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INDEX

Delay and Disruption in Construction Contracts

Page 1137 INDEX INDEX Acceleration breach of contract 11-099 constructive see Constructive acceleration costs 11-112 culpable delay, and 11-090 design programmes 2-102 effect 11-019 entitlement to extension of time, and 11-090 estimates of cost 11-075 failure to accelerate 11-109 – 11-213 breach of obligation, 11-195 , 11-196 causation 11-199 , 11-204 compensation 11-192 completion on time 11-192 , 11-193 , culpable delay 11-193 , 11-196 , 11-201 , 11-202 , 11-204 demurrage claims 11-208 foreseeable delay 11-200 foreseeable losses 11-191 – 11-192 identification of loss 11-197 , 11-204 instructed acceleration 11-189 instructions to recover 11-198 , 11-199 , 11-201 – 11-204 limitation on liability 11-206 liquidated damages 11-190 , 11-204 – 11-207 redress 11-194 , 11-196 termination of contract 11-209 – 11-211 instructed 11-068 – 11-071 , 11-077 , 11-089 lost productivity, and 17-046 – 17-052 meaning 11-015 , 11-016 – 11-018 methods 11-137 – 11-188 changing sequence of activities 11-151 – 11-157 increasing motivation 11-166 increasing resources 11-167 – 11-169 increasing working time 11-170 – 11-188 logic changes 11-158 – 11-163 omissions 11-146 – 11-150 using different method of working 11-164 , 11-165 power to instruct 11-088 – 11-090 schedule of 4-207 standard form provisions 11-021 – 11-092 Access 4-164 – 4-170 Act of God 4-055 , 4-056 Activity coding 7-232 Activity durations 7-126 – 7-142 Acts and/or omissions of developer 4-028 – 4-036 Acts of State 2-149 Acts of third parties 4-173 – 4-188 consents 4-177 developer, and 2-168 government acts 4-181 , 4-182 persons employed by developer 4-183 , 4-184 statutory undertaker 4-174 Acts or omissions of third parties causation, and 14-061 – 14-067 Additional work guidelines 12-016 Adjudication 22-106 – 22-113 final and binding 22-113 Adjudication in United Kingdom 23-001 – 23-063 complex decisions 23-003 , 23-007 – 23-022 costs 23-004 , 23-023 – 23-027 definition of construction contract 23-005 , 23-038 – 23-044 human rights aspects 23-003 , 23-007 – 23-022 interest 23-004 , 23-023 – 23-027 limitation periods 23-002 recovering costs 23-063 residential occupiers 23-045 – 23-047 sequential 23-006 , 23-48 – 23-062 single disputes 23-006 , 23-048 – 23-062 Adverse weather lost productivity, and 17-059 – 17-064 Alliancing 3-060 – 3-063 Alternative dispute resolution 22-087 , 22-088 Ambiguities 12-110 – 12-135 American law equitable adjustment 1-016 influence of 1-014 Antiquities 4-264 – 4-266 Page 1138 Apportionment 20-001 – 20-073 A/B estimates approach 20-058 – 20-061 balance of evidence, 20-005 burden of proof approach 20-042 but-for test, 20-005 case law 20-003 , 20-004 causation, 20-001 – 20-004 City Inn approach 20-068 – 20-070 common law 20-009 compensation, and 20-010 – 20-012 delay to completion 20-013 – 20-031 delta estimates approach 20-062 , 20-063 Devlin approach 20-043 – 20-045 dominant cause approach 20-046 – 20-053 jury verdict approach 20-054 , 20-055 logical processes 20-005 loss and/or expense 20-032 – 20-036 methods of apportionment of loss or expense 20-037 – 20-073 modified global claim approach 20-056 , 20-057 modified total cost approach 20-064 – 20-067 nature of 20-001 net effect approach 20-071 – 20-073 prolongation issues, and 20-006 , 20-007 , 20-011 tortious solution 20-040 – 20-041 Approval of programmes 8-001 – 8-091 Approximate bills build-only contracts 3-021 design risks, and 2-108 Arbitration 22-114 – 22-118 Arrow diagram 8-036 – 8-042 Artificial obstructions 4-157 As-built programme 7-058 As-built schedule forensic programme analysis 15-001 – 15-175 As-built impacted analytical method 15-077 – 15-116 As-planned updated versus as-planned u[dated analytical method 15-069 – 15-076 As-planned versus as-built 14-232 – 14-241 analytical method 15-061 – 15-068 Assessor discretion of court, and 22-041 Bar chart 8-007 – 8-017 , 14-223 – 14-231 advantages 8-014 disadvantages 8-015 extension of time, and 6-064 – 6-067 meaning 8-007 monitoring 9-123 – 9-127 Baseline programme 7-028 – 7-037 Best endeavours meaning 11-037 Biddability risk 2-113 – 2-124 bills of quantities 2-115 claims conditions 2-119 greenfield sites 2-116 itemised bills of quantities 2-122 lowest tendering contractor 2-118 manifest error 2-121 nature of 2-113 precision in communication 2-120 predetermined cost and time effect of variations 2-123 , 2-124 preparation of tender documentation 2-117 price, and 2-114 Bill of quantities 12-075 – 12-109 additional work by way of increased quantities 12-105 biddability risk, and 2-115 compensation for prolongation 12-080 drawings 12-100 importance of 12-077 incorporation as contract document 12-109 lump sum, and 12-078 precedence of 12-089 , 12-090 purpose 12-076 re-measurement of quantities 12-081 rules of measurement 12-093 BIM 13-067 – 13-119 acronym 13-071 case law 13-115 , 13-116 case studies 13-094 – 13-100 collaboration 13-084 , 13-085 communication of information 13-113 , 13-114 conventional practice, and 13-074 – 13-077 Cookham Wood 13-096 – 13-099 definition 13-072 , 13-073 future projects 13-100 investment 13-090 , 13-091 key documents 13-093 legal, contractual and insurance issues 13-086 levels of maturity 13-078 , 13-079 overcoming barriers 13-092 perceived barriers against adoption 13-083 perceived benefits 13-081 , 13-082 retrieval of information 13-111 , 13-112 significance 13-107 – 13-110 standard forms of contract 13-101 – 13-106 UK and management of information 13-087 – 13-089 what is arguably not 13-080 Black Monday 2-145 Bricklaying calculating duration 7-148 Build-only contracts 3-016 – 3-029 approximate bills 3-021 delay, causes of 3-022 information, supply of 3-024 – 3-027 linear approach 3-019 project manager 3-017 re-measurement 3-028 unforced errors or omissions 3-023 variations 3-018 Page 1139 Buildability risk 2-109 – 2-112 drawing board 2-110 meaning 2-109 sequencing problems 2-111 Building control 2-189 – 2-192 economic loss 2-191 umbrella compensatory provisions 2-190 Building Information Modelling (BIM) 13-067 – 13-119 see also BIM Business efficacy implied terms, and 2-078 , 2-083 Calculating durations 7-143 – 7-163 bricklaying 7-148 Calculating time-related compensation 10-089 Cascade diagram 8-048 , 8-049 Cash flow monitoring 9-105 – 9-110 Catastrophes delay 4-261 examples 4-262 force majeure 4-260 specified perils 4-263 Causation 14-001 – 14-264 acts or omissions of third parties 14-061 – 14-067 as-planned versus as-built 14-232 – 14-241 bar charts 14-223 – 14-231 collapsing technique 14-242 – 14-248 completion delayed 14-150 – 14-154 completion likely to be delayed 14-142 – 14-144 completion likely to be or has been delayed 14-145 – 14-149 contemporaneous analysis 14-015 – 14-018 , 14-020 delay to completion of works 14-107 – 14-129 delay to progress of works 14-070 – 14-081 developer’s acts or omissions 14-045 – 14-060 expenditure of prime cost and provisional sums 14-033 – 14-044 factual materials available 14-165 – 14-172 failure to perform 14-099 – 14-106 inference 14-001 -14-008, 14-191 – 14-252 see also Inference of causation instructed changes 14-028 – 14-032 instructed variations 14-082 – 14-087 matters to be identified 14-009 occurrences 14-068 , 14-069 other occurrence 14-025 – 14-069 primary 14-025 – 14-069 proof of 14-130 – 14-190 proportionality 14-173 – 14-190 retrospective delay analysis 14-019 , 14-020 secondary 14-070 – 14-081 smoke and mirrors 14-252 – 14-264 subject-matter of proof 14-160 – 14-164 suspension of works 14-088 – 14-098 terms of contract 14-134 – 14-159 tertiary 14-107 – 14-129 three-part chain 14-021 – 14-129 visualisations 14-249 – 14-252 voluntary or implied variations 14-028 – 14-032 whatever is fair and reasonable 14-155 – 14-159 Cause and effect matrix 14-199 – 14-207 CDBs 24-036 – 24-041 Change 12-001 – 12-197 see also Variation bill of quantities, and 12-075 – 12-109 constructive see Constructive change definition 12-031 , 12-062 , 12-066 instruction to make 12-006 no express authority, where 12-010 – 12-014 standard form provisions 12-030 – 12-157 Change control 13-026 – 13-041 clear factual evidence, need for 13-033 Change management definitions 10-049 effects of change See also Managing effect of change acceleration 10-074 , 10-085 – 10-088 ad hoc changes 10-078 change order procedure 10-077 changed resources 10-072 design changes 10-076 disruption 10-074 extensions of time 10-072 need for instructions 10-075 sequence of works 10-072 schedule, and 10-074 significance of change 10-073 tenders, and 10-071 variation 10-072 , 10-077 electronic submittals 10-056 , 10-057 key dates 10-059 , 10-060 management information structure 10-048 programme 10-050 – 10-055 progress records 10-058 relationships 10-061 – 10-070 roles 10-061 – 10-070 supplements 10-045 – 10-070 conditions 10-047 definitions 10-049 publication 10-045 standard forms of contract 10-045 suitability 10-046 Change order procedure 4-109 – 4-111 CIOB working group 1-011 CIOB Complex Projects Contract costs and time management 4-325 – 4-366 risk management 4-357 – 4-364 Page 1140 CIOB Contracts for Use with Complex Projects (CPC 2013) 3-007 – 3-015 see also CPC 2013 Circumstances beyond control 4-042 – 4-051 Civil commotion 4-241 – 4-253 Claim preparation 22-020 – 22-023 Claims consultants 22-027 , 22-028 Classification of change 4-011 – 4-027 assumption of risk of change 4-024 cause beyond control 4-015 “causes” of delay 4-021 drafting technique 4-021 extension of time 4-018 – 4-020 notice of event 4-022 phraseology 4-012 risks, definition 4-026 standard forms 4-013 sub-groups 4-014 sweeping-up clause 4-016 , 4-017 Collapsed as-built analytical method 15-117 – 15-148 Commercial risk allocation implied terms, and 2-081 Compensation see Damages Compensation conditional upon notice 5-151 – 5-165 Complex projects characteristics 3-004 Complex projects risk 2-004 Computer generated evidence 13-185 – 13-191 Computer software 9-007 , 9-010 Computerised database 13-045 , 13-046 Computerised simulation risk, and 2-061 – 2-063 Computers critical path method, and 7-082 Conciliation 22-096 – 22-098 see also Dispute Resolution, Mediation bespoke contracts 22-097 conciliators 22-096 dispute review boards 22-098 Concurrency 18-001 – 18-140 application of theory 18-007 concurrent delays to completion 18-066 – 18-080 delay to progress, and 18-039 – 18-065 distinguishing concurrent and pacing delays to progress 18-024 distinguishing concurrent and parallel delays 18-018 – 18-022 distinguishing concurrent and sequential delays 18-023 distinguishing delay and financial loss 18-035 – 18-038 distinguishing delay to progress from delay to completion 18-015 , 18-016 distinguishing primary, secondary and tertiary causation 18-017 distinguishing timing of primary cases 18-025 – 18-028 entitlement 18-014 extensions of time, and 18-066 – 18-102 inconsistency in treatment of issues 18-012 legal concepts of relief and compensation 18-029 – 18-034 meaning 18-001 , 18-002 pacing, and 18-122 – 18-140 parallel causes of delay to completion 18-097 – 18-102 parallel delays to progress 18-059 – 18-065 parties 18-013 prolongation, and 18-103 – 18-121 see also Prolongation sequential causes of delay to completion 18-081 – 18-096 sequential delays to progress 18-044 – 18-058 Consequential changes 12-196 , 12-197 Constructing Excellence 1-006 Construction industry decrease in output 1-001 Construction management contracts 3-036 – 3-046 advantages 3-040 construction manager 3-038 difficulties 3-041 flexibility 3-045 Holyrood Enquiry 3-046 liquidated damages 3-039 schedule 3-042 , 3-043 status of contractors 3-037 Construction records 13-001 – 13-275 Constructive acceleration 11-093 – 11-136 compensation for 11-117 –121 conduct requiring 11-110 – 11-121 demands to accelerate, 11-110 extensions of time, 11-110 , 11-116 implied instructions, 11-110 , 11-112 required elements, 11-111 , 11-112 , 11-118 initiation of grounds for 11-104 – 11-109 legal doctrine, as 11-095 – 11-103 mechanics 11-122 – 11-136 Construction risk 2-125 – 2-141 additional work 2-126 , 2-127 groundworks 2-128 – 2-135 subcontractors 2-136 – 2-138 weather 2-140 , 2-141 Constructive change 12-158 – 12-197 alternative materials 12-188 avoiding disputes 12-180 consequential changes 12-196 , 12-197 constructive, meaning 12-162 essence of claim 12-161 estoppel, and 12-171 implied changes, and 12-164 , 12-168 quality 12-181 – 12-189 quality or quantity 12-178 Page 1141 quantity 12-190 – 12-195 reasonable satisfaction 12-182 treated as variation 12-176 variations in writing 12-167 waiver, and 12-171 when arising 12-175 Constructive notice 5-030 – 5-032 Consumer Insurance (Disclosure and Representation) Act 2012 2-163 , 2-164 Contemporaneous records meaning 13-030 Contingency project planning and programming 2-057 , 2-058 Contingency planning 16-006 Contra proferentem rule notice as condition precedent, and 5-130 Contract administrator 1-023 Contract programme 9-017 , 9-018 Cookham Wood BIM, and 13-096 – 13-099 Cost and time management CIOB Complex Projects Contract 4-325 – 4-366 JCT Major Projects Contract 4-325 – 4-366 Cost management 2-014 Cost monitoring 9-111 – 9-115 Costs 22-009 – 22-023 claims presentation, and 22-011 computer-managed documents 22-017 disclosure, and 22-015 dispute risk and 2-086 open-book document management system 22-018 Count the squares chart monitoring 9-128 – 9-135 Counterclaim 22-140 – 22-144 defence to 22-145 , 22-146 reply 22-145 , 22-146 CPC 2013 3-007 – 3-015 collaboration and transparency 3-009 , 3-010 contract documents 3-008 dispute resolution 3-013 project time manager 3-011 suitability for use 3-007 CPM programming 7-008 – 7-014 Critical path 1-028 , 1-029 extension of time, and 6-051 – 6-054 Critical Path Method 1-029 , 7-068 – 7-084 computers, and 7-082 definition 7-069 development 7-076 form of schedule 7-075 more than one 7-074 nature of 7-068 practical effects 7-081 purposes 7-070 – 7-072 resource requirements 7-079 retrospective delay analysis 7-077 schedule logic 7-078 DABs 24-036 – 24-041 Damage caused by carrying out works 4-255 – 4-259 insurance, and 4-257 , 4-258 Damages 21-001 – 21-291 burden of proof 21-009 compensation, entitlement to 21-013 – 21-039 contractor has actually suffered loss or expense 21-172 , 21-173 direct labour costs 21-042 – 21-052 direct loss or expense 21-002 , 21-010 – 21-012 Eichleay formula 21-185 – 21-187 Emden formula 21-189 exclusion clauses 21-264 – 21-291 financing costs 21-119 – 21-137 formula adjustments 21-159 – 21-191 four-phrase analysis 21-008 goods and materials 21-074 – 21-078 Hadley v Baxendale , rule in 21-003 – 21-007 head office costs 21-111 – 21-116 Hudson formula 21-188 insurances 21-117 , 21-118 Lilley Ames Co v United States 21-190 liquidated see Liquidated damages loss of future profits 21-140 – 21-145 loss of productivity 21-089 – 21-097 loss or expense not recovered elsewhere 21-174 loss or expense remained unabsorbed 21-175 management costs 21-068 – 21-073 non-productive overtime 21-053 – 21-057 plant and equipment 21-079 – 21-088 potential heads of claim 21-040 – 21-158 preliminaries 21-100 – 21-110 profit on costs 21-138 , 21-139 propositions 21-004 quantifying predictive loss 21-247 – 21-291 quantum meruit 21-192 – 21-223 see also Quantum meruit resort to formula approach 21-176 – 21-184 staff costs 21-058 – 21-067 temporary works 21-098 , 21-099 time-related costs 21-027 unabsorbed overheads 21-146 – 21-158 work-related costs 21-027 Database records 13-172 – 13-184 Databases 13-217 – 13-235 drawings 13-225 sorting evidence on 13-217 – 13-235 text 13-224 DBs 24-001 – 24-089 ad hoc 24-026 – 24-035 advantages 24-017 context 24-005 – 24-016 costs 24-075 – 24-081 enforcement of decisions 24-067 – 24-072 Page 1142 independence of members 24-048 – 24-052 international developments 24-082 – 24-089 national developments 24-082 – 24-089 operations 24-053 – 24-066 refusal prior to arbitration 24-073 – 24-074 rules 24-042 – 24-047 standing 24-026 – 24-035 use of 24-002 – 24-004 Decennial liability mandatory laws 25-023 – 25-026 Defence, statement of 22-137 – 22-139 Defined provisional sums 12-101 , 12-102 Delay adverse effect 1-033 advice as to cause of delay 5-039 analysis, nature of 7-001 apportionment 20-013 – 20-031 build-only contracts 3-022 catastrophes 4-261 causation completion delayed 14-107 – 14-129 , 14-150 – 14-154 completion likely to be delayed 14-142 – 14-144 completion likely to be or has been delayed 14-145 – 14-149 progress of works 14-070 – 14-081 “causes” of delay 4-021 comparative term, as 1-032 completion 1-002 concurrent completion, to 18-066 – 18-080 distinguishing concurrent and pacing delays to progress 18-024 distinguishing concurrent and parallel delays 18-018 – 18-022 distinguishing concurrent and sequential delays 18-023 distinguishing delay and financial loss 18-035 – 18-038 distinguishing delay to progress from delay to completion 18-015 , 18-016 parallel causes of delay to completion 18-097 – 18-102 parallel delays to progress 18-059 – 18-065 progress, and 18-039 – 18-065 SCL Protocol 10-040 sequential causes of delay to completion 18-081 – 18-096 sequential delays to progress 18-044 – 18-058 culpable delay 11-090 , 11-193 , 11-196 , 11-201 , 11-202 , 11-204 extensions of time critical delay to the work 6-030 delay actually occurred 6-036 – 6-038 delay to progress 6-002 – 6-013 developer’s time risk event occurring in period of culpable delay to completion date 6-100 – 6-105 likely and actual delay to completion date 6-031 – 6-043 relevant delay 6-042 facts of delay 13-193 – 13-235 forecasting delay 10-005 -10-013 foreseeable delay 11-200 managing effects of delay 10-016 meanings 1-030 , 1-031 nominated subcontractors and suppliers’ delay 4-196 , 4-197 receiving instructions, in 4-204 – 4-231 acceleration of schedule, and 4-207 C behind programme 4-208 contract completion date, and 4-209 having regard to completion date 4-206 instructions to suit contractor’s advanced schedule 4-231 specific request for information 4-210 – 4-225 retrospective analysis 7-077 , 14-019 , 14-020 standard clauses of delay 4-028 – 4-266 standard form provisions, meaning of delay 2-027 Design meaning 12-070 Design and build contracts 3-030 – 3-035 cost control 3-032 developer’s requirements 3-031 risk, and 3-034 , 3-035 Design risk 2-095 – 2-108 accelerated design programmes 2-102 approximate bills 2-108 communication between developer and designer 2-101 errors 2-095 fitness for purpose 2-096 freezing design at scheme design stage 2-104 key concepts 2-096 M&E engineering consultants 2-103 needs of client 2-099 post-contract design 2-105 – 2-107 reappraisal of design 2-106 reasonable skill and care 2-096 relevant factors 2-098 remedial work 2-100 statistics 2-097 Detailed plan 7-024 Developer’s acts or omissions causation, and 14-045 – 14-060 quantum meruit , and 21-211 – 21-223 Development control 2-193 Development programme 7-038 – 7-042 Diligently meaning 11-011 – 11-013 Dilution of supervision lost productivity, and 17-075 – 17-077 Page 1143 Direct labour costs damages, and 21-042 – 21-052 Disclosure 13-236 – 13-275 costs, and 22-015 electronic documents 13-254 – 13-263 experts’ documents 13-264 , 13-265 failure to disclose 13-243 – 13-251 privileged communications 13-206 – 13-275 purpose 13-242 scope 13-252 standard 13-238 Discovery 13-226 – 13-275 Discrepancies 12-110 – 12-135 Dispute boards 24-001 – 24-089 see also DBs Dispute resolution 22-085 – 22-098 see also Conciliation, Mediation adjudication 22-106 – 22-112 arbitration 22-114 – 22-122 causes of dispute 22-085 choice of method 22-086 differences 22-088 expert determination 22-100 – 22-105 final and binding 22-113 informal methods 22-086 litigation, and 22-121 , 12-122 non-binding 22-089 – 22-090 procedures 22-090 Dispute risk 2-086 – 2-094 costs, and 2-086 inadequate legal knowledge, and 2-091 Multiplex 2-087 natural justice, and 2-094 reduction of 2-088 statistics 2-089 unread conditions of contract 2-092 Disruption meaning 1-034 , 17-002 , 17-003 Divergences 12-110 – 12-135 Document management systems 13-226 Documentary evidence 13-168 – 13-171 DRBs 24-036 – 24-041 Duress 22-065 – 22-074 Early completion programme preparation, and 7-091 – 7-097 Early warnings 5-003 – 5-007 Earned value monitoring 9-116 – 9-118 Economic duress 22-065 – 22-074 elements 22-068 – 22-074 EDI agreement 13-055 – 13-057 Editing standard forms 2-074 – 2-077 Egress 4-164 – 4-170 Eichleay formula 21-185 – 21-187 Electronic data exchange 13-051 – 13-066 technologies 13-052 Electronic documents disclosure 13-254 – 13-263 Emden formula 21-189 Equitable adjustment 1-016 Errors lost productivity, and 17-053 – 17-055 Errors in contract documents 4-081 – 4-102 Evidence 13-160 – 13-192 computer generated 13-185 – 13-191 database records 13-172 – 13-184 documentary 13-168 – 13-171 facts of delay 13-193 – 13-235 manual sorting of 13-204 – 13-207 multi-volume collections 13-208 , 13-209 oral 13-161 – 13-167 presentation 13-160 – 13-192 retrospective assembly 13-196 – 13-203 single-volume tagged collections 13-210 – 13-216 sorting on databases 13-217 – 13-235 strength of records 13-192 Excepted risks 2-152 – 2-162 Exceptionally inclement weather 4-123 , 4-127 – 4-129 Exclusion clauses damages, and 21-264 – 21-291 Expert determination 22-100 – 22-105 Expert opinion lost productivity, and 17-160 – 17-162 Experts 22-029 – 22-056 contents of report 22-046 contracting technical advice 22-040 duties 22-045 , 22-047 independence 22-043 joint statement 22-051 meetings without prejudice 22-052 need of tribunal, and 22-037 reports 22-031 – 22-036 research, and 22-050 task of 22-042 two reports 22-038 Experts’ documents disclosure 13-264 , 13-265 Extended working hours lost productivity, and 17-066 – 17-069 Extensions of time 6-001 – 6-105 bar chart 6-064 – 6-067 calculating entitlement 10-036 change management, and 10-072 coldly logical approach 6-057 concurrency, and see Concurrency conditional upon notice 5-110 – 5-150 conduct requiring 11-110 , 11-116 consequences 6-028 , 6-029 constructive change 6-059 contract administrator, role of 6-014 – 6-030 critical delay to the work 6-030 delay actually occurred 6-036 – 6-038 delay to progress 6-002 – 6-013 developer’s time risk event occurring in period of culpable delay to completion date 6-100 – 6-105 Page 1144 fair and reasonable 6-020 – 6-030 , 6-056 forming opinion 6-044 – 6-068 critical path, and 6-051 – 6-054 factual matrix 6-049 reasoned manner 6-046 holiday period 6-003 – 6-005 inoperable power 6-134 – 6-173 assessing reasonable time to complete 6-143 – 6-158 no completion date under contract 6-165 – 6-168 no contract, where 6-159 – 6-164 stipulated contract period 6-169 – 6-173 likely and actual delay to completion date 6-031 – 6-043 logical analysis 6-063 measurement of interim extensions of time 10-018 negotiating award 6-069 – 6-074 no power, where 6-130 – 6-133 original planned schedule, and 6-018 purpose 6-001 relevant delay 6-042 restricted working calendars 6-006 reviewing award 6-088 – 6-099 rules of measurement, and 6-060 standard forms 4-005 – 4-008 time risk event 6-032 , 6-033 timing of award 6-075 – 6-087 Facts of delay 13-193 – 13-235 Failure to pay 4-037 – 4-041 Failure to perform causation, and 14-099 – 14-106 Familiarisation planning, and 7-021 Financial risk 2-142 – 2-147 committing resources 2-143 inflation 2-147 investment decision 2-142 money-related 2-144 tendering below cost 2-145 , 2-146 Financing costs damages, and 21-119 – 21-137 Fire insurable risk 2-155 , 2-156 Fitness for purpose risk, and 2-049 , 2-050 Float calculation 16-009 – 16-011 data 16-009 definition 16-058 – 16-060 elusive concept 16-007 free 16-012 – 16-017 independent 16-018 , 16-019 interfering 16-020 , 16-021 meaning 16-001 – 16-005 negative 16-043 standard form provisions 16-058 – 16-072 time contingencies 16-044 – 16-057 total 16-022 – 16-042 see also Total float who owns 16-073 – 16-150 Flow chart 8-018 , 8-019 Force majeure 4-053 – 4-080 change in economic/market circumstances 4-057 – 4-059 civil commotion 4-241 – 4-253 definition 4-062 – 4-080 interpretation 4-054 strikes 4-241 – 4-253 weather, and 4-142 Forecasting delay 10-005 -10-013 Forensic meaning 15-001 Forensic programme analysis 15-001 – 15-175 analytical methods 15-061 – 15-163 as-built schedule 15-047 as-planned impacted 15-077 – 15-116 as-planned updated versus as-planned updated 15-069 – 15-076 as-planned versus as-built 15-061 – 15-068 collapsed as-built 15-117 – 15-148 correcting planned programme 15-019 – 15-036 dynamic methods 15-006 planned programme 15-017 preparing materials 15-017 – 15-060 static methods 15-005 time impact analysis 15-149 – 15-163 updating planned programme with progress 15-037 – 15-046 use of 15-004 watersheds 15-164 – 15-175 windows 15-164 – 15-175 Formula adjustments damages, and 21-159 – 21-191 Fossils 4-264 – 4-266 Free float 16-012 – 16-017 potential ambiguity with contingency 16-075 – 16-087 Fraud 22-075 – 22-084 Gantt chart 8-008 , 8-009 Global claim 19-001 – 19-072 court applied tests 19-072 defence to 19-062 – 19-072 difficulties 19-009 – 19-012 essential character 19-040 fully pleaded 19-060 meaning 19-006 , 19-007 particularisation 19-043 – 19-059 problem with 19-001 record keeping, and 13-005 – 13-007 total time or loss claim distinguished 19-004 – 19-008 Goods and materials damages, and 21-074 – 21-078 Page 1145 Government acts 4-181 , 4-182 Graphs 14-216 – 14-222 Greenfield sites biddability risk, and 2-116 Groundworks construction risk, and 2-128 – 2-135 Guaranteed maximum price 3-056 – 3-059 Head office costs damages, and 21-111 – 21-116 Health and safety 4-254 Hierarchy of documents 4-081 – 4-084 High-rise building projects risk 2-005 Histograms 14-216 – 14-222 Holyrood 2-009 Hong Kong forms project planning and programming 2-053 Hudson formula 21-188 Human rights adjudication in UK, and 23-003 , 23-007 – 23-022 Identifying cost of project controls 10-090 Implied instruction for change 12-003 Implied terms 2-078 – 2-085 business efficacy 2-078 , 2-083 commercial necessity 2-084 commercial risk allocation, and 2-081 criteria 2-079 established trade usage 2-083 inherent in legal relationship 2-083 principles 2-080 sole supplier 2-085 Inclement weather 4-124 – 4-126 Inconsistencies in contract documents 4-081 – 4-102 Independent float 16-018 , 16-019 Independent information management 13-120 – 13-134 Inference of causation 14-191 – 14-252 cause and effect matrix 14-199 – 14-207 graphs 14-216 – 14-222 histograms 14-216 – 14-222 Scott schedules 14-208 – 14-215 Inflation 2-147 Ingress 4-164 – 4-170 In-house departments 22-024 – 22-026 Injury or damage to property 2-157 – 2-162 Inspection 13-236 – 13-275 Instructed variation causation, and 14-082 – 14-087 Instructed variations and changes 4-103 – 4-120 change, definition 4-115 , 4-116 changes within scope of contract 4-106 expenditure of provision sums 4-119 expressly excusable 4-114 Insurable risk 2-150 – 2-162 damage caused by carrying out works, and 4-255 – 4-259 damage to structures owned by third party 2-154 damages, and 21-117 , 21-118 excepted risks 2-152 – 2-162 fire 2-155 , 2-156 from whatever cause 2-161 injury or damage to property 2-157 – 2-162 specified perils 2-150 , 2-151 transfer of 2-153 Interfering float 16-020 , 16-021 Internet weather information via 4-131 Interpretation of contracts principles 2-072 , 2-073 Itemised bills of quantities biddability risk, and 2-122 Investment decision 2-142 Jagged line monitoring 9-136 – 9-143 JCT forms risk 2-019 , 2-020 JCT Major Projects Contract costs and time management 4-325 – 4-366 risk management 4-357 – 4-364 Key dates 7-098 – 7-109 Latent conditions 4-154 Learning curve lost productivity, and 17-078 – 17-080 Legal risk 2-064 – 2-085 court interpretations 2-066 editing standard forms 2-074 – 2-077 implied terms 2-078 – 2-085 see also Implied terms intentions of parties 2-070 , 2-071 interpretation of commercial contracts 2-072 , 2-073 interpretation of standard forms, effect 2-069 issues 2-064 ways in which arising 2-065 where falling 2-067 , 2-068 Line-of-balance chart 8-020 – 8-026 Liquidated damages 21-224 – 21-246 construction management contracts 3-039 exclusive remedy 21-228 – 21-231 failure to quantify 21-242 – 21-246 mandatory laws 25-013 – 25-016 penalties 21-232 – 21-241 standard form provisions 21-225 – 21-227 Litigation 22-119 – 22-122 Local authorities negligence 2-172 – 2-179 Logical relationships 7-116 – 7-125 Page 1146 Logistics lost productivity, and 17-081 , 17-082 Loss of future profits damages, and 21-140 – 21-145 Loss of morale lost productivity, and 17-065 Loss of productivity damages, and 21-089 – 21-097 loss of future profits, and 17-065 Loss or expense, recovery of 4-267 – 4-366 CIOB Complex Projects Contract 4-325 – 4-366 claims procedure 4-300 – 4-321 compensable events 4-280 – 4-299 compensable risks 4-295 , 4-296 compensation for disruption to progress 4-322 – 4-324 conditions contrary to public interest 4-299 developer’s cost risk events 4-282 – 4-293 direct loss and/or expense 4-267 JCT Major Projects Contract 4-325 – 4-366 priced activity schedule 4-279 standard forms provisions 4-268 – 4-276 valuation 4-274 – 4-278 variations 4-294 Lost productivity acceleration 17-046 – 17-052 accounting for effects of separate events 17-137 – 17-147 adverse weather 17-059 – 17-064 analysis 17-088 – 17-162 actual impacted versus actual unimpacted 17-124 – 17-147 benchmark data versus actual 17-122 – 17-123 historic versus actual 17-118 –17.121 planned versus actual 17-102 – 17-107 burden of proof 17-005 , 17-006 causation 17-007 conditions causing 17-031 – 17-034 difficulty of measurement 17-018 dilution of supervision 17-075 – 17-077 errors 17-053 – 17-055 expert opinion 17-160 – 17-162 extended working hours 17-066 – 17-069 inducing productivity norms versus actual 17-108 – 17-117 learning curve 17-078 – 17-080 logistics 17-081 , 17-082 loss and expense suffered 17-004 – 17-008 loss of morale 17-065 matters to be proved 17-004 measured mile 17-124 – 17-159 omissions 17-053 – 17-055 partial possession 17-056 – 17-058 reassignment of manpower 17-070 – 17-074 records, and 17-025 – 17-030 recovery 17-046 – 17-052 ripple 17-083 – 17-085 resource-based planning 17-019 – 17-024 site restrictions 17-081 , 17-082 staffing 17-035 – 17-037 trade stacking 17-086 , 17-087 variations 17-038 – 17-045 M & t engineering consultants design risks, and 2-103 Management contracting risk, and 2-037 Management contracting contracts 3-047 – 3-055 advantages 3-052 default by subcontractors 3-048 failures 3-054 influences on site times 3-055 obligations of management contractor 3-051 relationship between risk and tender premium 3-049 works contractors 3-053 Management costs damages, and 21-08 – 21-073 Managing effect of change 10-071 – 10-088 see also Change Management disruption 10-074 first step-programme update 10-080 frozen design 10-076 negotiation of variations 10-077 potential fifth step-acceleration 10-085 – 10-088 potential fourth step-event impacting 10-084 second step-programme review for better information 10-081 significance 10-073 third step-recovery 10-082 , 10-083 variation 10-072 Mandatory laws in international construction contracts 25-001 – 25-026 decennial liability 25-023 – 25-026 definitions 25-002 liquidated damages 25-013 – 25-016 practical completion 25-017 – 25-022 priority 25-003 private international law 25-006 – 25-009 taking-over 25-017 – 25-022 time-bar clauses 25-010 – 25-012 Manifest error biddability risk, and 2-121 Master programme 7-028 – 7-037 Measured mile 17-124 – 17-159 Mediation 22-091 – 22-095 see also Dispute Resolution, Conciliation advisory bodies 22-092 forums 22-092 mediation clauses, 22-095 mediators 22-091 permission 22-093 procedure 22-094 Page 1147 Milestone monitoring 9-119 – 9-122 Milestone programme 8-029 – 8-032 Milestones 7-098 – 7-109 Mismanagement of time consequences 1-003 standard forms, and 1-007 Misrepresentation 22-075 – 22-084 Mitigation 11-001 – 11-020 meaning 11-001 principles 11-002 question of fact 11-004 standard form provisions 11-021 – 11-092 Modelling 9-008 Monitoring standard form provisions 9-033 – 9-060 Natural justice dispute risks, and 2-094 Negative float 16-043 Negligence local authorities 2-172 – 2-179 Network diagrams 8-033 – 8-035 Nominated subcontractors and suppliers 4-189 – 4-203 delay 4-197 effect of nomination 4-195 failure to complete on time 4-190 three-sided arrangement 4-194 Non-productive overtime damages, and 21-053 – 21-057 Notice as condition precedent 5-110 – 5-165 barring clause 5-116 compensation conditional upon notice 5-151 – 5-165 consequences of non-compliance 5-133 contra proferentem rule 5-130 express provision 5-115 extension of time conditional upon notice 5-110 – 5-150 “on receiving a notice” 5-112 prevention principle 5-134 – 5-150 Notices 5-008 – 5-109 advice as to cause of delay 5-039 condition precedent, as 5-110 – 5-165 constructive 5-030 – 5-032 contents 5-033 – 5-054 form of 5-024 – 5-029 nature of 5-012 – 5-023 period of 5-055 – 5-080 second 5-081 – 5-089 service of 5-097 – 5-109 waiver of 5-090 – 5-096 written 5-024 – 5-029 Occupational programme 7-055 – 7-057 Omissions 12-136 – 12-153 lost productivity, and 17-053 – 17-055 Oral evidence 13-161 – 13-167 Outline plan 7-022 Pacing 18-122 – 18-140 concurrency, and 18-122 – 18-140 Partial possession lost productivity, and 17-056 – 17-058 Partnering 3-060 – 3-063 Penalties 21-232 – 21-241 , – 21-260 PIX Protocol 13-061 – 13-066 Planning anticipation, and 7-016 decisions involved 7-015 detailed plan 7-024 effective strategy 7-019 familiarisation 7-021 nature of 7-001 outline plan 7-022 personal 7-017 sequential process 7-003 statistics 7-018 strategic plan 7-023 Plant and equipment damages, and 21-079 – 21-088 Political risk 2-148 , 2-149 Poor project programming 1-009 Poor record keeping 1-009 Postponement 4-171 , 4-172 Precedence diagram 8-043 – 8-047 Preliminaries damages, and 21-100 – 21-110 Presentation of programmes 8-001 – 8-091 compliance with scheduling specifications 8-006 financial attractiveness 8-005 methods 8-002 standard form provisions 8-050 – 8-091 acceptance 8-054 – 8-091 approval 8-054 – 8-091 initial programme 8-050 – 8-053 rejection 8-054 – 8-091 Prevention principle generally 6-114 – 6-129 notice as condition precedent, and 5-134 – 5-150 Private finance initiative 3-064 – 3-072 Private international law 25-006 – 25-009 Private nuisance 2-183 , 2-184 Privileged communications disclosure 13-266 – 13-275 risk, and 2-059 , 2-060 Probability estimates risk, and 2-059 , 2-060 Procurement arrangements 3-056 – 3-072 Productivity see also Lost productivity indices 17-011 meaning 17-010 VATFP 17-012 , 17-013 Profit on costs damages, and 21-138 , 21-139 Programme 1-025 activity coding 7-232 Page 1148 approval 8-001 – 8-091 contract document, as 7-222 – 7-228 core principles 7-234 method of compilation 7-229 presentation 8-001 – 8-091 pricing requirements 7-243 – 7-247 specifying requirements 7-229 – 7-242 standard form requirements 7-179 – 7-247 see also Standard form requirements for programmes subject-matter 7-241 varieties 7-026 – 7-065 Programme preparation 7-068 – 7-163 activity durations 7-126 – 7-142 calculating durations 7-143 – 7-163 contract period 7-085 – 7-090 early completion 7-091 – 7-097 key dates 7-098 – 7-109 logical relationships 7-116 – 7-125 milestones 7-098 – 7-109 sectional completion 7-098 – 7-109 work content 7-110 – 7-115 Programme revision 9-061 – 9-068 Programme updating 9-069 – 9-088 Programming development process 7-025 nature of 7-001 Progress monitoring 9-089 – 9-149 meaning 9-004 methods 9-090 purpose 9-089 Progress records 13-015 – 13-025 CIOB Guide 13-021 – 13-025 failure to keep 13-018 holistic approach 13-016 Progress reporting 9-150 – 9-175 Project control 10-001 – 10-094 benefits 10-004 choices 10-003 cost, and 10-032 – 10-034 identifying cost 10-090 redress for failure to comply 10-091 – 10-094 SCL Protocol 10-014 – 10-044 see also SCL Protocol scope 10-001 time and damage 10-002 Project planning and programming contingency 2-057 , 2-058 decisions 2-051 effective monitoring of the works 2-055 importance 2-052 Hong Kong forms 2-053 risk, and 2-051 – 2-062 Project planning model statements 7-164 – 7-178 activities 7-172 communication 7-174 consultation 7-174 density of schedule, and 7-176 high density 7-178 medium density 7-177 purpose 7-168 requirements 7-171 time management strategy 7-174 Project procurement 3-001 – 3-072 CIOB Guide 3-003 , 3-004 types of contract 3-016 – 3-055 Project time manager 3-011 Projects meaning 3-004 Prolongation 18-103 – 18-121 concurrency, and 18-103 – 18-121 concurrent causes 18-103 – 18-112 parallel cause 18-116 – 18-121 sequential causes 18-113 – 18-115 Proportionality causation, and 14-173 – 14-190 PSSC 3-014 Public private partnership 3-064 – 3-072 Quality control 4-232 – 4-240 Quantifying predictive loss 21-247 – 21-291 likely outgoings 21-262 Quantum meruit 21-192 – 21-223 anticipation of contract 21-198 application of doctrine 21-193 contract price, and 21-203 developer’s damages 21-211 – 21-223 frustration, and 21-207 letter of intent, and 21-208 – 21-210 variations, and 21-204 Rate of progress meaning 11-080 Reasonable skill and care risk, and 2-049 Reassignment of manpower lost productivity, and 17-070 – 17-074 Record keeping 13-003 – 13-014 chain of causation, and 13-036 – 13-037 change control, and 13-026 – 13-041 changed circumstances 13-040 , 13-041 facts of delay 13-193 – 13-235 global claim, and 13-005 – 13-007 points to be addressed 13-038 standard form provisions 13-135 – 13-159 statistics 13-034 , 13-035 Record retrieval 13-042 – 13-050 computerised database 13-045 , 13-046 Records lost productivity, and 17-025 – 17-030 Recovery effect 11-014 failure 11-189 – 11-213 lost productivity, and 17-046 – 17-052 meaning 11-008 Page 1149 methods 11-137 – 11-188 changing sequence of activities 11-151 – 11-157 increasing motivation 11-166 increasing resources 11-167 – 11-169 increasing working time 11-170 – 11-188 logic changes 11-158 – 11-163 omissions 11-146 – 11-150 using different method of working 11-164 , 11-165 standard form provisions 11-021 – 11-092 Regularly meaning 11-011 – 11-013 Re-measurement build-only contract 3-028 Re-measurement contracts risk 2-036 Reporting meaning 9-005 standard form provisions 9-033 – 9-060 Request for further information 22-151 – 22-154 Retrospective delay analysis 7-077 Residential occupiers adjudication in UK 23-0455– 23-047 Resource-based planning lost productivity, and 17-019 – 17-024 Resource monitoring 9-097 – 9-104 Revision meaning 9-002 standard form provisions 9-033 – 9-060 RIBA Plan of Work 2013 3-015 Ripple lost productivity, and 17-083 – 17-085 Risk 2-001 – 2-193 acts of prevention 2-046 advice on 2-014 allocation 2-103 – 2-015 , 2-038 – 2-164 bespoke form, and 2-044 biddability see Biddability risk buildablity see Buildability risk categorisation 2-017 commercial negotiation 2-041 complex projects 2-004 computerised simulation 2-061 – 2-063 conflicting interests of parties 2-040 construction see Construction risk design see Design risk design and build contracts 3-034 , 3-035 dispute see Dispute risk distribution 2-042 financial see Financial risk fitness for purpose, and 2-049 , 2-050 high-rise building projects 2-005 identifying 2-016 ill-considered transference 2-025 influence of variables 2-012 , 2-013 insurable 2-150 – 2-162 JCT forms 2-019 , 2-020 judicial interpretations of common law and statute 2-047 legal see Legal risk management 2-015 , 2-016 management contracting 2-037 managing risk of change 2-031 obligations of professional and tradesman 2-048 political see Political risk probability estimates 2-059 , 2-060 project planning and programming 2-051 – 2-062 reasonable skill and care 2-049 registers 2-033 re-measurement contracts 2-036 responsibilities of parties 2-038 sources 2-010 , 2-011 standard form provisions 2-018 – 2-037 clarity, need for 2-026 delay, meaning 2-027 first reference 2-023 inconsistency 2-035 , 2-036 interpretational problems 2-027 – 2-029 placing risks on developer 2-032 statistics 2-001 – 2-003 theories of apportionment 2-043 Risk allocation tort, and 2-169 Schedule 1-025 Schedule logic 7-078 Scheduling see also “Critical path method” approval and presentation activity-based CPM schedule 8-002 , 8-034 complex projects 8-002 computer programmes 8-001 contract requirements 8-005 contract specification 8-003 , 8-004 CPM-based algorithms 8-002 electronic information 8-004 engineering contracts 8-004 generally, 8-001 line of balance charts 8-020 management information 8-004 methods, 8-002 milestone charts 8-029 – 8-032 network diagrams, 8-033 , 8-034 network planning techniques 8-035 precedence diagrams 8-043 resource loading 8-002 software 8-002 specifications 8-006 standard form contracts 8-004 time change diagrams 8-027 , 8-028 Page 1150 contract administrators 7-010 delay analysis 7-002 development process 7-025 excusable delay 7-008 late 8-005 planning detailed 7-024 execution, of 7-019 extent 7-016 familiarisation 7-021 ineffective 7-018 outline plan 7-022 personal 7-017 process 7-015 strategic plan 7-023 programming 7-025 progress monitoring 9-004 , 9-086 accepted methods 9-090 comparison 9-094 CTS purpose 9-089 target CPM 9-096 reporting 9-005 updating 9-069 SCL Protocol 1-004 , 1-005 , 10-014 – 10-044 calculating entitlement to extension of time 10-036 complex scheduling and record-keeping equipment 10-042 concurrent causes of delay 10-040 contemporaneous project control 10-019 critical path network 10-023 float 10-037 identification of activities 10-024 information 10-025 managing effects of delay 10-016 measurement of interim extensions of time 10-018 nature of 10-015 objection to electronic access to schedule 10-031 public health guide, as 10-043 record-keeping 10-026 , 10-027 retrospective analysis 10-017 schedule and records 10-020 update of contractor’s schedule 10-028 – 10-030 Scott schedules 14-208 – 14-215 Second notice 5-081 – 5-089 Sectional completion 7-098 – 7-109 Sequencing problems 2-111 Service of notice 5-097 – 5-109 business day 5-105 , 5-106 company names, and 5-098 copy to third party 5-099 – 5-101 deemed 5-106 – 5-108 fax 5-103 named person 5-102 personal 5-104 Settlement 22-057 – 22-064 ad hoc negotiations 22-057 duress, and see Duress enforceability 22-064 failure of negotiations 22-059 , 22-060 strategies 22-058 without prejudice communications 22-061 Simple projects characteristics 3-004 Site restrictions lost productivity, and 17-081 , 17-082 Smoke and mirrors 14-253 – 14-264 Soft-spots 4-145 Special circumstances 4-052 Specified perils 2-150 , 2-151 Staff costs damages, and 21-058 – 21-067 Staffing lost productivity, and 17-035 – 17-037 Standard clauses of delay 4-028 – 4-266 Standard form provisions change 12-030 – 12-157 float 16-058 – 16-072 liquidated damages 21-225 – 21-227 mitigation 11-021 – 11-092 monitoring 9-033 – 9-060 programming 8-050 – 8-091 record-keeping 13-135 – 13-159 recovery 11-021 – 11-092 reporting 9-033 – 9-060 revision 9-033 – 9-060 risk 2-018 – 2-037 Standard form provisions for time and cost 4-001 – 4-366 extensions of time 4-005 – 4-008 variation 4-004 Standard form requirements for programmes 7-179 – 7-247 defined provisional sums 7-193 desirable standards 7-208 inadequacy of 7-179 , 7-180 interfacing, reality of 7-219 monitoring 7-209 , 7-210 scheduling 7-182 – 7-204 Standard forms editing 2-074 – 2-077 mismanagement of time, and 1-007 Statements of case 22-123 – 22-129 amendment 22-147 – 22-150 striking out 22-155 – 22-159 Statement of claim 22-001 – 22-008 , 22-130 – 22-136 Statutory compensation schemes 2-181 , 2-182 Statutory duties 2-165 – 2-193 Statutory undertaker 4-174 tort, and 2-185 – 2-188 Strategic plan 7-023 Strikes 4-241 –40253 Page 1151 Structured reading meaning 13-228 Subcontractors construction risk, and 2-136 – 2-138 Subcontractor’s programmes 7-059 – 7-067 Suspension of works causation, and 14-088 – 14-098 Target costs 3-056 – 3-059 Target CPM programme monitoring 9-091 – 9-096 Target programme 7-028 – 7-037 Temporary works damages, and 21-098 , 21-099 Tender programme 7-028 – 7-037 , 7-043 – 7-046 Terminology 1-019 – 1-034 Terms of contract causation, and 14-134 – 14-159 Terrorism 4-248 , 4-251 The contractor 1-021 The developer 1-022 The works 1-024 Time and cost standard form provisions 4-001 – 4-366 Time at large 6-106 – 6-129 completion prevented, when 6-114 – 6-129 no contract completion date under contract 6-112 , 6-113 no contract, where 6-108 – 6-111 Time-bar clauses mandatory laws, and 25-010 – 25-012 Time chainage diagram 8-027 , 8-028 Time contingencies 16-044 – 16-057 Time impact analysis 15-149 – 15-163 Time management guide to good practice 7-006 level of advance 2-006 standard of education and training 7-005 standards 2-008 Tort 2-165 – 2-193 basic concept 2-165 developer and third parties 2-168 economic loss 2-106 , 2-170 essential elements 2-165 negligence by third-party local authorities 2-172 – 2-179 remoteness of damage 2-167 risk allocation, and 2-169 special relationship 2-106 statutory undertaker 2-185 – 2-188 utilities 2-185 – 2-188 Total float 16-022 – 16-042 ad hoc creation 16-088 – 16-096 belongs to contractor 16-123 – 16-133 belongs to developer 16-120 – 16-122 belongs to first to get to it 16-134 – 16-150 contingency, interpretation as 16-097 – 16-119 absence of completion constraint on planned work 16-100 – 16-106 applied completion constraint upon placed work 16-103 – 16-106 applied fixed lag between unconstrained milestones 16-110 – 16-112 contract duration bar 16-115 – 16-119 non-driving link between applied constraints 16-107 – 16-109 time contingency activity 16-113 , 16-114 Total loss claim 19-001 – 19-072 defence to 19-030 – 19-039 difficulties 19-009 – 19-012 permissible, when 19-022 Total time claim 19-001 – 19-072 defence to 19-017 – 19-020 difficulties 19-009 – 19-012 meaning 19-013 Trade stacking lost productivity, and 17-086 , 17-087 Trade usage implied terms, and 2-083 Unabsorbed overheads damages, and 21-146 – 21-158 Undefined provisional sums 12-101 Unforeseeable physical conditions 4-144 – 4-163 adverse ground conditions or artificial obstructions 4-152 artificial obstructions 4-157 latent conditions 4-154 objective approach 4-150 soft-spots 4-145 subjective approach 4-149 Unjust enrichment 21-194 Updating meaning 9-003 standard form provisions 9-033 – 9-060 US government procurement contracts 1-015 Utilities tort, and 2-185 – 2-188 Value engineering 12-154 – 12-157 Variation 12-001 – 12-197 see also Change ambiguities 12-110 – 12-135 definition 12-032 – 12-036 , 12-038 , 12-043 , 12-048 , 12-049 , 12-056 , 12-059 discrepancies 12-110 – 12-135 divergences 12-110 – 12-135 drawings 12-019 extra work 12-026 , 12-027 instruction, definition 12-055 legitimate power to instruct 12-015 lost productivity, and 17-028 – 17-045 necessary work 12-023 , 12-024 omissions 12-136 – 12-153 post-contract design 12-021 price 12-017 Page 1152 right of reasonable objection 12-050 standard form provisions 12-030 – 12-157 VATFP 17-012 , 17-013 Visual aids 9-161 – 9-175 activity lists 9-167 assessment tables 9-168 bar charts 9-169 – 9-171 cascade diagrams 9-167 computer printouts 9-167 computer-generated visualisations 13-249 descriptive visualisations 9-162 , 13-188 , 14-250 electronic spreadsheets, 9-175 evidential visualisations 9-165 , 13-191 graphs 9-172 – 9-174 histograms 9-169 illustrative visualisations 9-164 , 13-190 , 14-252 introductory visualisations 9-163 , 13-189 , 14-251 probative value 9-161 progress reports 9-150 – 9-160 Visualisations computer-generated 13-249 descriptive 9-162 , 13-188 , 14-250 evidential 9-165 , 13-191 illustrative 9-164 , 13-190 , 14-252 introductory 9-163 , 13-189 , 14-251 Voluntary change 12-002 War 4-249 – 4-252 Watersheds analytical method 15-164 – 15-175 Weather 4-121 – 4-143 actual effect of conditions 4-139 average 4-132 – 4-135 causation 4-133 construction risk, and 2-140 , 2-141 exceptionally inclement 4-123 , 4-127 – 4-129 force majeure, and 4-142 inclement 4-124 – 4-126 information via internet 4-131 measurement 4-136 , 4-137 the force of nature, and 4-141 variable conditions 4-121 Windows analytical method 15-164 – 15-175 Work content 7-110 – 7-115 Work content monitoring 9-144 – 9-149 Working programme 7-047 – 7-054

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