 350 criminal offences, 1137 hazardous waste, 350 mini-Superfund, 335 National Contingency Plan, 951 , 958 Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act, (United States) See SARA Supplementary Fund, 4 , 77 , 137 – 141 , 168 – 175 background, 77 , 168 – 169 claims manual, not needed, 170 compensation, 169 constitution and membership, 169 Executive Committee, not needed, 170 funding, 171 indemnification under TOPIA, 170 legal proceedings, 171 subrogation, 171 Sureties, 219 , 223 Sweden Civil Liability Convention 1969, 101 – 102 interest, 151 Tsesis , 101 – 102 Tamano , 426 – 427 Tanio , 28 – 29 , 154 , 390 , 438 , 460 , 461 , 463 , 466 Tank Vessel Act 1936 (United States), 856 , 858 – 862 amended, 858 crew, 862 environment damage, 858 Exxon Valdez , 859 hazardous and noxious substances, 860 inspection, 861 lightering operations, 860 marine environment, 860 MARPOL, 858 Oil Pollution Act 1990 (United States), 860 penalties, 861 Ports and Waterways Safety Act (United States), 858 standards, 858 , 861 – 862 US Coast Guard, 860 – 862 Tank washing. See Washing Tanker Owners Voluntary Agreement concerning Liability for Oil Pollution. See TOVALOP Tankers. See also INTERTANKO autopilots, 873 – 874 bunker spills, 4 , 257 Civil Liability Convention 1969, 86 , 94 deck officers, 873 double hull, 866 – 871 vessels without, 871 – 872 environmental damage, 871 escort vessels, 876 – 877 helmsmen, 873 innocent passage, 874 laden, 257 manning, 873 MARPOL 73/78, 871 navigation, 873 – 874 Oil Pollution Act 1990 (United States), 866 – 873 procedures, 871 response measures in the United States, 962 – 963 , 976 – 977 single hull, 872 , 876 small, 26 , 30 structural measures, 871 – 872 supertankers, 9 – 12 , 891 US Coast Guard, 871 – 877 US navigable water, 873 – 874 vessel communications equipment, 877 Tarpenbek , 94 , 399 , 405 Tasman Spirit detention of “Karachi Eight”, 1108 – 1109 fair treatment of seafarers, 1108 – 1109 SCOPIC out-of-pocket expenses, 576 – 577 termination, 587 detention of contractor’s equipment, 587 demobilization constrained by authorities, 587 vessel chartered by salvor frustration of contract, 587 Tax revenue, loss of, 200 , 466 – 467 Technical issues bunker spills, 255 – 256 , 360 clean-up offshore clean-up operations, 376 – 378 dispersants, use of, 377 – 378 , 958 – 959 , 973 recovery of oil at sea, 361 – 378 onshore clean-up operations, 378 – 379 public expectations and perceptions, 362 – 363 , 376 reasonableness of measures, 375 – 383 technical problems associated with, 362 – 363 climate, 360 – 361 contamination, 363 crude oil, meaning, 360 “damage”, meaning of in context of marine environment, 361 – 362 dispersal, natural. See dissipation dispersants, use of, 377 – 378 , 958 – 959 , 973 dissipation, natural, 295 , 360 economic loss, 363 environmental damage assessment of, 478 . See also under Natural resources nature of, 361 – 362 technical issues, 359 , 478 valuation of, 478 – 479 natural fluctuations, 361 – 362 natural resources, 359 , 504 – 505 offshore clean-up operations, 376 – 378 dispersants, use of, 377 – 378 , 958 – 959 , 973 recovery of oil at sea, 360 – 378 oil spills, short- and long-term effects, 359 – 362 onshore clean-up operations, 378 – 379 OPRC 1990, 927 persistent oil, 96 , 360 preventive measures, technical problems associated with, 359 , 362 , 376 public expectations and perceptions, 362 , 363 , 376 recovery, natural, 361 – 362 refined oils, meaning, 360 restoration costs, 478 – 479 , 487 practicality of, 362 types of oil, 95 – 97 , 360 Telecommunications, 893 Terminal operators, 617 – 619 , 885 Territorial sea Civil Liability Convention 1969, 5 , 83 criminal offences, 1128 , 1138 definition, 196 Fund Convention 1971, 5 Hazardous and Noxious Substances Convention 1996, 274 , 280 intervention, 899 – 904 Oil Pollution Act 1990 (United States), 196 response measures, 908 standards, 812 – 816 United States, 180 – 182 Terrorism Civil Liability Conventions, 100 hazardous substances, 295 Limburg , 100 , 669 Maritime Transportation Security Act 2002 (US), 70 P&I cover, 747 – 748 , 750 response measures in US, 987 – 988 Terrorism Risk Insurance Act 2002 (US), 70 World Trade Center attacks, 69 – 71 Terrorism Risk Insurance Act 2002 (US) P&I Clubs’ reaction, 70 Testbank , 427 , 435 Texas City Disaster , 269 – 270 , 301 , 633 Third parties CERCLA (United States), 311 – 312 , 319 charterers, 627 , 641 Clean Water Act (United States), 34 , 35 – 37 , 177 , 190 – 191 insurance, 127 collision, 781 compensation, 641 hazardous and noxious substances, 300 – 302 insurance, 751 , 781 IOPC Funds, 151 , 166 – 168 negligence, 190 – 191 Oil Pollution Act 1990 (United States), 53 , 204 – 206 , 210 , 211 P&I Clubs, 749 salvage, 539 , 591 – 594 United States, 20 , 300 – 302 US hazardous and noxious substances, 300 – 302 Threat removal. See also Prevention bunker spills, 257 CERCLA (United States), 308 clean-up, 392 Clean Water Act (United States), 191 costs, 798 environmental damage, 557 – 559 Hazardous and Noxious Substances Convention 1996, 278 National Contingency Plan, 956 – 957 Oil Pollution Act 1990 (United States), 196 special compensation, 557 – 559 , 563 – 564 Time limits CERCLA (United States), 337 Civil Liability Conventions, 128 clean-up costs, 233 Clean Water Act (United States), 38 contribution, 233 damages, 233 Fund Conventions, 156 – 157 Hazardous and Noxious Substances Convention 1996, 278 IOPC Funds, 156 – 157 limitation funds, 122 natural resources, 216 , 510 – 511 notice, 156 – 157 occurrences, 128 Oil Pollution Act 1990 (United States), 233 Oil Spill Liability Trust Fund, 233 subrogation, 233 Titanic , 817 Tojo Maru , 591 , 592 , 789 Tong Cheng , 920 Tonnage calculation, 115 , 118 , 284 , 790 , 800 Civil Liability Convention 1969, 14 , 81 CRISTAL, 31 financial responsibility, 221 guarantors, 221 Hazardous and Noxious Substances Convention 1996, 284 International Convention on Tonnage Measurement 1969, 114 – 116 , 118 , 284 International Tonnage certificates, 221 IOPC Funds, 153 limitation of liability, 114 – 116 , 118 – 119 Limitation of Liability Convention 1957, 16 measurement, 114 – 116 , 118 – 119 , 284 TOVALOP, 27 , 32 TOPIA, 174 – 175 background, 77 , 172 MoU between International Group of P&I Clubs and IOPC Fund, 158 insurance of liability under, 735 Supplementary Fund, indemnification of, 170 Torrey Canyon , 10 – 12 aerial bombardment, 10 , 541 , 899 , 905 costs of clean-up, uncertain rights, 371 impact on more than one state, 129 international response hazardous and noxious substances, 269 – 270 industry schemes, 13 – 14 , 17 oil pollution compensation conventions, 12 – 19 state intervention, 891 , 899 , 900 , 904 legal problems highlighted by, 11 – 12 limitation proceedings, 11 marine environment, damage to, 477 natural resources, 477 Pollution Hazard Clause, 777 – 778 public authorities, uncertain rights, 371 salvage operations, 10 , 393 , 542 state intervention, 891 , 899 , 900 , 904 states affected, 129 technical expertise in oil spill response, growth since, 375 TOVALOP, led to, 13 United States, response, 929 Tort Admiralty jurisdiction, 180 IOPC funds, 171 United States, 180 , 240 Total loss actual, 775 bunker spills, 774 cargo insurance, 778 constructive, 775 , 777 , 778 costs, 775 – 776 expenses, 775 , 776 general average, 775 government bodies, 778 marine property insurance, 774 – 778 partial, 775 pollution hazard clause, 777 – 778 particular average, 774 – 778 preventive measures, 774 proximate cause, 776 scrap value, 778 repair, 774 – 776 Tourism Aegean Sea , 464 beach facilities, operator of, 463 Braer , 464 , 469 camp sites, 461 causation, 460 economic loss, 415 , 440 , 460 – 469 establishments at uncontaminated locations in polluted area, 461 establishments outside polluted areas, 461 – 462 facilities on polluted beaches, 463 ferry operators, 464 , 470 Fund Convention 1971, 460 – 466 goods and services, supplies of, 463 , 465 – 466 Haven , 460 – 463 , 466 , 467 , 468 , 472 , 484 hotels, 461 – 463 IOPC Funds, 460 , 467 loss of profits, 460 marketing, 440 , 467 – 469 medical practice, 464 polluted area, establishments outside, 461 – 463 postcard manufacturer, 466 promotion campaigns, 440 , 467 – 469 proximity, 462 , 464 public authorities, 466 , 468 publicity, 462 reduction, 464 – 467 restaurants, 461 – 462 retailers, 462 – 463 Sea Empress , 451 , 453 , 454 , 456 , 460 , 462 , 465 , 466 , 475 shops, 461 – 463 Tanio , 461 , 463 tax revenue, 466 – 467 “touristic image”, loss of, 467 travel agents, 463 uncontaminated locations, 461 TOVALOP, 13 – 14 charterers, 643 charterparty clause, 643 – 646 Civil Liability Convention 1969, 15 , 26 , 30 clean-up costs, 405 – 406 CRISTAL, 31 differences between, 17 entry into force, 14 extension, 26 , 73 Fund Convention 1971, 30 – 32 indendent tanker owners, 14 International Tanker Indemnity Association (ITIA), 14 IOPC Funds, 151 ITOPF, 13 limitation of liability, 26 membership, 19 negotiations, 27 P&I Clubs, 14 prevention, 14 revision, 30 – 32 ship specific, 15 tankers small, 26 termination, 73 – 74 terms, 13 – 14 “threat removal measures”, 14 tonnage, 26 , 31 TOVALOP Standing Agreement, 27 , 31 TOVALOP Supplement charters, recourse against, 628 Towing vessels, 874 – 875 Toyotaka Maru , 470 Trans Arctic , 1058 – 1059 Trans-Alaska Pipeline Authorization Act (United States), 32 , 42 – 44 damages, 44 defences, 44 financial responsibility, 44 , 218 – 225 joint and several liability, 42 liability, 44 limitation of liability, 4 natural resources, 497 oil and gas industry, 42 Oil Pollution Act 1990 (United States), 196 , 218 strict liability, 42 – 44 TAPAA fund, 42 – 44 Transboundary movements of hazardous wastes and their disposal, 1017 – 1029 . See Basel Convention, Radioactive waste shipment, Shipment of waste Transshipment clean-up, 392 exclusive economic zones, 876 lightering, 876 Transport CERCLA (United States), 351 fisheries, 456 – 457 hazardous or noxious materials, 879 – 881 hazardous waste, 351 Traquair , 1082 – 1083 Travel agents, 463 Trespass to land damages, 240 natural resources, 492 United States, 240 Troilus , 564 Tsesis , 101 – 102 Tugs, 891 Uberrimae fidei , 744 UNCLOS, 1065 , 1128 Unified Command System, 948 , 983 , 984 – 985 United Kingdom Braer. See Braer clean-up costs, 9 economic loss, 444 – 445 Eleni V dispersants use of, 377 – 378 stale intervention, 822 – 823 , 905 Inverpool , 9 limitation of liability, 9 public authorities, 9 Sea Empress. See also Sea Empress dispersants, beneficial use of, 377 – 378 Torrey Canyon , 10 – 12 , 129 , 371 , 891 , 899 United States, 177 – 241 . See also CERCLA Clean Water Act, Deepwater Port Act, Environmental Protection Agency, Exxon Valdez , National Contingency Plan, Oil Pollution Act 1990, Outer Continental Shelf Lands Act Amendments, State Law, Trans-Alaska Pipeline Authorization Act, US Coast Guard abatement, 8 abnormally dangerous activities, 240 – 241 Admiralty Extension Act (United States), 179 – 180 Admiralty jurisdiction, 177 – 180 alter egos , 658 – 665 American Trader , 43 – 44 , 52 , 611 Amoco Cadiz , 27 – 28 , 108 , 383 – 386 , 662 – 663 Argo Merchant , 47 bunker spills, 266 causation, 237 causes of action, 234 – 241 charterers, 609 – 626 , 628 – 629 Civil Liability Conventions, 19 , 21 , 30 , 47 , 107 – 113 claims, 355 Clean Air Act (United States), 883 – 889 clean-up, 372 clean-up costs, 8 , 20 , 22 , 24 , 358 – 359 costs, 8 Ixfoc , 47 coastal states, 19 , 21 common law, 234 – 241 conflict of laws, 178 contiguous zones, 181 contingency plans, 238 contribution, 20 , 236 courts, 178 criminal offences, 8 , 1127 – 1154 customary law, 181 damages, 20 , 236 , 239 , 359 limitation of liability, 25 punitive, 235 definition, 197 design of vessels, 25 due diligence, 238 economic loss, 237 , 241 , 417 , 419 – 429 , 430 – 437 enforcement, 8 environmental damage, 596 – 604 exclusive economic zones, 181 extraterritoriality, 4 – 5 federal law, 4 , 20 – 23 , 46 , 180 – 182 maritime law, 233 – 234 statutory scheme, 182 – 234 Fifth Amendment, 1147 – 1148 fines, 9 Florida, 21 – 23 foreseeability, 236 – 237 Fund Convention, 47 hazardous and noxious substances, 21 , 47 , 239 – 241 , 635 , 855 , 879 – 883 historical developments legislative developments, 46 position prior to 1967, 7 – 9 position between 1967–1977, 19 – 25 position between 1977–1990, 32 – 64 in rem claims, 178 indemnities, 236 insurance, 30 , 751 International Chamber of Commerce, Bridge Procedure Guide , 238 International Convention Relating to the Intervention on the High Seas in Cases of Oil Pollution Casualties, 19 intervening events, 237 IOPC Funds, 137 Ixtoc 1 , 47 jurisdiction, 178 – 180 expansion of, 180 – 182 knowledge, 238 legal framework, 4 – 5 legislation, 8 , 19 – 25 , 32 – 64 lender liability, 710 – 726 liability grounds for, 238 – 239 importance of regime, 4 – 5 liens, 178 limitation of liability, 5 , 8 , 20 , 23 – 25 , 48 Amoco Cadiz , 27 – 28 damages, 24 – 25 privity and knowledge, 21 , 23 – 25 Shipowner’s Limitation of Liability Act 1851, 32 Lloyd’s Open Form, 598 Magnuson Act (United States), 855 Mega Borg , 52 , 951 National Contingency Plan, 20 natural resources, 478 , 479 , 491 – 532 navigable waters, 178 – 179 , 234 negligence, 235 , 236 – 239 New York and Other Harbors Deposit of Refuse Prohibition Act, 182 non-persistent oil, 6 nuisance, 235 , 239 Oil Pollution Act 1990. See Oil Pollution Act 1990 (United States) OILPOL, 47 , 823 P&I Clubs, 732 – 734 , 739 penalties, 8 Ports and Waterways Safety Act 1972 (United States), 25 , 855 – 858 pre-emption provisions, 21 – 23 , 25 , 47 Presidente Rivera , 52 prevention of pollution from ships, 855 – 889 property damage, 240 proportionality, 236 proximate cause, 236 – 238 publicity, 52 Refuse Act (United States), 183 – 184 res ipsa loquitur , 238 – 239 Rivers and Harbors Act 1899 (United States), 182 – 184 salvage, 596 – 604 Salvage Convention 1989, 597 – 599 , 603 Santa Barbara spill, 19 ship management, 656 Shipowner’s Limitation of Liability Act 1851, 32 ships, prevention of pollution from, 855 – 889 stowage, 635 strict liability, 20 , 240 – 241 Florida, in, 21 – 23 Submerged Lands Act (United States), 40 Tank Vessel Act (United States), 855 – 862 territorial sea, 180 – 182 Torrey Canyon , 11 , 19 – 20 tort, 180 , 241 trespass, 240 uniform system, 46 – 48 US Open Form, 599 war risks, 203 , 311 , 747 – 748 Washington, 25 water pollution, 8 quality, 8 , 20 – 23 World Prodigy , 52 wrecks, 184 Units of account. See also Gold francs, SDRs Unpaid calls, 749 Unseaworthiness. See Seaworthiness US Coast Guard CERCLA (United States), 314 , 322 , 329 – 332 Clean Water Act (United States), 187 – 189 , 191 criminal offences, 1144 – 1154 Deepwater Port Act (United States), 46 double hulls, 866 – 869 escort vessels, 876 financial responsibility, 222 – 225 hazardous and noxious substances, 295 investigations, 1144 – 1145 lightering, 875 manning, 864 – 865 MARPOL, 862 – 864 National Contingency Plan, 934 , 940 – 941 , 944 , 947 Oil Pollution Act 1990 (United States), 56 , 57 – 64 P&I Clubs, 60 Ports and Waterways Safety Act (United States), 856 – 858 response measures in the United States, 960 – 967 , 969 – 970 , 973 – 988 , 983 – 988 Tank Vessel Act 1936 (United States), 860 – 862 tankers, 871 – 872 US hazardous and noxious substances, 295 – 352 agents, 297 Carriage of Goods by Sea Act (United States), 296 , 300 CERCLA (United States), 295 , 301 – 352 claims under general maritime law, 295 – 302 clean-up costs, 295 Clean Water Act (United States), 295 , 301 , 302 – 303 criminal offences, 1135 , 1137 damages, 295 , 301 Environmental Protection Agency, 295 foreseeability, 300 Grandcamp , 300 – 301 labelling, 299 , 301 National Contingency Plan, 935 , 939 – 940 , 943 – 944 , 953 – 956 , 958 negligence, 295 – 301 proximate cause, 298 stowage, 298 strict liability, 295 , 297 – 301 third parties, 300 – 302 towing vessels, 874 US Coast Guard, 295 warnings, 296 , 300 – 301 warranties, 299 implied, 296 Use of force state intervention, 904 Used oil, 346 – 351 generators, 347 – 348 regulations, 346 – 347 state authorisation, 348 – 349 transporters, 348 – 349 Utmost good faith, 744 Velox , 539 Vessels. See Design of vessels, Ships, Tankers Vessels communications equipment, 877 Vessel Movement Reporting System, 880 Vessel Response Plans, 896 – 899 , 959 – 983 . See also Contingency plans, Response measures Vessel traffic services, 880 Victoriya internal waters, application of CLC, 83 – 84 seagoing vessel, 87 “ship”, CLC, 87 Vienna Convention on the Law of Treaties, 368 Virginia, 60 Vistabella , 87 – 88 Volatile organic compounds, 840 , 843 , 884 Volgoneft-248 , 1094 War. See also Acts of war, War risks, Warships Oil Pollution Act 1990 (United States), 203 P&I Cover, 747 – 748 risks, 747 – 748 War risks Civil Liability Conventions, 99 IOPC Funds, 152 proximate cause, 99 Warnings terminal operators, 617 US hazardous and noxious substances, 296 – 297 , 300 Warranties charterers, 630 – 633 implied, 296 P&I Clubs, 748 safe berths, 630 , 632 safe ports, 630 – 633 seaworthiness, 741 – 742 US hazardous and noxious substances, 296 , 298 – 300 Warships Civil Liability Conventions, 105 state immunity, 105 Washing crude oil, 867 double hulls, 868 IOPC Funds, pollution from unidentified ship, 145 – 146 OILPOL, 822 – 823 Washington, 25 Waste. See also Hazardous waste, Shipment of waste CERCLA (United States), 338 – 352 charterer’s liability for disposal, 623 – 625 derived from ship operations, 1028 – 1029 oil, 344 – 346 solid, 344 – 346 , 349 Water pollution. See Clean Water Act (United States) Wetlands, 495 Wharfingers, 617 – 618 Wildlife. See also , Birds, Habitats clean-up, 379 criminal offences, 1139 National Contingency Plan, 946 – 947 , 951 , 958 natural resources, 491 , 495 wetlands, 495 Wilful misconduct Clean Water Act (United States), 189 Deepwater Port Act (United States), 45 Exxon Valdez , 59 insurer’s liability, effect on, 127 IOPC Funds, 148 Wilful misconduct Oil Pollution Act 1990 (United States), 202 , 208 P&I cover, 734 , 737 , 742 – 743 ship management, 654 Willemstad , 429 Windblown oil spray, 409 , 470 , 471 Władysławy Łokietek , 135 Words and phrases Acts of God, 201 – 202 , 310 – 311 actual fault, 104 – 105 carriage by sea, 276 clean-up costs, 46 consumer products, 319 contiguous zones, 1132 damage, 276 – 277 damages, 46 , 788 – 789 deepwater port, 44 – 45 discharge, 195 , 1131 double hulls, 868 economic loss, 458 environment, 305 environmental damage, 550 – 553 , 557 extension of credit, 724 facility, 193 , 320 guarantors, 59 harmful, 185 hazardous substances, 220 , 305 – 306 hazardous and noxious substances, 274 – 275 hazardous waste, 345 – 346 imminent, 325 imminent threat of material damage, 900 incident, 72 , 144 , 277 – 278 , 356 , 358 , 404 injury, 518 innocent passage, 874 lender, 723 – 724 lightering, 875 maintenance of navigational aids, 101 – 104 marine casualty, 1144 maritime casualty, 900 material, 900 natural resources, 333 navigable waters, 178 – 179 , 196 , 1132 navigational aids, maintenance, 101 – 104 negligence, 492 non-persistent oil, 6 oil, 55 , 88 , 95 – 96 , 144 , 185 , 195 , 257 , 259 , 901 operators, 221 , 610 – 611 , 656 owner, 85 – 86 , 144 , 221 – 222 , 275 , 657 persistent oil, 6 , 96 person, 85 , 144 , 186 , 275 , 657 , 711 , 1132 , 1143 petroleum, 195 point source, 1132 pollutant, 1132 pollution damage, 72 , 92 , 106 , 144 , 150 , 158 , 276 – 277 , 356 – 357 , 365 preventive measures, 106 , 276 – 277 , 356 , 358 , 371 privity, 793 public welfare, 325 refuse, 184 related interests, 902 release, 305 response, 315 responsible corporate officer, 1143 responsible party, 193 , 609 , 656 security interest, 724 sheen, 185 , 1135 shipowner, 85 – 86 , 791 – 792 ships, 86 – 92 , 144 , 256 , 257 , 275 – 276 , 900 , 922 solid waste, 344 – 345 substances other than oil, 902 sufficient cause, 327 – 329 territorial sea, 196 trespass, 492 vessel, 186 , 192 , 320 , 550 Workers’ compensation, 278 World Encouragement , 387 World Prodigy , 35 World Trade Center attacks, 69 – 71 Worldscale, 61 WRC. See Nairobi Convention on Wreck Removal 2007 (WRC), Wreck removal Wreck removal, 990 – 1000 dispute settlement, 999 – 1000 legal framework, 990 Nairobi Convention on Wreck Removal 2007 (WRC), 990 – 1000 . See also Nairobi Convention on Wreck Removal 2007 UNCLOS, 990 Wrecks Civil Liability Convention 1969, 128 – 129 fines, 184 navigable waters, 184 United States, 184 Yachts, 472 Yinka Folawuyo , 551 – 552 York-Antwerp Rules, 395 , 755 – 774 Zeinab , 89

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