Bills of Lading
13.1 Without freight there would, of course, be no merchant shipping and no need for bills of lading. The carrier’s right to freight is a fundamental aspect of carriage of goods by sea. This chapter covers the subject of freight due under bills of lading, as opposed to charterparty freight or hire.1 However, the majority of disputes over “bill of lading” freight arise in cases where one or more charterparties are also in place. Thus, a consideration of this topic cannot ignore altogether the law relevant to charterparties.