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INDEX

Laytime and Demurrage

Page 573 INDEX INDEX Acceptance of notice of readiness 3.323 – 3.355 Actions of port and other authorities 2.281 – 2.285 Adverse weather 4.158 – 4.236 atmospheric precipitation, 4.163 bees, and, 4.161 , 4.162 bore tides, 4.209 – 4.213 causation, and, 4.214 Conoco clause, 4.237 – 4.243 evidence 4.243 exceptions, 4.221 – 4.236 frost, 4.173 – 4.180 generally, 4.158 – 4.236 high winds, 4.165 ice, 4.181 – 4.199 interruptions, 4.215 – 4.220 limits, 4.164 – 4.173 particular types 4.174 – 4.213 surf, 4.200 – 4.203 swell, 4.204 – 4.208 “All time saved” despatch, and, 7.4 Alternative action 4.370 – 4.372 Alternative labour 4.386 – 4.388 Alternative methods of discharge 2.263 – 2.65 Alternative methods of loading/discharge and/or change of berth 4.382 – 4.383 Alternative port 4.373 Altus, The 4.89 , 4.37 “Always accessible” always afloat 3.510 Baltic Code 2007, 3.495 for how long berth must be accessible 3.496 – 3.509 generally, 3.470 – 3.510 length of time berth be accessible, 3.496 – 3.509 “Always afloat” generally, 3.510 Anchorage to berth, shifting from custom, 4.475 – 4.474 reachable on arrival, 4.479 – 4.485 time not to count, 4.469 – 4.474 “Any other cause beyond the control of charterers” 4.100 – 4.110 , 4.118 – 4.147 exceptions clauses, and Principle A cases, 4.120 – 4.135 Principle B cases, 4.136 – 4.139 Principle C cases, 4.140 – 4.147 free-standing clause, as, 4.100 – 4.110 generally 4.118 – 4.147 Arrival at specified destination berth charters, 3.35 – 3.42 dock charters, 3.43 – 3.51 generally, 3.2 – 3.34 port charters arrival within the port, 3.55 – 3.69 generally, 3.52 – 3.54 immediate and effective disposition of the charterer, 3.70 – 3.121 Arrival within the port 3.55 – 3.69 “As fast as the vessel could deliver” 2.262 Asbatankvoy and see Exxonvoy “any other cause beyond the control of charterers”, 4.102 general exception clause, 4.111 ice clause, 4.190 notice of readiness, and, 3.312 – 3.322 At the immediate and effective disposition of the charterer 3.70 – 3.121 Atmospheric precipitation 4.165 Availability of holds 2.176 – 2.218 Available meaning, 2.176 Available workable hatches specified number, 2.205 – 2.218 Averaging cases, 5.86 – 5.94 introduction, 5.78 – 5.85 Page 574 Ballasting fault of shipowner, 4.67 – 4.72 interruptions and exceptions to laytime, and, 4.65 – 4.70 Baltic Code 2007 commencement of laytime always accessible, 3.495 reachable on her arrival, 3.495 Baltimore Form C clause notice of readiness, and, 6.128 Saturdays, and, 4.310 – 4.315 Bees adverse weather, and, 4.161 , 4.162 Berth definition 3.35 – 3.37 Berth charters 1.26 , 3.35 – 3.42 original concept 3.38 port charter distinguished 3.40 Berth, extension of meaning to include coming alongside another vessel 3.38 Berthing in order of arrival, 3.35 when complete, 3.35 Bills of lading non-production 4.79 – 4.87 Bills of lading holders inter se, liability of amount each must pay, 6.279 – 6.283 introduction, 6.271 number of calculations, 6.272 – 6.278 Bimchemvoy cancellation of charter, and, 3.360 completion of laytime, and, 5.58 physical readiness to load and discharge, and, 3.148 BIMCO calendar holidays, and, 4.274 Bore tides generally 4.209 – 4.213 Breach of obligation fault of shipowner, and, 4.62 – 4.68 Bunkering fault of shipowner, and, 4.62 – 4.68 Calendar days 2.6 – 2.14 Cargo provision, strikes and, 4.353 – 4.355 Cargo gear breakdown 4.86 Cargo heating 6.139 Cargo operations carried out whilst waiting multiple charters, and, 5.148 – 5.151 Cargo provision strikes, and, 4.353 – 4.355 Carriage of edible vegetable oils commencement of laytime, 5.161 – 5.162 demurrage, 5.163 – 5.173 introduction, 5.157 – 5.159 laytime, 5.163 – 5.173 nomination of loading and discharging berths, 5.160 squeegeeing and sweeping, 5.174 – 5.175 transhipment, 5.176 – 5.180 Causation strikes, and, 4.348 – 4.429 Centrocon strike clause civil commotions, 4.412 – 4.414 contents first part, 4.400 – 4.417 fourth part, 4.428 – 4.429 second part, 4.418 – 4.423 third part, 4.424 – 4.427 despatch, and, 7.30 – 7.33 essential workmen 4.415 – 4.417 generally 4.396 – 4.429 obstructions beyond control of charterers docks, in, 4.404 railways, 4.407 , 4.408 riots, 4.412 – 4.414 specified causes, 4.403 – 4.408 stoppages, 4.409 – 4.411 text 4.397 Cesser clauses demurrage, and, 6.234 – 6.239 , 6.260 Changes to beginning of laytime always accessible 3.470 – 3.510 charterer’s duty to enable vessel to become arrived ship 3.396 – 3.402 custom, 3.377 – 3.382 failure to have cargo available or arrangements for discharge, 3.386 – 3.388 Gencon 94 form, 3.464 – 3.469 Generally, 3.374 – 3.564 Norgrain charter, 3.462 , 3.463 obstacles created by charterer, 3.383 – 3.402 reachable on arrival, 3.470 – 3.510 time lost, how counted, 3.456 – 3.459 time lost in waiting for berth to count as laytime, 3.438 – 3.455 time lost in waiting for berth to count in full, 3.460 , 3.461 WIBON, 3.403 – 3.426 WIPON, 3.427 – 3.437 Changes to port nomination 3.16 Charterer’s duty to enable vessel to become arrived ship 3.396 – 3.402 Page 575 Charterparty holidays 4.267 , 4.268 Civil commotions Centrocon strike clause, and, 4.412 – 4.444 Closing hatches interruptions and exceptions to laytime, and, 4.73 Colliery guarantee generally, 2.42 – 2.45 to be loaded as per, 3.563 , 3.564 Colliery working day 2.42 – 2.45 Commencement of demurrage generally, 6.125 – 6.133 Commencement of laytime 1.27 “always accessible” Baltic Code, 3.495 generally, 3.470 – 3.510 length of time berth be accessible, 3.496 – 3.509 “always afloat”, 3.510 arrival at specified destination berth charters, 3.35 – 3.42 dock charters, 3.43 – 3.51 generally, 3.2 – 3.34 port charters, 3.70 – 3.121 berth charters, 3.35 – 3.42 carriage of edible vegetable oils, and, 5.161 – 5.162 changes to, 3.374 – 3.564 conditions, 3.1 dock charters, 3.43 – 3.51 end of sea passage, 3.123 – 3.124 end of voyage where intended berth available, 3.122 following invalid notice of readiness, 3.300 Indian cases, 3.227 – 3.233 notice of readiness, 3.234 – 3.255 port charters, 3.52 – 3.121 readiness and readiness, 3.356 – 3.363 readiness to load and discharge, 3.127 – 3.226 specified destination, 3.2 – 3.34 time lapse between readiness and, 3.275 – 3.279 work before, 3.364 – 3.373 Commencement of obligation to load/discharge customary laytime, and, 2.242 – 2.251 Common law readiness to load and discharge 3.186 – 3.187 Communications with vessel interruptions and exceptions to laytime, and, 4.88 Completion of laytime cargo remaining, 5.42 delay in provision of ship’s documents, 5.71 delay in signing bills of lading, 5.33 discharging, 5.37 – 5.50 loading, 5.20 – 5.36 general points, 5.4 – 5.19 inactivity by charterer, 5.5 – 5.15 introduction, 5.1 – 5.3 liquid cargo, 5.51 – 5.77 Congestion customary laytime, and, 2.272 – 2.274 interruptions and exceptions to laytime, and, 4.152 – 4.157 strikes, and, 4.356 – 4.369 Conoco clause 4.237 – 4.243 Consequential delay strikes, and, 4.356 – 4.369 Consignees demurrage, and, 6.203 – 6.217 Construction of laytime clauses 1.42 Container demurrage 6.36 – 6.40 nature of 6.36 Contra proferentem rule 4.5 – 4.12 Contracts of sale demurrage, and, 6.305 – 6.317 readiness to load and discharge, and, 3.219 – 3.223 Conventional days fixed laytime, and, 2.15 – 2.18 Correctness of notice of readiness 3.283 – 3.322 Crane breakdown 4.86 Custom effect, 2.233 – 2.241 , 3.377 – 3.382 Saturdays, 4.296 – 4.301 shifting, and, 4.475 , 4.476 Custom and practice 3.547 , 3.548 holidays, 4.53 – 4.259 Custom House time to commence on being reported at, 3.559 – 3.562 Custom of port weather working days, and, 2.53 Customary despatch generally, 2.231 quick, 2.298 Customary laytime actions of port and other authorities, 2.281 – 2.285 alternative methods of discharge, 2.263 – 2.265 as fast as the vessel could deliver, 2.262 Page 576 commencement of obligation to load/discharge, 2.242 – 2.251 congestion, 2.272 – 2.274 custom, 2.233 – 2.241 customary despatch, 2.231 defective cargo, 2.266 – 2.270 definitions 1.21 delay due to charterers/shippers/receivers, 2.252 delay due to other third parties, 2.286 , 2.287 delay without default of charterers/shipowners, 2.271 exceeded, 2.296 failure to have cargo in readiness, 2.257 – 2.261 failure to provide berth on arrival, 2.253 – 2.256 generally 2.219 – 2.98 natural phenomena, 2.288 – 2.291 provision of defective cargo, 2.266 – 2.270 quick despatch, 2.298 reasonable time, 2.221 – 2.230 strikes, 2.275 – 2.280 weather, 2.288 – 2.291 Customary laytime charter 1.21 – 1.24 Customary quick despatch 2.298 Customs clearance readiness to load and discharge 3.188 Damages demurrage, and, 6.41 – 6.45 Days calendar days, 2.6 colliery days, 2.42 conventional days, 2.15 meaning 2.19 , 2.26 running days, 2.19 running working days, 2.40 Saturdays, 2.93 weather working days, 2.46 working days, 2.27 Deballasting fault of shipowner 4.67 – 4.72 Default of charterer demurrage, and, 6.77 – 6.85 Default of shipowner demurrage, and, 6.86 – 6.92 Defective cargo Provision, 2.266 – 2.270 Delay berthing, after 3.551 by agreement 8.76 customary laytime, and alternative methods of discharge, 2.263 – 2.265 as fast as the vessel could deliver, 2.262 congestion, 2.272 – 2.274 defective cargo, 2.266 – 2.270 due to charterers/shippers/receivers, 2.252 failure to have cargo in readiness, 2.257 – 2.261 failure to provide berth on arrival, 2.253 – 2.256 natural phenomena, 2.288 – 2.291 port authorities’ actions, 2.268 – 2.272 strikes, 2.275 – 2.280 third parties. 2.286 , 2.287 weather, 2.288 – 2.291 without default of charterers/shipowners, 2.271 despatch, and, 7.34 detention, and after arrival at specified destination, 8.33 – 8.44 after end of demurrage, 8.46 – 8.47 after end of laytime, 8.46 – 8.47 before the vessel reaches its specified destination, 8.8 – 8.32 by agreement, 8.68 – 8.73 during running of demurrage, 8.45 during running of laytime, 8.33 – 8.44 frustration 9.22 – 9.45 limits, 3.546 Demurrage 6.1 – 6.317 bills of lading holders inter se, 6.271 – 6.283 how much must each pay, 6.279 – 6.283 one or many calculations, 6.272 – 6.278 carriage of edible vegetable oils, and, 5.163 – 5.173 cases 1.4 – 1.7 cesser clauses generally, 6.234 – 6.239 waiver, 6.260 charterers as bill of lading holders, and, 6.218 – 6.225 commencement, 6.125 – 6.133 compensation for exceeding laytime, 1.33 consignees, and, 6.203 – 6.217 construction of charter, 6.240 – 6.251 container, 6.36 – 6.40 damages in addition generally, 6.41 – 6.65 mitigation, 6.66 – 6.76 proof of loss, 6.66 – 6.76 default of charterer, 6.77 – 6.85 default of shipowner, 6.86 – 6.92 definition, 1.14 despatch, and, 7.2 deviation, and, 6.169 – 6.181 Page 577 development of law, 1.1 – 1.12 duration, 6.11 – 6.29 end of 6.11 , 6.182 – 6.188 exception clauses, and, 6.93 – 6.110 half rate, 6.112 – 6.124 length of, 6.11 – 6.29 liability for, 6.189 – 6.317 before and after shipment, 6.261 – 6.266 bills of lading holders inter se , 6.271 – 6.283 charterers as bill of lading holders, 6.218 – 6.225 consignees, of, 6.203 – 6.217 general principles, 6.189 – 6.196 incorporation of charterparty terms into bills of lading, 6.197 – 6.202 indorsees, 6.203 – 6.217 receivers, 6.203 – 6.217 shippers, 6.203 – 6.217 lien for, 6.226 – 6.259 master’s right to claim, 6.267 – 6.270 meaning, 6.1 – 6.10 mitigation, 6.66 – 6.76 nature of, 6.1 – 6.10 notice of readiness, 6.125 – 6.133 payment, 6.30 – 6.35 periods of notice, 6.125 – 6.133 permanent absence from port, 6.182 – 6.188 proof of loss, 6.66 – 6.76 provisions in contracts of sale, 6.305 – 6.317 rate, 6.30 – 6.35 shifting, and, 6.111 standard definitions, 1.12 storm, and, 6.119 tanker warranties, 6.134 – 6.168 pumping performance formula, 6.168 temporary absence from port, 6.182 – 6.188 time bars, 6.284 – 6.301 time of payment, 6.302 – 6.304 waiting time, in respect of, 3.552 – 3.558 whether notice required where Vessel arrives on demurrage, 6.128 Wordscale, 6.34 Demurrage rate 1.34 , 1.35 Despatch “all time saved”, 7.4 Centrocon strike clause, 7.30 – 7.33 delay after loading or discharging, 7.34 double despatch, 7.25 – 7.29 frustration, and, 9.15 – 9.21 generally, 7.1 – 7.16 later cases, 7.17 – 7.20 meaning, 7.1 notice provisions, 7.21 – 7.24 overview, 1.34 – 1.35 reversing, 7.25 – 7.29 Voylayrules, 7.2 “working time saved”, 7.4 Destruction of ship or cargo frustration, and, 9.15 – 9.21 Detention delay after arrival at specified destination, 8.33 – 8.44 delay after end of cargo operations, 8.48 – 8.75 delay after end of demurrage, 8.46 – 8.47 delay after end of laytime, 8.46 – 8.47 delay before the vessel reaches its specified destination, 8.8 – 8.32 delay by agreement, 8.76 – 8.85 delay during running of demurrage, 8.45 delay during running of laytime, 8.33 – 8.44 exception clauses, 8.86 generally, 8.1 – 8.7 lien for damages, 8.87 – 8.89 overview, 1.40 Deviation demurrage, and, 6.169 – 6.181 Discharge alternative methods 2.263 – 2.265 Disconnection of hoses completion of laytime, and, 5.56 – 5.61 Division of voyage charter into stages 1.15 – 1.19 Dock definition 3.43 Dock charters 1.26 , 3.43 – 3.51 Double despatch despatch, and, 7.25 – 7.29 Edible vegetable oils, carriage of commencement of laytime demurrage, 5.163 – 5.173 introduction, 5.157 – 5.159 laytime, 5.163 – 5.173 nomination of loading and discharging berths, 5.160 squeegeeing and sweeping, 5.174 – 5.175 transhipment, 5.176 – 5.180 “Effective disposition of the Charterer” 3.52 , 3.70 , 3.108 EIU 2.69 , 2.70 End of laytime see Completion of laytime End of the sea passage 3.123 – 3.124 End of voyage where intended berth available 3.122 Page 578 Equipment 3.165 – 3.176 Essential workmen 4.415 – 4.17 Exception clauses demurrage, and, 6.93 – 6.110 Exceptions to laytime general principles, 4.13 – 4.17 meaning, 4.1 Excessive air draft 4.87 Exclusion of fault 4.91 – 4.99 Expenses shifting, 4.524 – 4.538 Exxonvoy 84 and see Asbtankvoy arrival at specified destination, and, 3.21 completion of laytime, and, 5.54 notice of readiness, 3.252 ice, and, 4.190 lightening 4.551 , 4.552 Failure to have cargo in readiness customary laytime, and, 2.257 – 2.261 Failure to provide berth on arrival customary laytime, and, 2.253 – 2.256 Fault exclusion, 4.91 – 4.99 meaning, 4.26 – 4.44 Fault of shipowner alleged cargo damage, 4.37 – 4.39 application of principle, 4.21 – 4.23 ballasting, 4.67 – 4.72 breach of contract, 4.34 – 4.36 breach of obligation, 4.27 bunkering, 4.60 – 4.66 cargo contamination 4.44 closing hatches, 4.73 communications with vessel, 4.88 consignees, and, 4.46 – 4.48 deballasting, 4.67 – 4.72 fault, 4.26 – 4.44 joint nature of loading and discharging, 4.53 , 4.54 intent defect, 4.40 opening hatches, 4.73 payment of port dues, 4.76 seal inspections, 4.74 , 4.75 speed claims in voyage charters, 4.24 – 4.25 stevedores, and, 4.50 , 4.51 , 4.56 – 4.59 whose fault 4.46 – 4.59 Fixed laytime Absolute liability calendar days, 2.6 – 2.14 colliery working days, 2.42 – 2.45 conventional days, 2.15 – 2.17 definitions 1.22 generally, 2.1 – 2.156 interruptions and exceptions to laytime, and, 4.3 Mabon’s day, 2.45 overview, 1.22 , 1.25 rate per hatch Charterparty Laytime Definitions, 2.182 generally, 2.177 – 2.184 rate per hook, 2.185 – 2.188 rate per (available) working hatch availability of holds, 2.176 rate per hatch, 2.177 – 2.184 rate per hook, 2.185 – 2.188 specified number of available working hatches, 2.205 – 2.218 total daily rate, 2.189 – 2.204 reference to rates of working cargo introduction, 2.157 rate per working hatch, 2.158 – 2.175 total daily rate, 2.189 – 2.204 running days generally, 2.19 – 2.25 “weather permitting”, 2.106 – 2.125 running hours “weather permitting”, 2.106 – 2.125 running working days, 2.40 , 2.41 Saturdays calculation method A, 2.97 calculation method B, 2.98 calculation method C, 2.99 – 2.103 introduction, 2.93 – 2.103 units of time 2.5 “weather permitting” generally, 2.106 – 2.125 working days of 24 consecutive hours, 2.147 working days of 24 hours, 2.126 working hours, 2.126 weather working days of 24 consecutive hours Charterparty Laytime Definitions, 2.154 generally, 2.154 – 2.156 weather working days calculation of weather interruptions, 2.71 – 2.91 incomplete days, 2.93 – 2.103 Saturdays, 2.93 – 2.103 working days colliery working days, 2.42 – 2.45 running working days, 2.40 , 2.41 “weather permitting”, 2.106 – 2.125 working days of 24 hours, 2.126 – 2.125 working hours per working day, 2.126 – 2.139 Flushing the sealine interruptions and exceptions to laytime, and, 4.89 – 4.90 Page 579 Force majeure correct approach, 4.157 factors, 4.156 generally, 4.156 , 4.157 Free pratique and quarantine legal readiness to load and discharge, and, 3.189 – 3.206 meaning 3.189 Frost interruptions and exceptions to laytime, and, 4.174 – 4.180 Frustration destruction of ship or cargo, 9.15 – 9.21 generally, 9.1 – 9.14 illegality, 9.46 – 9.52 inordinate delay, 9.22 – 9.45 Law Reform (Frustrated Contracts) Act 1943, 9.56 overview, 1.62 self-induced, 9.53 – 9.55 types, 9.8 GAFTA fob contracts readiness under, 3.363 Gear breakdowns interruptions and exceptions to laytime, and, 4.84 Gencon Gencon 94 3.464 ice clause 4.190 notice of readiness, and, 3.280 strikes, and, 4.430 – 4.463 first paragraph, 4.436 – 4.440 interpretation, 4.432 – 4.435 second paragraph, 4.441 – 4.451 text, 4.430 third paragraph, 4.452 – 4.463 waiting for berth, and, 3.464 – 3.469 General exceptions clauses 4.111 – 4.147 any other cause beyond the control of charterers, 4.118 – 4.147 strikes and force majeure, 4.115 – 4.117 Good faith 1.57 – 1.59 Half rate demurrage generally, 6.112 – 6.124 storm, 6.119 – 6.124 Hatches opening and closing, 4.73 Hindrances meaning, 4.154 Holds availability 2.179 – 2.221 Holidays BIMCO calendar, 4.274 causation, 4.244 charterparty, 4.267 , 2.268 common law definition, 4.245 custom and practice, by, 4.255 – 4.259 “general or local holidays”, 4.261 , 4.262 generally 4.244 – 4.335 law, by, 4.247 – 4.254 “legal holidays”, 4.263 “legal and local holidays”, 4.269 – 4.270 “local holidays”, 4.261 , 4.262 Louisiana, 4.248 meaning, 4.245 – 4.246 “non-working holidays”, 4.273 “official and local holidays”, 4.264 – 4.266 part day holidays, 4.85 – 4.289 regulations, by, 4.247 – 4.254 super holidays, 4.271 – 4.272 types, 4.260 – 4.273 working days, and, 4.275 – 4.284 Honesty 1.57 – 1.59 Ice cargo operations and, 4.183 – 4.189 effect 4.181 interruptions and exceptions to laytime, and, 4.181 – 4.199 Ice clauses 4.190 – 4.199 Asbatankvoy, 4.190 Exxonvoy 84, 4.190 Gencon, 4.190 “inaccessible”, 4.190 – 4.194 Norgrain 73, 4.190 Icebound port 4.195 – 4.196 Illegality frustration, and, 9.46 – 9.52 Immediate and effective disposition of the charterers 1.26 , 3.70 , 3.117 “In regular turn” generally, 3.532 – 3.545 “In usual turn” 3.532 – 3.545 Inaccessible meaning, 4.192 – 4.194 Inactivity by charterer completion of laytime, and, 5.5 – 5.15 Incomplete days 2.93 – 2.103 Incorporation of charterparty terms demurrage, and, 6.197 – 6.202 Indian cases commencement of laytime, 3.227 – 3.233 Indorsees demurrage, and, 6.203 – 6.217 Inordinate delay frustration, and, 9.22 – 9.45 Interruptions and exceptions to laytime adverse weather, 4.158 – 4.236 Artus, the, 4.89 , 4.90 Page 580 “any other cause beyond the control of charterers” 4.100 – 4.110 atmospheric precipitation, 4.165 ballasting, 4.67 – 4.72 bore tides, 4.209 – 4.213 bunkering, 4.60 – 4.65 cargo gear breakdowns, 4.86 charterer’s duties, 4.15 – 4.17 closing hatches, 4.73 communications with vessel, 4.88 congestion, 4.152 – 4.157 contra proferentem rule, 4.5 – 4.12 crane breakdowns, 4.86 customary laytime, and, 4.4 deballasting, 4.69 – 4.74 difference between the two, 4.1 exclusion of fault, 4.91 – 4.99 fault of shipowner, 4.18 – 4.76 force majeure, 4.156 , 4.157 general exceptions clauses, 4.111 – 4.147 general principles, 4.13 – 4.17 holidays, 4.244 – 4.335 meaning, 4.1 non-production of bills of lading, 4.79 – 4.87 overtime ordered by port authorities, 4.148 – 4.151 shifting, 4.464 – 4.538 strikes, 4.336 – 4.463 working in excepted periods, 4.321 – 4.335 “Inward passage” 4.469 Laws of Oleron 1.8 – 1.10 Lay days calculation 2.11 , 2.12 Laytime cases, 1.4 – 1.7 construction of clauses, 1.42 – 1.55 definitions, 1.14 , Appendix B development of law, 1.1 – 1.12 intentions of parties, 1.43 – 1.55 once commenced runs continuously, 1.30 single period covering loading and discharging or separate periods, 1.33 standard definitions 1.12 terminology and abbreviations, Appendix C Laytime as a total daily rate – specified number available workable hatches 2.203 Laytime clauses principles of construction, 1.42 Laytime expressed as a total daily rate 2.189 “Legal holidays” interruptions and exceptions to laytime, and, 4.263 “Legal and local holidays” interruptions and exceptions to laytime, and, 4.269 – 4.270 Legal readiness to load and discharge additional requirements, 3.207 – 3.218 common law, 3.186 – 3.187 contracts of sale, 3.219 – 3.223 customs clearance, 3.188 free pratique and quarantine, 3.189 – 3.206 generally, 3.182 – 3.185 implied requirements, 3.224 – 3.226 the Indian cases, 3.227 – 3.233 Length of delay strikes, and, see Strikes Liability for demurrage 6.189 Liability of bills of lading holders inter se 6.271 “Liberty to complete” clause multiple charters, and, see Multiple charters Lien demurrage, and 6.226 – 6.259 detention, and, 8.75 – 8.77 Lightening Exxonvoy 1984, 4.551 , 4.552 generally, 4.543 – 4.559 time used, 4.554 – 4.559 Limits of delay 3.546 Liner terms customary laytime, and, 2.219 Liquid cargo completion of laytime, and, 5.51 – 5.77 Local custom Saturdays, and, 4.296 – 4.301 “Local holidays”, 4.261 , 4.262 Local law Saturdays, and, 4.302 – 4.308 Lock–out of essential workmen Centrocon strike clause, and, 4.392 – 4.394 meaning 4.416 Loss of turn commencement of laytime, and, 3.549 – 3.550 Mabon’s day colliery working days, and, 2.45 Master’s claim demurrage, and, 6.267 – 6.270 Mitigation demurrage, and, 6.66 – 6.76 Multiple charters cargo operations carried out whilst waiting, 5.148 – 5.151 Page 581 carriage of edible vegetable oils commencement of laytime, 5.161 – 5.162 demurrage, 5.163 – 5.173 introduction, 5.157 – 5.159 laytime, 5.163 – 5.173 nomination of loading and discharging berths, 5.160 squeegeeing and sweeping, 5.174 – 5.175 transhipment, 5.176 – 5.180 demurrage, 5.152 – 5.156 “liberty to complete” clause, 5.109 read separately or together, 5.112 – 5.119 time lost in waiting for berth, 5.126 – 5.147 Natural phenomena customary laytime, and, 2.288 – 2.291 New Worldscale 100 demurrage, and, 6.34 Nomination of discharge port 2.26 Nomination of ports – changes 3.16 Non-production of bills of lading cargo gear breakdown, 4.86 crane breakdown, 4.86 exceptions, 4.81 , 4.82 excessive air draft, 4.87 general principle, 4.79 interruptions and exceptions to laytime, and, 4.79 – 4.87 “Non-working holidays” interruptions and exceptions to laytime, and, 4.273 Non-working part of day Saturdays, and, 4.291 Norgrain charter ice clause, 4.190 waiting for berth, 3.462 – 3.463 Notice in advance of arrival 3.271 – 3.274 Notice of readiness acceptance, 3.323 – 3.355 Asbatankvoy 3.312 – 3.322 advance of arrival, in, 3.271 – 3.274 common law, 3.239 contracts of sale, 3.220 correctness, 3.283 – 3.322 definition, 3.233 demurrage, and, 6.125 – 6.133 express provisions, 3.252 – 3.254 Gencon, and, 3.280 generally, 3.234 – 3.355 implied requirements, 3.225 Indian cases, the, 3.227 – 3.233 legal readiness, 3.173 notice given before commencement due to laytime, 3.281 – 3.282 notice in advance of arrival, 3.271 – 3.274 physical readiness, 3.134 premature, 3.263 rejection after acceptance, 3.338 tender of notice in excepted periods, 3.266 – 3.270 tender of notice in office hours, 3.255 – 3.265 tendered outside permitted hours, 3.295 time lapse between readiness and commencement of laytime 3.275 – 3.279 when and how to be given 3.238 Obligation to load/discharge commencement 2.242 – 2.251 Obstacle, nature of 3.519 – 3.522 Obstructions Centrocon strike clause, and docks, in, 4.381 – 4.383 loading places, in, 4.381 – 4.383 meaning 4.154 railways, on, 4.384 – 4.385 “Official and local holidays” interruptions and exceptions to laytime, and, 4.264 – 4.266 Once on demurrage, always on demurrage 1.36 Opening hatches fault of shipowner, and, 4.73 Overstowed cargo physical readiness to load and discharge, and, 3.161 – 3.164 Overtime ordered by port authorities, 4.148 – 4.151 Saturdays, 4.295 Parker, “The Parker test” 3.52 , 3.108 Part day holidays interruptions and exceptions to laytime, and, 4.85 – 4.289 Payment of demurrage generally, 6.30 – 6.35 time, 6.302 – 6.304 Payment of port duties fault of shipowner, and, 4.76 Physical readiness to load and discharge load and discharge equipment, 3.131 – 3.179 Port limits, 3.61 – 3.63 meaning, 3.55 – 3.58 Port authorities actions of, 2.281 – 2.285 Port charters arrival within the port, 3.55 – 3.69 generally, 3.52 – 3.121 Page 582 immediate and effective disposition of the charterer, 3.70 – 3.121 introduction, 1.26 Port dues payment, 4.76 Port, nomination of 3.4 change of nomination, 3.12 delay due to a failure to nominate, 3.23 distinction between express and implied right to nominate, 3.29 Proof of loss demurrage, and, 6.66 – 6.76 Provision of cargo strikes, and 4.353 – 4.355 Provision of defective cargo 2.266 – 2.270 Pumping performance formula 6.168 Pumping warranties 6.151 Quarantine 3.189 – 3.206 legal readiness to load and discharge, and, 3.189 – 3.199 Quick despatch customary laytime, and, 2.298 Railways Centrocon strike clause 4.407 , 4.408 Rate of demurrage generally, 6.30 – 6.35 New Worldscale, 6.34 Rate per (available) working hatch 2.158 – 2.175 Rate per hatch 2.177 – 2.184 Rate per hook 2.185 – 2.188 Rate per working hatch 2.158 – 2.175 Rate of working cargo 2.157 – 2.178 Reachable meaning 3.475 Reachable on arrival 3.470 – 3.510 Baltic Code 2007, 3.495 meaning 3.471 – 3.490 shifting from anchorage to berth, and, 4.479 – 4.485 Readiness GAFTA f.o.b. contracts, under, 3.363 Readiness and readiness 3.356 – 3.363 Readiness to load and discharge additional requirements, 3.207 – 3.218 common law, 3.186 – 3.187 contracts of sale, 3.219 – 3.223 customs clearance, 3.188 equipment 3.165 – 3.176 free pratique 3.189 – 3.206 generally, 3.125 – 3.226 implied requirements, 3.224 – 3.226 legal readiness 3.182 – 3.226 overstowed cargo 3.161 – 3.164 physical matters 3.177 – 3.179 physical readiness 3.131 – 3.179 quarantine 3.189 – 3.206 the Indian cases, 3.218 – 3.224 “Reasonable time” customary laytime, and, 2.221 – 2.230 terms of charterparty 2.292 – 2.295 Reasonableness 1.60 , 1.61 Receivers demurrage, and, 6.203 – 6.217 Reid, “The Reid test” 1.26 , 3.52 , 3.108 Reversing cases, 5.95 – 5.105 despatch, and, 7.25 – 7.29 introduction, 5.78 – 5.84 Riots Centrocon strike clause, and, 4.412 – 4.414 Risk appointment 1.19 , 1.20 Running days generally, 2.19 – 2.25 “weather permitting”, 2.106 – 2.125 Running hours generally, 2.26 “weather permitting”, 2.106 – 2.125 Running working days 2.40 , 2.41 Saturdays Baltimore Form C clause, 4.310 – 4.315 custom, 4.296 – 4.301 generally, 4.290 – 4.320 local law, 4.302 – 4.308 non-working part of day, 4.291 overtime, 4.295 weather working days, and calculation method A, 2.97 calculation method B, 2.98 calculation method C, 2.99 – 2.103 introduction, 2.93 – 2.103 weekend clause, 4.316 – 4.320 Seal inspections fault of shipowner 4.74 , 4.75 SHEX 2.65 , 2.66 Shifting anchorage to berth, from, 4.465 – 4.507 anchorage outside port, from, 4.477 , 4.478 clauses providing for time not to count, 4.469 – 4.474 custom, 4.475 – 4.476 demurrage, and, 6.111 enforced 4.515 – 4.524 expenses, 4.524 – 4.538 Page 583 generally, 4.465 – 4.538 one berth to another, from 4.508 – 4.514 reachable on arrival, 4.479 – 4.485 time limits of The Laura Prima decision 4.486 – 4.507 SHINC 2.67 Shippers demurrage, and 6.203 – 6.217 “So near thereto as she may safely get” degree of risk known to exist, 3.526 – 3.527 frustration, and, 3.518 generally, 3.511 – 3.531 governing principle, 3.513 how close to intended port the vessel can get, 3.538 , 3.429 length of expected delay, 3.525 nature of the obstacle, 3.519 – 3.522 proportion of cargo loaded/discharged, 3.530 – 3.531 reasonableness 3.514 – 3.516 time spent waiting, 3.523 – 3.524 Specified destination 3.2 – 3.34 Speed claims voyage charters, and, 4.24 – 4.25 SSHEX 2.66 Stages of a voyage charter 1.15 Standard laytime definitions 1.12 Stevedores fault of shipowner, and, 4.50 , 4.51 , 4.56 – 4.59 Storm half rate demurrage, and, 6.119 – 6.124 Strikes causation, 4.348 – 4.429 Centrocon clause 4.396 – 4.429 congestion, 4.356 – 4.369 consequential delays, 4.356 – 4.369 duty to lessen effect, 4.370 – 4.388 alternative action, 4.370 – 4.372 alternative cargo, 4.374 – 4.377 alternative labour, 4.386 – 4.388 alternative methods of loading/discharge and/or change of berth, 4.378 – 4.385 alternative port, 4.373 length of delay 4.389 – 4.395 Gencon clause 4.430 – 4.463 generally, 2.275 – 2.280 , 4.336 – 4.463 meaning, 4.338 – 4.347 provision of cargo, 4.353 – 4.355 types of clause, 4.349 Super holidays interruptions and exceptions to laytime, and, 4.28 – 4.272 Surf interruptions and exceptions to laytime, and, 4.200 – 4.203 Swell interruptions and exceptions to laytime, and, 4.204 – 4.208 Tanker warranties demurrage, and, 6.134 – 6.168 Temporary absence from port demurrage, and, 6.182 – 6.188 Tender of notice in excepted periods 3.265 – 3.270 Tender of notice in office hours 3.255 – 3.265 Time lapse between readiness and commencement of laytime 3.275 – 3.279 Time lost in waiting for berth calculation of time lost, 3.456 – 3.459 count as laytime, to 3.438 – 3.455 count in full, to 3.440 , 3.461 “Time to commence on being reported at the Custom House” commencement of laytime, and, 3.559 – 3.561 “To be loaded as per colliery guarantee” commencement of laytime, and, 3.563 – 3.564 Total daily rate 2.189 – 2.218 specified number of available workable hatches 2.205 – 2.218 Transhipment carriage of edible vegetable oils, and, 5.176 – 5.180 Turn 3.532 Unavailability 2.176 UU (unless used) 2.68 Vegetable oils, carriage of see Carriage of edible vegetable oils Vessel absence from the port 6.182 Vessel proceeding direct to berth commencement of laytime, 3.53 Voyage charters stages, 1.15 – 1.19 Voylayrules 1993 commencement of laytime berth, 3.35 free pratique, 3.198 in writing, 3.253 notice of readiness, 3.232 port, 3.56 reachable on her arrival, 3.493 Page 584 time lost in waiting for berth to count as laytime, 3.441 unless sooner commenced, 3.373 weather working days, 2.104 Waiting for berth Norgrain charter, 3.462 , 3.463 Waiting time demurrage in respect of, 3.552 – 3.558 Warping interruptions and exceptions to laytime, and, 4.539 – 4.542 Weather adverse, 4.158 – 4.236 customary laytime, and, 2.288 – 2.291 definition, 4.158 ice and weather working days, 4.201 ice clauses, 4.190 – 4.199 limits, 4.164 – 4.173 meaning, 4.159 , 4.160 threat of bad weather, 4.201 Weather permitting 2.106 – 2.139 Weather interruptions calculation 2.71 – 2.91 Weather working day of 24 hours 2.92 Weather working days 2.46 – 2.156 calculation of weather interruptions, 2.71 – 2.91 custom of port, and, 2.53 definition, 2.46 – 2.49 incomplete days, 2.93 – 2.103 judicial interpretation, 2.52 – 2.59 origin of term, 2.51 interruptions to laytime, and, 4.199 – 4.204 Saturdays 2.93 – 2.103 calculation method A, 2.97 calculation method B, 2.98 calculation method C, 2.99 – 2.103 introduction, 2.93 – 2.103 suffixes, 2.64 – 2.70 Voylayrules, 2.104 weather permitting, 2.106 – 2.139 working hours per working day 2.140 – 2.146 Weekend clause, 4.316 – 4.320 WIBON effect, 3.412 meaning, 3.404 – 3.407 WIPON 3.427 – 3.437 Wordscale 3.27 , 6.34 Work before commencement of laytime 3.364 – 3.373 Working cargo rates 2.157 – 2.175 Working days generally, 2.27 – 2.45 holidays, and, 4.275 – 4.284 “weather permitting”, 2.106 – 2.125 Working days of 24 consecutive hours “weather permitting”, 2.147 – 2.153 Working days of 24 hours “weather permitting”, 2.126 – 2.139 Working hours “weather permitting”, 2.126 – 2.139 Working hours per working day “weather permitting”, 2.140 – 2.146 Working in excepted periods 4.321 – 4.335 where provided for 4.322 – 4.327 where not provided for 4.328 – 4.335

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