SECURITY OF SHIPS AND SHIPPING OPERATIONS
The security of international shipping operations had first been formally recognised in the wake of the hijacking of the cruise vessel Achille Lauro in 1985. As a result, the IMO produced draft guidelines titled “Measures to prevent unlawful acts which threaten the safety of ships and the security of their passengers and crew”. The guidelines became the first internationally approved formula which sets out what the shipping community had to do in order to provide proper protection against the threat of terrorism. However, it was not until the aftermath of the terrorist attacks of 11 September 2001 that the international shipping industry saw the introduction on 1 July 2004 of structured and targeted security legislation in the guise of the ISPS code. In 2005, the World Customs Organization (WCO) adopted the SAFE Framework of Standards to secure and facilitate global trade in co-operation with relevant intergovernmental organisations, notably the IMO.
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