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INDEX

Modern Maritime Law Volume 2: Managing Risks and Liabilities

INDEX

INDEX

  • accidents
  • accountability of harbour authorities 690, 715–16
  • Admiralty, contribution between joint tortfeasors by statute in 449–51
  • Advisory Committee on Pilotage (Pilotage Commission) 713
  • agents
    • limitation of liability 746–7
    • negligence 802
  • aggregation doctrine, attribution of liability 125
  • ‘agony of the moment’ defence, collisions at sea 432–3
  • aircraft, salvage 491
  • AISs (automatic identification systems) 34, 35
  • ALARP (as low as reasonably practicable mnemonic) 9, 689, 690
  • Alert (journal) 10
  • Alfa I incident (2012) 845
  • Al Jaziah 1 incident (2000) 835
  • alter ego of company or corporation
    • concept 98–9
    • concept of alter ego distinguished from ego of company 99
    • insurance issues 111
    • or identification doctrine 97
    • privity, meaning 99
    • towage contracts 608
  • alternative danger defence, collisions at sea 432–3
  • anti-fouling provisions 827
  • appurtenances 173
  • assignment
    • shipbuilding contracts 284–5
    • tenants in common 136
  • Associated British Ports/Associated British Port Holdings (ABPH) 683
  • Association of Norwegian Marine Yards 222
  • Association of West Europe Shipbuilders 222
  • Athens Convention 2002 (previously 2002 Protocol to PAL 1974 Convention) 791
    • competent jurisdiction and recognition of judgments 813–14
    • compulsory insurance 810
    • contributory negligence 810
    • death or personal injury, limits applied for 812
    • defences 811
    • developments leading to adoption of 793–4
    • direct action 810–11
    • EU status 807
    • financial security 810–11
    • interest and legal costs 812
    • international status 806
    • liability
      • cabin luggage, loss or damage 809
      • defect in ship 808
      • fault-based liability for death or personal injury caused by a non-shipping incident 809
      • incidents occurring during carriage 809
      • loss of right to limit 811–12
      • other luggage or vehicles, loss of or damage to 809
      • period and extent of 809
      • right to limit 811–12
      • strict liability for death or personal injury caused by a shipping incident 808
      • two bases of liability and two-tier limits under 807–9
    • luggage 809, 812
    • ‘pay first’ clauses 811
    • presumed fault under 809
    • recourse, right of 810
    • tacit acceptance procedure 793
    • time limits 812–13
    • valuables, carriage of 812
  • attribution of liability
    • alter ego of company or corporation see alter ego of company or corporation
    • collisions at sea 405
    • corporate personality and rules of attribution 97–8
    • identification doctrine 97, 100–3
    • International Safety Management (ISM), legal implications upon liabilities 104–31
      • carriage of goods contract, effect of ISM upon liability arising from 106–8
      • criminal liability and role of ISM Code 119–30
      • implications of ISM Code for criminal liabilities 131
      • insurance issues, effect of ISM upon 109–13
      • limitation of liability and role of ISM Code 113–19
    • Meridian rule 98, 103–4, 112
    • privity 99, 109, 110–11
    • ‘special rule of attribution’ 98
    • substantive rule of law 103, 104
    • vicarious liability doctrine 98
  • authority of ship managers
    • crew, engagement of 151
    • exceptional repairs 152
    • extent of authority to bind owners 150
    • issuing proceedings in name of principal 150
    • technical matters 151–2
  • automatic identification systems (AISs) 34, 35
  • ballast/laden method, repairs 470
  • ballast water
    • BWM Convention (International Convention for the Control and Management of Ships, Ballast Water and Sediments) 827–8
    • general safety and environmental measures 50–2
  • Ballast Water and Sediments Management Plan 827
  • Ballast Water Record Book 827
  • Baltic and International Maritime Council (BIMCO) 73, 147, 323, 746
    • ‘Guardcon’ 2012 (standard terms contract) 20
    • management agreements 135, 146, 147
    • NEWBUILDCON see NEWBUILDCON (standard new building contract)
    • towage contracts 582, 652
    • York-Antwerp Rules (YAR) 657
  • bareboat charterers 12–13
  • Basel II and III Implementation on Banking Supervision (Basel framework) 13
  • BC Code (Code of Safe Practice for Solid Bulk Cargoes) 48
  • best endeavours
    • and ‘all reasonable endeavours’/‘reasonable endeavours’ 526, 527, 610
    • good faith, negotiation in 294–6
    • judicial interpretation 525–8
    • management of ships
      • obligations of ship manager 152, 153–4, 155
      • and reasonable care 155–6
      • risk management in drafting of best endeavour clauses 154–5
    • meaning 482
    • and reasonable care 155–6
    • salvage
      • application of principles to 528–9
      • duties and conduct of salvors 524–40
    • towage, completion of 610–12
  • Best Management Practice (BPM4, 2011) 5, 7, 27
    • piracy risk assessment and planning guidelines 20, 21
  • Bierritz European Council, Erika II measures 34
  • BIMCO see Baltic and International Maritime Council (BIMCO)
  • ‘blind eye’ privity or knowledge 110–11, 779, 780
  • Blue Cards, IMO Reservation/Guidelines 2006 817
  • BMLA (British Maritime Law Association) 75
  • bottomry bonds, charges 178
  • BPM see Best Management Practice (BPM)
  • BP Shipping, safety culture philosophy 10
  • The Braer disaster (1993) 3, 69–70, 71
  • breach of contract
    • contractual protection of manager/employees
      • exclusion of liability 164
      • indemnity and Himalaya clauses 165–6
      • liability and limitation 165
    • damages 453
    • sale and purchase risks (second-hand ships) 294, 297
    • third-party contracts, interference by mortgagee 216
  • British Maritime Law Association (BMLA) 75
  • brokers, risk management by 307–8
  • bulk carriers 48–9, 222
  • ‘bunker oil’ 863
  • Bunkers Convention (Bunker Oil Pollution Damage Convention) 2001 821, 862–6
    • compulsory insurance 864–5
    • liability 863–4
    • more than one person liable 863
    • no provisions for limitation of liability 864
    • pollution damage 863
    • responder immunity 865–6
    • scope of application 862
  • burden of proof
    • collisions at sea
      • civil liability 411
      • damages and rule of remoteness of damage 451
      • duty of care, breach 419–20
    • limitation of liability issues 767
  • cargo
    • cargo-owners, authority of master to bind 589
    • Code of Safe Practice for Solid Bulk Cargoes (BC Code) 48
    • containerised, security for 563
    • damage to 775, 446–9
    • International Maritime Solid Bulk Cargoes Code (IMSBC Code) 48
    • loading risks 21
    • loss of or damage to 478–9
    • not part of security 174
    • unauthorized deck 668–9
    • voluntary services by owners 501–2
  • carriage of goods contract, effect of ISM upon liability arising from
  • causation
    • accidental, following marine accident 58
    • break in chain of, unreasonable conduct 369–70
    • CLC 1992 and Fund Conventions, application 839–40
    • collisions at sea
    • damages 452
    • in fact 422–4
    • foreseeability and break in chain 665–6
    • general average 665–6
    • in law 424–5
    • limitation or exclusion of liability, conduct barring 767
    • sale and purchase risks (second-hand ships)
      • ‘but for’ test (inducement and causation) 298, 301
      • ‘decisive part/real and substantial part’ (inducement and causation) 300
      • inducement to enter a contract 300–1
  • caveat emptor, effect 296
  • Central Register of British Ships, division of 142
  • certification 53, 72, 145, 341, 714
    • interim, under ISM Code 86–7
    • International Sewage Pollution Prevention (ISPP) 334, 335
    • ISM Code
    • and verification under ISM Code 85
  • channelling provisions, pollution
    • court having jurisdiction 850
    • government intervention 568
    • interpretation and exception to channeling 847–8
    • jurisdiction and procedural matters 850–2
    • MSAs, bringing claims for pollution damage under 851
    • persons protected by channelling 846–7
    • time bars 851–2
  • charge, ship mortgage compared 177–8
  • charterers
    • bareboat 12–13
    • demise 745
    • liability for damages caused by hazardous and noxious substances 651
    • limitation of liability 745–6, 753–7
    • part 745
    • slot 745, 746
  • charterparties 173, 188, 208
  • chattel security 178
  • civil law, hypothecation under 177–8
  • civil liability
    • classification societies 374–83
      • American approach 382–3
      • comparison with air industry 380–2
      • whether duty of care owed to third parties 375–80
    • collisions at sea
      • employer of wrongdoer 412–16
      • ‘equipment,’ ship as 417
      • fiduciary duty 413
      • liability attaching to ship 417
      • master, crew and pilot 417–18
      • negligence principles 411, 413
      • persons liable 412–19
      • persons responsible for management and operation of ship 416–17
      • port authority 418–19
      • salvors 418
      • shipbuilders and ship-repairers 419
      • three-stage negligence test 411–12
      • tug or tow 418
      • vicarious liability doctrine 412–16
    • pilots 722
  • Civil Liability Convention (CLC) 1992 see CLC (Civil Liability Convention) 1992
  • civil salvage 482
  • claims, obligation to discharge 188
  • classification societies
    • civil liability to buyers and other third parties 374–83
      • American approach 382–3
      • comparison with air industry 380–2
      • whether duty of care owed to third parties 375–80
    • and flags of convenience 69–70
    • functions 72, 293
    • immunity from liability 72–3
    • inspections/surveys of ships by 29–31
      • conformity requirements of flag States 31
      • Directive 94/57/EC (1994) 29–30
      • Directive 2001/105/EC (2001) 30
      • Directive (Recast) 2009/15/EC (2009) 30–1, 41–2
      • financial responsibility provision 30
      • monitoring of conformity with international standards 30–1
      • Recognised Organisations 30, 40
      • Regulation (EC) 391/2009 41–2
      • sales and purchases 328–9
    • safety and security of ships, role in 72–3
    • shipbuilding, new 221, 222
  • CLC (Civil Liability Convention) 1992
    • admissibility of claims and causation 839–40
    • application 834–42
      • geographical 836–7
      • incident and territory 836–7
      • territory and waters 836
    • ‘but for’ test 840
    • claims not covered 840
    • compulsory insurance 845–6
    • Convention of 1969 compared 852
    • defences 842–5
    • definition of ‘incident’ 836
    • definition of ‘vessel’ 835
    • direct property damage and consequential loss or expenses 837–8
    • environmental damage claims 838–9
    • financial security 845–6
    • geographical application 836–7
    • government wrongful act defence 844–5
    • and HNS Convention 866
    • Limitation Fund, constitution under 849–50
    • natural phenomenon defence 843–4
    • normal business operations claims 838
    • oil pollution 829, 830
    • pollution damage 837
    • pure economic loss 838
    • recognition and enforcement of judgment 852
    • salvors, possible claims by 840–2
    • sea-going vessels carrying persistent oil in bulk 834–5
    • ship-owners’ rights of subrogation 846
    • strict liability 842
    • third-party liability insurance 845–6
    • three-tier compensation system 832
    • types of pollution damage claim 837–9
  • CleanSeaNet (European satellite oil spill and vessel detection service) 36
  • clean-up expenses 760–1, 837
  • CMCH Act see Corporate Manslaughter and Corporate Homicide Act 2007 (CMCH Act), criminal liability under
  • CMI (Comité Maritime International) 45, 46, 486, 579
  • coastguards, and salvage operations 506
  • Code of Safe Practice for Solid Bulk Cargoes (BC Code) 48
  • Code of Safe Working Practices for Merchant Seamen (CSWPMS) 11, 87
    • risk management 4, 5, 7, 9, 11, 17, 20, 24
  • collective knowledge doctrine, attribution of liability 125
  • collective responsibility 16–25
    • commitment to 25
    • funding for risk control and training 25
    • risk management stages 17–24
      • contract drafting 17–18
      • dispute resolution 23–4
      • incorporation of company 17
      • performance of voyage, risks at 19–23
      • ship operations 18–19
    • safety culture enhancement 24–5
    • systematic process, adopting 24–5
  • collisions at sea
    • actions in rem and in personam 390
    • action to avoid, steering and sailing rules 394
    • adjustment of claims 479
    • ‘both to blame’ clause 449
    • bridge, collision with 443–4
    • burden of proof
      • civil liability 411
      • damages and rule of remoteness of damage 451
      • duty of care, breach 419–20
    • cargo, loss of or damage to 478–9
    • civil liability
      • employer of wrongdoer 412–16
      • ‘equipment,’ ship as 417
      • fiduciary duty 413
      • liability attaching to ship 417
      • master, crew and pilot 417–18
      • negligence principles 411, 413
      • persons liable 412–19
      • persons responsible for management and operation of ship 416–17
      • port authority 418–19
      • salvors 418
      • shipbuilders and ship-repairers 419
      • three-stage negligence test 411–12
      • tug or tow 418
      • vicarious liability doctrine 412–16
    • Conference on Revision 1972 884
    • contrast claims, cargo damage 446–9
    • contribution between joint tortfeasors 449–51
      • common law rule 449
      • by statute in Admiralty 449–51
    • criminal liability
      • general 401
      • involuntary manslaughter for breach of duty 408–10
      • new statutory offence 410
      • statutory offences under MSA 1995 see below
    • damages
      • assessment 463–77
      • background of developments 451–2
      • detention 470–4
      • extent of damage 458–9
      • foreseeability 456, 457
      • idiosyncrasy of claimant, remoteness and mitigation of damages 460–3
      • kind of damage 457–8
      • mitigation of loss or damage 459–60
      • present law, general principle 453–7
      • reasonable foreseeability 459
      • rule of remoteness 451–63
      • ‘thin skull’ rule 459, 460
    • defences available
    • detention damages
      • loss and expenses, apportioning 472–3
      • mitigation issues 470–1
      • out-of-pocket expenses/other consequential losses 473
      • pure economic loss 473–4
      • routine repairs during collision damage repairs 472
    • distress, duty to assist those in 503–4
    • duty of care, breach 419–22
    • duty to assist following 502–3
    • fault, statutory presumption of and subsequent abolition 388–9
    • foreign currency damages 475–7
    • foreseeability 411, 412, 454, 456
    • insurance issues 478–9
    • involuntary manslaughter for breach of duty 408–10
    • law and regulations currently 389–90
    • limitation periods for commencement of claims 477
    • loss of life claims 445–6
    • negligence 389, 426–7
      • three-stage negligence test 411–12
      • two negligent acts, clear line between 440–1
    • objects, avoidance action causing damage to 444–5
    • partial loss of ship and incidental losses 468–74
      • cost of repairs 468
      • detention damages 470–4
      • fixture, loss of use 468–70
      • loss of use of fixture during repairs 468–70
    • proportionate fault rule 434–45
      • application 435
      • causative potency and blameworthiness 436–40
      • ‘clear preponderance of blame’ 436–7
      • composite faults approach 438
      • exceptions to 440–5
      • unit approach 438, 442, 443
    • proximity 411, 412
    • pure economic loss 412, 473–4
    • Regulations see Colregs (International Regulations for Preventing Collisions at Sea), 1972
    • risk management 19, 387–479
    • risk of 394
    • between ship and a non-ship 442–5
      • avoidance action causing damage to objects 444–5
      • bridge, collision with 443–4
    • statutory offences under MSA 1995
      • breach of documentation and reporting duties 403–4
      • conduct endangering ships, structures or individuals 405–7
      • dangerously unsafe ship/unsafe operation of ships 404–5
      • directions following shipping casualties, breach of duty to give 408
      • disobeying Collision Regulations 402–3
      • failure to give assistance to vessels after collision or to vessels/persons in distress 403
      • life-saving regulations, breach of statutory duty with regard to 407
      • lighthouses, buoys or beacons 407–8
    • Traffic Separation Schemes 389, 396
  • Colregs (International Regulations for Preventing Collisions at Sea), 1972 388–401
    • breach under Merchant Shipping Act 122
    • conduct of vessels in restricted visibility (Part B, Section III) 398–400
    • conduct of vessels in sight of each other (Part B, Section II)
      • action by give-way vessel (Regulation 16) 398
      • action by stand-on vessel (Regulation 17) 398
      • crossing situation (Regulation 15) 397
      • specification of responsibilities between vessels (Regulation 18) 398
    • definition of vessel and ship 391
    • disobeying, as statutory offence under MSA 1995 402–3
    • general 391–2
    • lights and shapes (Part C) 400–1
    • and Orders in Council 390
    • origins 388
    • ships subject to 390
    • sound and signals (Part D) 401
    • statutory presumption of fault and subsequent abolition 388–9
    • steering and sailing rules (Part B, Section 1) 392–6
      • action to avoid collision (Regulation 8) 394
      • collision risk (Regulation 7) 394
      • narrow channels (Regulation 9) 395–6
      • proper lookout (Regulation 5) 392
      • safe speed (Regulation 6) 392–4
      • Traffic Separation Schemes (Regulation 10) 396
    • types of regulations 391–401
    • see also collisions at sea
  • combustion, dangerous goods causing 673–4
  • Comité Maritime International see CMI (Comité Maritime International)
  • Committee on Safe Seas and the Prevention of Pollution from Ships (COSS), establishment under Erika II 29, 38–9
  • common law
    • classification of terms of contract 319–20
    • common law possessory lien, ship mortgage compared 178
    • contribution between joint tortfeasors 449
    • exclusion of rules concerning duty of care 129
    • harbour authorities
      • respective duties of master and pilot 721
      • risk management 688
      • statutory duties and liabilities 696–8
    • master’s authority to enter into salvage agreement at 516–23
    • negligent misconduct under 530–7
    • salvage
      • duty of owner of property to co-operate 544
      • negligent misconduct 530–7
      • Tojo Maru case 536
    • shipbuilding contracts 234–5
    • tort, actions in 861
    • towage contracts
  • Common Structural Rules (IACS) 73, 76, 222
  • companies
    • alter ego of see alter ego of company or corporation
    • controlling or directing mind of 12, 97, 104, 123, 769
    • corporate interrelations 12–13
    • corporate personality and rules of attribution 97–8
    • definition of ‘company’ under ISM Code 79, 152, 159, 161
    • gross negligence manslaughter, attribution of liability to 124–6
    • identification of relevant persons in 100
    • incorporation, risk management 17
    • infrastructures of shipping companies 11–16
    • one-ship 12, 209
    • persons in actual control 101, 102
    • as ports 683
    • risks exposed to 8
    • ship ownership 402–3
  • company security officer (CSO) 96
  • compensation
    • CLC (Civil Liability Convention) 1992 832
    • Compensation for Oil Pollution in European Waters Fund (COPE) 39
    • denial
    • Fund Convention 1992 832
    • information provision 834
    • international regime, oil pollution 829–31
    • IOPC Funds 831, 841
    • limitation of liability 833
    • relevant UK legislation 834
    • SCOPIC see Special Compensation of Protection and Indemnity Clause (SCOPIC)
    • ship-owners’ contributions, further 860
    • special, salvage
      • concept 553
      • criteria 549–52
      • fair rate 549, 552, 555–6
      • Nagasaki Spirit case 550–2
      • out-of-pocket expenses 549
      • security 556
    • Supplementary Fund 2003 833
    • three-tier compensation system 832–4
    • see also International Oil Pollution Compensation Funds (IOPC Funds)
  • Compensation for Oil Pollution in European Waters Fund (COPE) 39
  • compulsory insurance
    • Bunkers Convention (Bunker Oil Pollution Damage Convention) 2001 864–5
    • CLC (Civil Liability Convention) 1992 845–6
    • limitation of liability 789
    • PAL 2002 (2002 Protocol to PAL 1974 Convention) 810
    • wilful misconduct defence 735
    • WRC (Wreck Removal Convention) 2007 734–5
    • see also insurance issues
  • conflict of laws
    • Convention on Maritime Liens and Mortgages (1993), ratification issues 183, 185
    • law governing mortgage and law of agreement to grant a mortgage 180–1
      • lex fori 182, 185
    • priorities between foreign liens and mortgages 181–5
    • whether proposals for a uniform approach 185
  • consideration, lack of in shipbuilding contracts 247–8
  • constructive total loss (CTL) 110
  • contract law
    • breach of contract see breach of contract
    • contract for services 595
    • contracts uberrimae fidei 296, 593, 594
    • dismissal of salvor under contract 541–3
    • duty to co-operate under contract, salvage 544–5
    • general average losses 655
    • insurance issues see insurance issues
    • salvage under contract 483–4
    • shipbuilding contracts see shipbuilding contracts
    • third-party contracts see third-party contracts, interference by mortgagee
    • towage contracts see towage contracts
    • travel agents, contracts of carriage through 803–4
    • unfair contract terms 594–5
  • contract price adjustment clauses, shipbuilding contracts 246
  • contracts, shipbuilding see shipbuilding contracts
  • contrast claims, cargo damage 446–9
  • contributory negligence defence
    • collisions at sea 426–7
    • harbour damage, liability of ship-owners for 709–10
    • passenger claims 802, 810
    • see also negligence
  • control theory, tug and tow 619–20
    • control and ‘two employers’ conundrum 620–3
  • Conwartime charter 21
  • co-ownership
    • joint tenants 136
    • minority shareholders, objections of 137, 138
    • in modern times 138
    • relationship between co-owners 137–8
    • tenants in common 136
    • in ‘whole ship’ 136
  • COPE (Compensation for Oil Pollution in European Waters Fund) 39
  • corporate interrelations 12–13
  • Corporate Manslaughter and Corporate Homicide Act 2007 (CMCH Act), criminal liability under
    • applicable organisations 128
    • corporate killing offence 126–7
    • deaths in custody 127
    • duty of care 127
      • exclusion of common law rules concerning 129
      • ‘relevant duty of care,’ meaning 128–9
    • elements of offence 127–8
    • fines 130
    • gross negligence killing 127
    • Law Commission proposal 126–7
    • penalties 129–30
    • prosecutions 130
    • question of law and of fact 129
    • reasons for offences under 127
    • reckless killing 127
  • corporate personality, and rules of attribution 97–8
  • corporations, alter ego of see alter ego of company or corporation
  • Costa Concordia disaster (2012) 3, 18, 21, 49
  • craft
    • non-displacement 391
    • recognised subject of salvage 489
  • crew
    • civil liability 417–18
    • defence applicable Criminalisation Directives 55–6
    • engagement of 151
    • lifeboat crews of RNLI, salvage by 506–7
    • limitation of liability issues 762–3
    • training 21, 53
  • CREWMAN A and B 2009 (ship management agreement) 135, 146, 147, 165
  • Criminalisation Directives on ship-source pollution 27, 822
    • Council Framework Decision (2005/667/JHA) 56
    • Directive 2005/35/EC
      • additional defence applicable to owner, master and crew 55–6
      • amendments made by Directive 2009/123/EC 64–5
      • background 54–5
      • challenge against 59–64
      • conduct 55
      • conflict with International Conventions 58–9
      • defences applicable to all persons involved 55
      • infringement 55
    • Directive 2009/123/EC
      • amendments made to Directive 2005/35/EC by 64–5
      • background 54–5
      • ‘reckless misconduct’ 62, 63
      • ‘serious’ negligence, elusive concept 60–4
      • ‘wilful misconduct’ 62
    • International Conventions, treatment of ship-source pollution by
      • conflict with Directive 2005/35/EC 58–9
      • MARPOL relevant provisions 58
      • UNCLOs relevant provisions 57–8
    • recklessness 62, 63
  • criminal liability
    • collisions at sea
      • general 401
      • involuntary manslaughter for breach of duty 408–10
      • new statutory offence 410
      • statutory offences under MSA 1995 402–8
    • harbour authorities 702–3
    • implications of ISM Code for criminal liabilities 131
    • management of ships 161–4
    • mens rea offences 125, 162–4
      • non-strict liability offences 162
    • Merchant Shipping (ISMC) Regulations, criminal liability under 122–3
    • Merchant Shipping Acts, statutory offences under 119–22
      • breach of Collisions Regulations 122
      • breach of documentation and reporting duties 403–4
      • collisions at sea 402–8
      • conduct endangering ships, structures or individuals 405–7
      • dangerously unsafe ship 120, 404–5
      • directions following shipping casualties, breach of duty to give 408
      • disobeying Collision Regulations 402–3
      • failure to give assistance to vessels after collision or to vessels/persons in distress 403
      • life-saving safety measures 120, 407
      • lighthouses, buoys or beacons 407–8
      • logbook of ship 119
      • notices 119–20
      • rules of special ships 120
      • safe manning regulations 120
      • unsafe operation of ships 121–2, 404–5
    • non-strict liability offences 162
    • oil spills 872
    • pilots 721–2
    • prior to CMCH Act 2007
      • attribution of liability for gross negligence manslaughter to a company 124–6
      • gross negligence manslaughter test against individuals 124
      • offence of involuntary or gross negligence manslaughter 123
    • under CMCH Act 2007
      • applicable organisations 128
      • corporate killing offence 126–7
      • deaths in custody 127
      • elements of offence 127–8
      • exclusion of common law rules concerning duty of care 129
      • fines 130
      • gross negligence killing 127
      • Law Commission proposal 126–7
      • penalties 129–30
      • prosecutions 130
      • question of law and of fact 129
      • reasons for offences under 127
      • reckless killing 127
      • ‘relevant duty of care’ 127, 128–9
  • CSWPMS see Code of Safe Working Practices for Merchant Seamen (CSWPMS)
  • damages
    • assessment 463–77
      • foreign currency damages 475–7
      • general principle (restitutio in integrum) 463–4, 467
      • limitation periods for commencement of claims 477
      • partial loss of ship and incidental losses 468–74
      • Tojo Maru case 537
      • total loss of ship 464–8
    • background of developments 451–2
    • breach of contract 453
    • causation 452
    • consequential 650
    • detention
      • loss and expenses, apportioning 472–3
      • mitigation issues 470–1
      • out-of-pocket expenses/other consequential losses 473
      • pure economic loss 473–4
      • routine repairs during collision damage repairs 472
    • extent of damage 458–9
    • in foreign currency 475–7
    • foreseeability 456, 457
    • idiosyncrasy of claimant, remoteness and mitigation of damages 460–3
    • indemnity clauses 453
    • kind of damage 457–8
    • limitation of liability issues 748, 752
    • liquidated
      • delays 264
      • or acceleration in payment 280–2
      • or termination of shipbuilding contract 260
      • and penalty clauses 280, 281
      • price escalation issues 246
    • measure of 360–73
    • mitigation 368–73
      • benefit derived by mitigating party 370–3
      • collisions at sea 459–60
      • detention damages 470–1
      • expectation loss 373
      • reasonable conduct 369
      • reliance loss 373
      • unreasonable conduct and break in chain of causation 369–70
    • novus actus interveniens 427–31, 459, 461
    • partial loss of ship and incidental losses 468–74
    • present law, general principle 453–7
    • recoverable, by harbour 711
    • restitutio in integrum principle 463–4, 467
    • rule of remoteness 451–63
    • ‘thin skull’ rule 459, 460
    • total loss of ship
      • actual not speculative charter 467–8
      • value of ship where no market 466–7
      • yardstick applicable to ascertain loss sustained 464–6
  • danger
    • dangerous goods causing combustion or fire 673–4
    • dangerously unsafe ship/unsafe operation of ships 120, 404–5
    • effect on a towage contract 495–6
    • environmental 497
    • future or contingent 494–5
    • International Code for the Construction and Equipment of Ships Carrying Dangerous Chemicals in Bulk (IBC Code) 50
    • International Maritime Dangerous Goods (IMDG) Code 49
    • kinds of 492–3
    • salvage 492–7
    • temporary difficulty 493–4
    • vessel in, salvage services by standing by 509
  • DAOs (Delegated Ashore Officers) 95
  • dead weight capacity (DWC) 231
  • death see life, loss of
  • Deepwater Horizon incident (2010) 10, 681, 685
  • defects guarantee, provision
    • exclusions from guarantee 255–6, 257
    • guarantee period and conditions of cover 254–5
    • remedy for guarantee defects 255
    • risk minimisation 256–7
  • defences
    • CLC (Civil Liability Convention) 1992 842–5
    • collisions at sea
    • Criminalisation Directives on ship-source pollution 55
    • general average entitlement 666
    • HNS (Hazardous and Noxious Substances) Convention 2010 868–9
    • PAL 2002 (2002 Protocol to PAL 1974 Convention) 811
  • delays
    • limitation of liability issues 758
    • shipbuilding contracts
      • construction stage 252
      • delivery of vessel 246, 351–3
      • excusable under NEWBUILDCON 263–4
      • excusable under SAJ form 263
      • force majeure events 261–3
      • price escalation issues 246
      • remedies 264–5
  • Delegated Ashore Officers (DAOs) 95
  • delivery of vessel
    • condition of vessel on 339–48
    • delays 246, 351–3
    • encumbrances or debts at time of 337
    • essential documentation for exchange at 293, 334–5
    • liabilities incurred prior to 337–8
    • non-delivery as per contract 351–3
    • passing of property and risk by contract 254
    • passing of property and risk by statute 253
    • post-delivery matters 293, 360
    • see also under Norwegian Sale Form (NSF)
  • demise charterers 745
  • Department of Energy and Climate Change (DECC) 685
  • The Derbyshire disaster (1980) 3, 48
  • Designated Person Ashore (DPA) 81
    • carriage of goods, effect of ISM upon liability arising from 107–8
    • and ECDIS 88
    • harbour authorities, duties 690
    • insurance issues and ISM Code 112–13
    • limitation of liability and role of ISM Code 115–17
  • detention damages
    • loss and expenses, apportioning 472–3
    • mitigation issues 470–1
    • out-of-pocket expenses/other consequential losses 473
    • pure economic loss 473–4
    • routine repairs during collision damage repairs 472
  • discharge port, risks at 22
  • disparity principle, salvage 482, 548–9
  • dispute resolution
    • risk management stages 23–4
    • shipbuilding contracts 285
    • Special Compensation of Protection and Indemnity Clause (SCOPIC) 560
  • dock-owners, negligence 699
  • documentation
    • breach, under Collision Regulations 403–4
    • delivery of vessel 293, 334–5
    • Document of Compliance (DOC) 79, 85, 86
    • ISM Code 84
    • non-signing of formal document, effect upon validity of contract 314–16
  • Dolly incident (1999) 835
  • double-hull tankers, building 222
  • DPA see Designated Person Ashore (DPA)
  • drilling units 490, 743
  • dry-docking (inspection by classification society) see under classification societies
  • due diligence
    • external infrastructures 15
    • under HVR 106–7
    • mortgagee obligations when in possession 197
    • and role of DPA 113
    • stages of risk management 19
  • duty of care
    • breach, collisions at sea
    • Corporate Manslaughter and Corporate Homicide Act 2007 (CMCH Act), criminal liability under 127, 128–9
    • exclusion of common law rules concerning 129
    • whether owed to third parties 375–80
    • ‘relevant’ 127, 128–9
    • salvage 529–39
      • negligent misconduct under common law 530–7
      • reasonableness requirement 529
      • remedy for negligent misconduct under Convention 529–30
      • Tojo Maru case 531–7
      • unresolved issues 537–9
    • towage contracts, skill and diligence requirements 612–13
      • duty to exercise during towage 616
  • Early Warning System for the Baltic Sea 74
  • ECDIS see Electronic Chart Display and Information System (ECDIS)
  • economic duress
  • EEZ (exclusive economic zone) 55, 693, 824
    • Wreck Removal Convention (WRC) 2007 731, 735
  • Electronic Chart Display and Information System (ECDIS) 4
    • collisions at sea 387, 404
    • general safety and environmental measures 50
    • importance of 11
    • ISM Code, effect on 87–8
    • navigational risks, dealing with 22
    • risk management standards 17
    • stages of risk management 20
  • EMCIP (European Marine Casualty Information Platform) 43
  • emergency preparedness 23, 83
  • employers
    • claims by master and crew against 762–3
    • collisions at sea, employment of wrongdoer 412–16
    • limitation of liability issues 762–3
    • towage contracts, control and ‘two employers’ conundrum 620–3
    • vicarious liability of 412–16
  • EMSA see European Maritime Safety Agency (EMSA)
  • enforcement, regulatory
    • context 68–77
      • classification societies, role in safety and security of ships 72–3
      • closer co-operation between flag and port State, need for 71
      • flag of ship, importance and role 68
      • flag State and PSC, role 70–1
      • flags of convenience 69–70
      • industry standards on safety and quality assessment 73–4
      • international safety measures, compliance with 70–1
      • other initiatives 74–7
    • ISM Code see ISM (International Safety Management) Code
    • ISPS Code, role for security measures 28, 94–6
    • oil companies, deterrent effect of vetting by
  • Enron scandal, misrepresentation 297
  • environmental salvage 486, 571–80
    • background 571–2
    • whether can be tacked on to present Salvage Convention 575–6
    • whether can stand alone 576–7
    • feasibility for proposed reform 577–8
    • financial considerations 578–9
    • International Salvage Convention 1989 552–3
    • International Working Group (IWG) 572
    • ‘marine environmental protection levy’ 579
    • out-of-pocket expenses 571
    • proposal for reform 572–3
    • reasons for reform 572
    • Salvors’ Environmental Protection Fund 579
    • views of commentators 574–9
  • Equasis information system 76
  • equity of redemption, ‘clog’ or ‘fetter’ on 189–92
  • Erika I measures (2000) 29–34
    • elements 28
    • inspections and surveys of ships by classification societies
      • conformity requirements of flag States 31
      • Directive 94/57/EC (1994) 29–30
      • Directive 2001/105/EC (2001) 30
      • Directive (Recast) 2009/15/EC (2009) 30–1
    • phasing out of single-hull tankers 31–3
    • Port State Control, Directives amending 33–4
    • Voyage Data Recorders, introduction of 33–4
  • Erika II measures (2002)
    • Community monitoring, control and information system 34–6
      • Directive 2002/59/EC 35
      • Directive 2009/17/EC 35–6
    • COSS, establishment 38–9
    • European Maritime Safety Agency 36–8
    • oil pollution damage compensation fund 39
    • proposals 28–9
  • Erika III measures (2009) 39–48
    • accident investigation (Directive 2009/18/EC) 42–3
    • civil liability and financial guarantees for damage done by ships (Directive 2009/20/EC) 44
    • conformity requirements of flag States (Directive 2009/21/EC) 40–1
    • inspections by classification societies (Directive 2009/15/EC and Regulation (EC) 391/2009) 41–2
    • liability and compensation to passengers (Regulation (EC) 392/2009) 43–4
    • PAL 2002 (2002 Protocol to PAL 1974 Convention) 807
    • Port State Control Directive (Directive 2009/16/EC) 42
    • proposals 29
    • traffic monitoring and places of refuge (Directive 2009/17/EC)
      • background 44–5
      • CMI Conference, draft instrument approved by 46
      • further EU measures 47–8
      • IMO Guidelines 46–7
      • status of places of refuge in the UK 47
  • Erika measures see Erika I measures (2000); Erika II measures (2002); Erika III measures (2009)
  • The Erika disaster (1999) 3, 4, 27, 45, 54, 829
    • details 28, 847
    • measures following sinking see Erika measures
  • estoppel, and exceptions clauses 301–3
  • European Economic Interest Groupings 142
  • European Economic Interest States, incorporation in 142
  • European Marine Casualty Information Platform (EMCIP) 43
  • European Maritime Safety Agency (EMSA)
    • accident analysis 38
    • Administrative Board 37–8
    • Erika II measures (2002) 28–9
    • extension of remit 38
    • future developments in maritime safety, role in 37
    • general tasks 36
    • governance 37–8
    • monitoring role 37
    • pollution prevention role 37
    • specific tasks 37
  • European Quality Shipping Information System (Paris MOU) 74
  • European Union (EU)
    • Commission inspections 96
    • EU Treaty, British citizens and nationals under 141–2
    • flagging rules, and tonnage tax 145
    • IMO, working in harmony with 27
    • LRIT (Cooperative Data Centre) 36, 47
    • passenger ships and roll-on/roll-off (ro-ro) vessels, safety and environmental measures 49
    • regulatory developments see under regulatory regime
    • Three Pillars of competences 56
  • evidential estoppel, and exceptions clauses 301–3
  • exceptions clauses
    • curtailment by Misrepresentation Act 1967 (Section 3) 303–5
    • and estoppel 301–3
  • exclusion of liability, breach of contract and contractual protection of manager/employees 164
  • exclusive economic zone (EEZ) see EEZ (exclusive economic zone)
  • ‘extended producer responsibility’ principle 51
  • fatigue, prevention of 19, 22
    • MARTHA (fatigue prediction software model) 50
  • fault
    • collisions at sea
      • proportionate fault rule 434–45
      • statutory presumption of fault and subsequent abolition 388–9
    • deviation through unauthorised route 669–71
    • general average entitlement, effect on
      • CONWARTIME 1993 clause 670
      • dangerous goods causing combustion or fire 673–4
      • deviation through unauthorised route 669–71
      • negligence 667
      • no liability to contribute 667–74
      • piracy issues 669–71
      • remedies or defences 666
      • rule against recovery (equitable defence) 666
      • unauthorized deck cargo 668–9
      • unseaworthiness 671–3
    • PAL 1974 Convention (Athens Convention 1974 relating to Carriage of Passengers and their Luggage by Sea)
      • fault-based liability under 797–8
      • presumed fault under 798
      • shift from fault-based to strict liability 791–2
    • PAL 2002 (2002 Protocol to PAL 1974 Convention), fault-based liability under 809
    • proportionate fault rule, collisions at sea 434–45
      • application 435
      • causative potency and blameworthiness 436–40
      • ‘clear preponderance of blame’ 436–7
      • composite faults approach 438
      • exceptions to 440–5
      • unit approach 438, 442, 443
    • shift from fault-based to strict liability, in passenger claims 791–2
    • unauthorized deck cargo 668–9
  • financial issues
    • environmental salvage 578–9
    • Erika III measures (2009) 44
    • inspections/surveys of ships 30
    • towage contracts
      • financial losses 542–3
      • ‘loss of profit,’ conflicting views 643–5
  • fines
    • MSA 1995, statutory offences under 403, 404, 406
    • under CMCH Act 2007 130
  • fire
    • dangerous goods causing 673–4
    • drills 19, 21
    • limitation of liability issues 763–4
  • fishing vessels 140–1, 143
  • fixtures, loss of use during repairs 468–70
  • flag of ship
    • flags of convenience 69–70, 145, 180
    • importance and role 68
  • flag States
    • ‘blacklisting’ system imposed upon by amended PSC Directive 31
    • certificates of compliance granted by 84
    • conformity requirements under Erika measures 31, 40–1
    • implementation of International Conventions 75
    • need for closer co-operation with port States 71
    • role in enforcement 70–1
    • self-audit system (IMO) 41
  • floating platforms 490, 743
  • fluctuation clauses, shipbuilding contracts 246
  • force majeure events
    • binding contracts 229
    • causing frequent disputes 262–3
    • delays 261–3
    • exclusion of liability 164
    • general strikes, knock on effect 262
    • labour strikes 262
    • SAJ (Shipbuilders’ Association of Japan) contract form 252, 261, 262
    • shortage of materials or equipment 262–3
  • foreclosure, mortgagee rights 207
  • foreign currency, damages in 475–7
  • foreseeability
    • and break in chain of causation 665–6
    • collisions at sea 411, 412, 454, 456
    • damages and rule of remoteness of damage 456, 457
    • general average 665–6
  • formal safety assessment (FSA) 6–7, 11
  • forum non conveniens principle 781
  • freezing injunctions, evaluation 354–60
    • case law 355–7
      • matters to be inferred from authorities 358
      • notification of application 358–60
      • Veracruz I/Siskina barrier 356–7
    • conditional injunctions 355–6
    • dissipation risk, test of 354
    • ex parte applications 356
    • limits to granting 355–60
  • freight
    • not part of security 174
    • right to 196–7
    • at risk 490
  • FSA (formal safety assessment) 6–7, 11
  • FSS Code (International Code for Fire Safety System) 50
  • Full City incident (2009) 741
  • Fund Assembly 1992 831, 835, 838
    • Working Group 2000 860
  • Fund Convention 1992 852–6
    • admissibility of claims and causation 839–40
    • advisors, use of 839
    • application 834–42
      • territory and waters 836
    • ‘but for’ test 840
    • claims not covered 840
    • defences of Fund 854
    • definition of ‘incident’ 836
    • definition of ‘vessel’ 835
    • direct property damage and consequential loss or expenses 837–8
    • environmental damage claims 838–9
    • geographical application 836–7
    • and HNS Convention 2010 866
    • incident and territory 836–7
    • judgments 855–6
    • jurisdiction 855
    • limited redress for pollution damage caused in 1969 CLC States 853
    • meeting of claims 853
    • normal business operations claims 838
    • oil pollution 830, 831
    • pollution damage 837
    • pure economic loss 838
    • salvors, possible claims by 840–2
    • sea-going vessels carrying persistent oil in bulk 834–5
    • subrogation rights 854–5
    • three-tier compensation system 832
    • time bar 855
    • types of pollution damage claim 837–9
  • GA see general average (GA)
  • gas floats, and salvage 490
  • GBS (Goal-Based Standards) see Goal-Based Standards (GBS)
  • general average (GA) 653–77
    • accrual of cause of action 674–5
    • authority to act in 659–60
    • basis of obligation 654–5
    • causation 665–6
    • common maritime adventure 655, 662–3
    • conditions giving rise to 660–5
      • common maritime adventure 662–3
      • danger or peril 660–1
      • intentionality 664
      • preservation of property imperilled 665
      • reasonableness requirement 664
      • threat 662
      • voluntary 664
    • danger or peril 660–1
    • definitions 653–4
    • ‘Digest of Justinian,’ adopted in 653, 675
    • direct consequence 665
    • elements 654
    • examples 655–6
    • expenditure or sacrifice 654, 655
    • fault, effect on GA entitlement
      • CONWARTIME 1993 clause 670
      • dangerous goods causing combustion or fire 673–4
      • deviation through unauthorised route 669–71
      • negligence 667
      • no liability to contribute 667–74
      • piracy issues 669–71
      • remedies or defences 666
      • rule against recovery (equitable defence) 666
      • unauthorized deck cargo 668–9
      • unseaworthiness 671–3
    • foreseeability
      • and break in chain of causation 665–6
      • foreseeable damage, loss for 656
    • limitation of liability issues 756, 762
    • lis pendens rule, Brussels I Regulation 676
    • losses, payment for 655
    • particular average, distinguished from 654
    • particular average loss 662
    • property subject to 655
    • security 675–7
      • forms 675–6
      • non-separation agreement 676–7
      • possessory lien, right to 675
      • time limits 677
    • Special Compensation of Protection and Indemnity Clause (SCOPIC) 560
    • threat 662
    • UKST towage contracts 666
    • York-Antwerp Rules (YAR) 653
      • of 1890 656
      • of 1924 656, 657, 661
      • of 1950 656
      • of 1974 656, 657, 658, 659
      • of 1994 656
      • of 2004 656–7, 659
      • construction 657–9
      • expenses at port of refuge (Rule XI) 656, 661, 663
      • origin and application 656–7
      • provision of funds (Rule XX) 656, 661
      • Rule A 661, 664
      • Rule C 665
      • Rule D 666
      • Rule E 665
      • salvage remuneration (Rule VI) 656
      • temporary repairs (Rule XIV) 656, 659
      • voluntary nature of 657
  • Global Integrated Shipping Information System (IMO) 43
  • Goal-Based Standards (GBS) 73, 76
    • shipbuilding contracts 221, 222
  • good faith concept
    • purchase of ships 293–4
      • ‘using best endeavours’ to negotiate in good faith 294–6
      • withdrawal, effect of 294
    • towage contracts
  • government wrongful act defence, pollution 844–5
  • Greek Shipping Cooperation Committee 59
  • Green Flag Award 74
  • gross negligence/gross negligence manslaughter
    • attribution of liability to a company 124–6
    • offence of 123
    • test against individuals 124
    • towage contracts 649
  • Gulf of Mexico Deepwater Horizon incident (2010) 10, 685
  • Hague-Visby Rules (HVR), due diligence under 106–7
  • harbour authorities
    • accountability 690, 715–16
    • claims 180
    • duties
      • accountability for marine safety 690
      • under common law 688
      • under general and local legislation 687–8
      • revised guidance for risk assessment 689–90
      • in risk management area 687–90
      • specific obligations to implement risk assessment 688
      • statutory 690–703
    • environmental protection 684–6
    • ISM Code 680
    • limitation of liability 750
    • open port duty 690
    • pilotage
      • compulsory 715
      • compulsory pilotage area, duties of masters and pilots 718–19
      • IMO recommendations 713–14
      • liability of harbour authorities with respect to 722–3
      • services 700–2, 714–16
      • see also pilots
    • pilots
      • accountability for safety and risk management 715–16
      • authorisation 716–18
      • authority of 719–21
      • charges by competent harbour authority 730
      • civil liability 417–18
      • communication with 23
      • Directive 1999/42/EC 701–2, 714
      • duties in a compulsory pilotage area 718–19
      • duties of competent authority in relation to 714–18
      • function 712
      • IMO recommendations 713–14
      • International Best Practice for Maritime Pilots 714
      • International Maritime Pilots Association 714
      • liability 721–2
      • negligence, liability of ship-owners for 723–30
      • offence not to have 718–19
      • PA 1987 713, 714–15
      • recognition of qualifications 715
      • relationship with master 719–21
      • risk assessment 713
      • and risks 712–30
      • rules of engagement 718
      • services, obligation to provide 714–16
      • statutes 713–14
      • training, certification and operational procedures 714
      • voluntary services, when exceptional 499–501
    • powers 680, 687
    • risk management by 679–736
      • duties in risk management area 687–90
    • statutory duties and liabilities
      • under common law 696–8
      • criminal liability 702–3
      • duty to operate port 690–2
      • limitation of liability 702
      • maintenance of port in good condition 695–6
      • under Occupiers’ Liability Acts 698–9
      • pilotage services 700–2
      • port safety, contractual duty in relation to 699–700
      • to provide navigational safety/safety procedures 692
      • wrecks 692–5
    • types 683–4
    • Wreck Removal Convention (WRC) 2007
      • application 731–2
      • coming into force 736
      • compulsory insurance 734–5
      • definitions 731–2, 733
      • liability of registered owner 734
      • objectives 732
      • obligations under 733
      • and places of refuge 735–6
      • proportionality and reasonableness 732–3
      • and salvors 735
      • see also harbours
  • harbour master, potential offences by 567–8
  • harbours
    • definitions
      • ‘harbour’ 682
      • ‘harbour operations’ 683
      • ‘offshore installation’ 685
      • ‘release’ concept 685
    • dues 711–12
    • laws and regulations affecting 680–712
    • liability of ship-owners for damage caused to 703–11
      • contributory negligence defence, whether sustainable 709–10
      • options for owner 710–11
      • recoverable damages by harbour 711
      • River Wear Commission v Adamson 703–9
      • statutory cause of action against registered owner 703–9
    • powers 680–2
    • recoverable damages by 711
    • River Wear Commission v Adamson case 703–9
    • see also harbour authorities
  • harm, possibility of 5
    • foreseeability 411
  • hazards
    • definition of ‘hazard’ 5, 733
    • hazardous and noxious substances (HNS), liability for 651
    • hazardous occurrences, ISM Code 83
    • HNS Fund 866
    • see also HNS (Hazardous and Noxious Substances) Convention 2010
  • The Herald of Free Enterprise disaster (1987) 3, 18, 77
    • attribution of liability 123, 124, 125
    • facts of case 125
  • high-risk area (HRA) 7
  • Himalaya clauses
    • limitation of liability issues 748
    • ship management 165–6
    • towage contracts 635–7, 649, 650
  • HM Coastguard 491, 506
  • HNS (Hazardous and Noxious Substances) Convention 2010 821, 866–71
    • concept of ‘damage’ 866
    • damage covered 867–88
    • exclusions 871
    • and Fund Convention 1992 866
    • geographical application 868
    • IMDG Code (International Maritime Dangerous Goods) Code 867
    • jurisdiction 870, 871
    • limitation 869–70
    • modelled on CLC Fund regime 866
    • registered ship-owner’s liability 868
    • ships covered 866
    • strict liability and defences 868–9
    • substances covered 867
    • time bar 871
    • two or more ships 869
  • Horizon Project, on crew fatigue 50
  • hovercraft
    • LLMC (Convention on Limitation of Liability for Maritime Clauses) 1976 743
    • salvage 491
  • hull and machinery (H&M) insurance cover 109, 187
  • hypothecation, and ship mortgage 177–8
  • IACS (International Association of Classification Societies) see International Association of Classification Societies (IACS)
  • IBC Code (International Code for the Construction and Equipment of Ships Carrying Dangerous Chemicals in Bulk) 50
  • identification doctrine 100–3
    • corporate criminal liability 126
    • limitation of liability 115
    • or alter ego of company/corporation 97
    • and role of DPA 112
  • IMDG Code (International Maritime Dangerous Goods) Code 49, 867
  • imprisonment, statutory offences under MSA 1995 403, 404, 406
  • IMSBC Code (International Maritime Solid Bulk Cargoes Code) 48
  • incorporation of company, risk management 17
  • indemnity clauses
  • independent contractors, limitation of liability 747–8
  • industry support organisations 27
  • inevitable accident defence, collisions at sea 425–6
  • infrastructures of shipping companies 11–16
    • compliance with International Conventions 14
    • external 14–16
    • internal 12
    • market forces 15–16
    • regulatory and fiscal 14
    • relational 12–14
    • third parties’ factors 14–15
  • injury prevention 22
  • inspections/surveys of ships
    • by classification societies 29–31
      • conformity requirements of flag States 31
      • Directive 94/57/EC (1994) 29–30
      • Directive 2001/105/EC (2001) 30
      • Directive (Recast) 2009/15/EC (2009) 30–1, 41–2
      • financial responsibility provision 30
      • monitoring of conformity with international standards 30–1
      • Recognised Organisations 30, 40
      • Regulation (EC) 391/2009 41–2
      • sales and purchases 328–9
    • European Commission 96
    • expanded inspection 33
    • by Port State Control 33
    • purchase and sale of ships
      • inspection stage 327
      • pre-inspection stage 322–6
  • Institute Cargo Clauses A, B and C (1982) 655
  • Institute Clauses for Builder’s Risk terms 257
  • Institute Clauses for H&M 478
  • Institute Time Clauses Hull 113
  • Institute Time Clauses Hull (1983, 1995) 655
  • instructions, clarity requirement 21
  • insurance issues
    • adjustment of claims 479
    • collisions at sea 478–9
    • compulsory insurance see compulsory insurance
    • constructive total loss 110
    • ‘cross’ liability 479
    • effect of ISM Code upon
      • duty to disclose material facts 109
      • privity of assured 109–11
      • provisions of insurance contract 113
      • role of DPA 112–13
      • role of ISM Code 111
      • role of third-party ship manager 112
    • general average losses 655
    • as indemnity contracts 479
    • and limitation of liability 740, 789
    • LLMC (Convention on Limitation of Liability for Maritime Clauses) 1976 740
    • management of ships
      • manager as a co-assured with owner 167
      • protection of manager and employees 166–7
    • mortgage of ships
      • additional perils policies 219
      • mortgagor obligations 186–7
      • risk management and insurance issues of mortgagee 218–19
    • operating without 10
    • ‘pay to be paid’ rule 479
    • provisions 113
    • running-down clause 478, 479
    • shipbuilding contracts 257–8
    • sustainability of viable insurance system 740
    • third-party liability insurance 845–6
    • towage 651
    • uberrima fides contracts 296
    • ‘umbrella of a member’s entry,’ co-assurance 167
    • war-or terrorism-risks insurance 816–17
    • see also hull and machinery (H&M) insurance cover; liability insurer; protection and indemnity (P&I) cover
  • Intercargo 59, 73
  • Inter-Governmental Consultative Organization (IMCO) 881
  • Interim DOC (IDOC) 85, 86
  • Interim SMC 86
  • International Association of Classification Societies (IACS) 72, 75
    • Common Structural Rules 73, 76, 222
  • International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), Vienna Convention on Civil Liability for Nuclear Damage 1963 872, 873–4
  • International Best Practice for Maritime Pilots 714
  • International Civil Aviation Organisation 31
  • International Code for Fire Safety System (FSS Code) 50
  • International Code for the Construction and Equipment of Ships Carrying Dangerous Chemicals in Bulk (IBC Code) 50
  • International Conference for Limitation of Liability, London (1976) 742
  • International Convention for the Prevention of Pollution from Ships (MARPOL) see MARPOL (International Convention for the Prevention of Pollution from Ships) 1973
  • International Convention for the Safety of Life at Sea (SOLAS) see SOLAS (International Convention for the Safety of Life at Sea) 1974
  • International Conventions
    • accession 878
    • adopting 875–6
    • amendment 878–9
    • enforcement 879–81
    • entry into force 876–7
    • IMO Conventions 880–1
    • and interpretation 880
    • ratification, acceptance and approval 877–8
    • signature 877
    • tacit acceptance procedure 881–5
    • treatment of ship-source pollution by
      • conflict with Directive 2005/35/EC 58–9
      • MARPOL relevant provisions 58
      • UNCLOs relevant provisions 57–8
    • uniform law and conflict of law rules 880
    • see also specific Conventions
  • International Goal-Based Construction Standards for Bulk Carriers and Oil Tankers 222
  • International Group of P&I (IGP&I) Clubs 73, 556, 557, 861
  • International Hull Clauses (2003) 655
  • International Maritime Dangerous Goods (IMDG) Code 49
  • International Maritime Organization (IMO) 5
    • Assembly 77, 78, 221
    • Council, 89th session 221
    • EU, working in harmony with 27
    • Facilitation Committee 875
    • formal safety assessment (FSA) developed by 6, 11
    • 49th Plenary Session (2003) 32
    • Global Integrated Shipping Information System 43
    • Guidelines (on traffic monitoring and places of refuge) 46–7, 568–9
    • IMO Resolution LEG 5(99) 741, 788–9
    • information provision to 96
    • Legal Committee 46, 793, 811, 815, 816, 818, 883, 884
    • and London Convention 1972 826
    • Marine Environment Protection Committee (MEPC) 32, 875
    • Maritime Environment Committee (MEP) 52
    • passenger ships and roll-on/roll-off (ro-ro) vessels, safety and environmental measures 49–50
    • pilotage recommendations 713–14
    • regulatory developments see under regulatory regime
    • Reservation and Guidelines 2006 792, 820
      • background 815–16
      • Blue Cards 817
      • non-war risks insurance 817
      • war-or terrorism-risks insurance 816–17
    • self-audit system for flag States 41
    • tacit acceptance procedure 65–6
  • International Maritime Pilots Association 714
  • International Maritime Solid Bulk Cargoes Code (IMSBC Code) 48
  • International Oil Pollution Compensation Funds (IOPC Funds) 831
    • compared to HNS Fund 866
    • Fund Assembly 1992 831, 835, 838, 860
    • Manuals of Incident Reporting 822, 838, 839, 841
    • pollution damage claims under MSA 851
  • International Organisation for Standardisation (ISO), piracy risk assessment and planning guidelines 20–1
  • International Safety Management (ISM) Code
    • amendments 78
    • carriage of goods contract, effect on liability arising from 107–8
    • collisions at sea 387, 405, 407
    • consequences of breach of provisions 88–90
      • criminal sanctions and UK statutory instrument 88–90
      • no criminal sanctions for non-compliance 88
    • co-ownership 138
    • criminal liability and role of ISM Code
      • Merchant Shipping (ISMC) Regulations, criminal liability under 122–3
      • Merchant Shipping Acts, statutory offences under 119–22
      • prior to CMCH Act 2007 123–6
      • under CMCH Act 2007 126–30
    • CSWPMS, effect on 87
    • deterrent effect 90–1
    • duties of company under and effect of 2010 amendments 160–1
    • ECDIS, effect on 87–8
    • and flags of convenience 69–70
    • harbour authorities 680
    • insurance issues, effect upon
      • contract provisions 113
      • duty to disclose material facts 109
      • mortgage of ships 219
      • privity of assured 109–11
      • role of DPA 112–13
      • role of ISM Code 111
      • role of third-party ship manager 112
    • legal implications upon liabilities 104–31
      • criminal liability and role of ISM Code 119–30
      • effect of liability arising from contract of carriage of goods 106–8
      • insurance issues, effect of ISM upon 109–13
      • limitation of liability and role of ISM Code 113–19
    • limitation of liability and role of ISM Code faults 117–18
      • LLMC (Convention on Limitation of Liability for Maritime Clauses) 1957 104, 113–14
      • LLMC (Convention on Limitation of Liability for Maritime Clauses) 1976 114–15
      • risk management issues 117–19
      • role of DPA 115–17
    • management agreements 147
    • mortgage of ships 187
    • non-compliance 19
    • objectives 80
    • origin 77–8
    • Part A
      • company responsibilities and authority 81
      • company verification, review and evaluation 84
      • core provisions 79–82
      • Designated Person Ashore (DPA) 81
      • documentation 84
      • emergency preparedness 83
      • functional requirements for a safety management system 80
      • general definitions 79
      • master’s responsibility and authority 81–2
      • non-conformities, accidents and hazardous occurrences 83
      • objectives 80
      • resources and personnel 82
      • safety and environmental protection policy 80–1
      • shipboard operations 82–3
    • Part B 84–7
      • certificates required 84–5
      • certification and verification 85–6
      • interim certification 86–7
    • philosophy 78–9, 131
    • risk assessment and management under 4, 6
    • safety, role in 78
    • safety management system (SMS) 8, 9
    • ship manager, general obligations under 159
    • and SOLAS 824
    • stages of risk management 19, 20
    • teamwork requirement 8–9
    • and third-party ship manager, role 112
    • UK statutory instrument implementing (Merchant Shipping (ISMC) Regulations 1998) 88–90
      • application 89
      • defence 90
      • detentions 89
      • duties 89
      • offences and penalties 89–90
    • see also International Safety Management (ISM); safety and environmental measures
  • International Salvage Convention 1989
    • application 487–92
    • Article 13 award 558
    • Article 14
      • environmental salvage 552–3
      • problems arising out of drafting of 553–6
      • substitution of 557
    • whether environmental damage can be tacked on to 575–6
    • fair rate 555–6
    • general application 487–8
    • increment 556
    • master’s authority under 523–4
    • pollution 828
    • recognised subject of salvage 488–92
    • ‘relevant waters’ 488
    • remedy for negligent misconduct under 529–30
    • role 511–12
    • security for special compensation 556
    • substantial physical damage 555
    • territorial limits 554
    • threatened damage 555
    • towage versus salvage 584
    • see also salvage
  • International Salvage Union (ISU) see ISU (International Salvage Union)
  • International Sewage Pollution Prevention (ISPP) Certificate 334, 335, 336
  • International Ship and Port Facilities Security (ISPFS) Code 28
    • application 94–5
    • EU Commission inspections 96
    • extent of control on entry into ports 95
    • IMO, information provided to 96
    • master, role of 95
    • piracy risk assessment and planning guidelines 20
    • port facility requirements 96
    • regulatory enforcement 94–6
    • requirements 95
    • role for security measures 94–6
    • ship management 147
    • ship security alert system 96
  • International Standards Organisation (ISO) 73–4
  • International Tonnage Certificate 145
  • International Transport Intermediaries Club (ITIC) 167
  • International Transport Workers’ Federation, industrial action by 68
  • Intertanko 59, 73
  • IOPC Funds see International Oil Pollution Compensation Funds (IOPC Funds) ISM Code see International Safety Management (ISM) Code
  • ISO see International Organisation for Standardisation (ISO)
  • ISO (International Standards Organisation) 73–4
  • ISPFS Code see International Ship and Port Facilities Security (ISPFS) Code
  • ISPP (International Sewage Pollution Prevention Certificate) 334, 335, 336
  • ISPS Code see International Ship and Port Facilities Security (ISPFS) Code
  • ISU (International Salvage Union) 59, 556, 557
    • environmental salvage proposal 579–80
  • ITIC (International Transport Intermediaries Club) 167
  • Joint Long-term Programme (JLTP), London Convention and Protocol (LC/LP) 826–7
  • joint tenants 136
  • JS Amazing incident (Nigeria 2009) 845
  • jurisdiction
    • channelling provisions, pollution 850–2
    • Fund Convention 1992 855
    • HNS (Hazardous and Noxious Substances) Convention 2010 870, 871
    • passenger claims
      • Athens Convention 2002 (2002 Protocol to PAL 1974 Convention) 813–14
      • PAL 1974 Convention (Athens Convention 1974 relating to Carriage of Passengers and their Luggage by Sea) 803
    • salvage 564–5
    • Supplementary Fund Protocol 2003 859–60
    • UNCLOS provisions 823–4
  • key performance indicators (KPIs) 25
  • ‘knock-for-knock’ clauses, towage contracts 582, 652
  • knowledge
    • ‘blind eye’ 110–11, 779, 780
    • of circumstances 209
    • collective knowledge doctrine 125
    • limitation of liability 776–80
  • lawful act duress, shipbuilding contracts 249
  • LC/LP (London Convention and Protocol) 826, 827
  • legal risk management 8
  • lex fori, conflict of laws 182–3, 185
  • liability
    • attribution of see attribution of liability
    • civil see civil liability
    • criminal see criminal liability
    • limitation of see limitation of liability issues
  • liability insurer
    • direct action against 750
    • trigger of liability, statutory 749
    • when right of action against 749
  • liability salvage 484–5, 546
  • liens
    • common law possessory 178
    • discharge of 188
    • foreign, priority issues 181–5
    • general average 675
    • obligation to discharge 188
    • possessory, right to 675
  • life, loss of
    • claims 445–6
    • fault-based liability caused by non-shipping incident 809
    • PAL 1974 Convention (Athens Convention 1974 relating to Carriage of Passengers and their Luggage by Sea) 800–1
    • PAL 2002 (2002 Protocol to PAL 1974 Convention) 812
    • passenger claims 751
    • prevention 22
      • see also life-saving safety measures
    • proportionate fault rule, exception to 441
    • strict liability 808
  • lifeboat crews of RNLI, salvage by 506–7
  • life salvage 491–2, 546
  • Life-Saving Appliances (LSA) Code 407
  • life-saving safety measures
    • breach of statutory duty with regard to 407
    • Merchant Shipping Act offences 120
    • see also Colregs (International Regulations for Preventing Collisions at Sea), 1972; life, loss of
  • lighthouses, buoys or beacons, statutory offences in relation to 407–8
  • lights and shapes, Collision Regulations 400–1
  • likelihood of incident happening 5
  • Limitation Fund
    • Admiralty Court procedure relating to limitation 786–7
    • bar to other actions 783–4, 849–50
    • constitution 782–3
    • counterclaims 785–6
    • distribution 785
    • establishment 781–7
    • lis pendens 781
    • MSAs, bar under to other proceedings against other liable person 850
    • procedural matters 781–5
  • limitation of liability 739–89
    • act or omission 766, 768–9
    • Admiralty Court procedure relating to 786–7
    • breach of contract and contractual protection of manager/employees 165
    • Bunkers Convention (Bunker Oil Pollution Damage Convention) 2001 864
    • charterers 745–6, 753–7
    • claims excepted from limitation 761–3
      • general average claims, contribution in 762
      • by master and crew against employers 762–3
      • nuclear damage 762
      • oil pollution 762
      • salvage 762
    • claims subject to limitation 750–61
      • all claims, whether for damages, debt or indemnity 752
      • clean-up expenses 760–1
      • delay, loss resulting from 758
      • infringed rights 758
      • litigation costs claims 751–2
      • loss of life and personal injury of passengers 751
      • measures taken to avert/minimise loss 761
      • occurring on board/in direct connection with operation of ship or with salvage operations 752–8
      • owners and charterers 753–7
      • wreck removal 758–61
    • comparison between Convention provisions 764–7
      • act or omission 766
      • causation 767
      • persons liable 766
      • whether specific loss or damage 767
      • type of loss 766
    • compulsory insurance, EU Directive (2009/20/EC) 789
    • conduct barring limitation/exclusion of liability
      • act or omission 766, 768–9
      • ‘actual fault or privity’ test under 1957 Convention 769–72
      • burden of proof 767
      • carriers 766
      • causation 767
      • comparison between Convention provisions 764–74
      • fault of ship managers under both Conventions 772–4
      • mental element 774–81
      • personal act or omission/omission of others 768–9
      • persons liable 766
      • whether specific loss or damage 767
      • test barring limitation 767–74
      • type of loss 766
    • damages 748, 752
    • exclusion of total liability 763–4
    • fire on board
    • general average claims 756, 762
    • harbour authorities 702, 750
    • HNS (Hazardous and Noxious Substances) Convention 2010 869–70
    • identification doctrine 115
    • IMO Resolution LEG 5(99) 741, 788–9
    • indemnity claims 752, 757–8
    • and insurance 740, 789
      • International Conference for Limitation of Liability, London (1976) 742
  • ISM Code, role
      • faults 117–18
      • LLMC (Convention on Limitation of Liability for Maritime Clauses) 1957 104, 113–14
      • LLMC (Convention on Limitation of Liability for Maritime Clauses) 1976 114–15
      • risk management issues 117–19
      • role of DPA 115–17
    • justification of 739–40
    • liability insurer 749–50
    • Limitation Fund
      • Admiralty Court procedure relating to limitation 786–7
      • bar to other actions 783–4
      • constitution 782–3
      • counterclaims 785–6
      • distribution 785
    • Limitation Fund, establishment 781–7
    • litigation costs claims, exclusion 751–2
    • LLMC (Convention on Limitation of Liability for Maritime Clauses) 1957 104, 113–14
    • LLMC (Convention on Limitation of Liability for Maritime Clauses) 1976 114–15, 740
    • management of ships 165, 746, 772–4
    • measures taken to avert/minimise loss 761
    • mental element
      • ‘intent to cause such loss’ 774–5
      • loss probably resulting 780–1
      • ‘recklessness’ 775–6
      • ‘recklessness and with knowledge’ 776–80
    • modern trends 740–1
    • offshore supplytime charters 650
    • owners and charterers, claims as between
      • cargo damage, by way of indemnity 755
      • categories 753
      • consequential loss to loss of ship being liable 756–7
      • excluded claims 756–7
      • general average claims 756
      • included claims 753–6
      • indemnity claims 757–8
      • loss of or damage to ship 756
      • recourse claims 755–6, 757–8
      • salvage claims 756
    • PAL 1974 Convention (Athens Convention 1974 relating to Carriage of Passengers and their Luggage by Sea) 799–801
      • death or personal injury 800–1
      • losing right to limit 801
      • luggage, limitation for loss or damage 801
      • prohibition of contracting out 800
    • persons entitled to limit
      • charterers 745–6
      • exclusion of persons with interest in or in possession 745
      • independent contractors 747–8
      • managers 746
      • servants or agents 746–7
      • ship-owners 744–6
    • rationale for 740
    • recourse claims 755–6, 757–8
    • risk management issues 117–19
    • role of DPA 115–17
    • role of ISM Code 113–19
    • salvage 752–8, 756, 762
    • salvors 748–9
    • ship-ownership
      • claims as between owners and charterers 753–7
      • meaning of ‘owner’ under LLMC 1976 744–6
      • meaning of ‘owner’ under old regime 744
    • theft of valuables, present law 763–4
    • three-tier compensation system 833
    • towage contracts 638–40, 650
  • travaux préparatoires 746, 747, 769
  • liquidated damages
    • delays 264
    • or acceleration in payment 280–2
    • or termination of shipbuilding contract 260
    • and penalty clauses 280, 281
    • price escalation issues 246
  • lis pendens rule, Brussels I Regulation 676, 781
  • litigation costs claims, limitation of liability 751–2
  • litigation risks 23
  • LLMC (Convention on Limitation of Liability for Maritime Clauses) 1957 104, 113–14
  • LLMC (Convention on Limitation of Liability for Maritime Clauses) 1976 740
    • application 742–4
    • background 741–2
    • fault of ship managers 772–4
    • as ‘global limitation’ regime 741
    • ISM Code 114–15
    • limitations 742–4
      • floating and drilling platforms excluded 743
      • hovercraft excluded 743
      • minimum tonnage 743–4
      • passenger claims 744
      • seagoing ships only 743
    • and PAL 1974
      • Convention (Athens Convention 1974 relating to Carriage of Passengers and their Luggage by Sea) 804–5
    • Protocol of 1996
      • general provisions 787
      • limits under 787–8
      • and PAL 1974 Convention (Athens Convention 1974 relating to Carriage of Passengers and their Luggage by Sea) 805–6
    • scope 741–4
    • wreck removal 759–60
  • Lloyd’s Open Form (LOF) 1980 481, 484, 511, 553
    • ‘safety net’ concept 497
  • Lloyd’s Open Form (LOF) 1990 522, 523, 546, 551
  • Lloyd’s Open Form (LOF) 1995 523, 546
  • Lloyd’s Open Form (LOF) 2000 511, 523, 546, 561
  • Lloyd’s Open Form (LOF) 2011 482, 523, 546, 562
  • Lloyd’s Register 59
  • Lloyd’s Standard Salvage and Arbitration Clauses (LSSA), changes to 562–4
    • costs 563–4
    • security for arbitrators’ fees 563
    • security for containerised cargo 563
  • logbook of ship, Merchant Shipping Act offences 119
  • London Shipping Law Centre 75, 77
    • Seventh and Eighth Cadwallader Lectures (2004 and 2005) 59
  • London Trinity House 388
  • long-range identification and tracking of ships (LRIT), system, EU 36, 47
  • lookout, steering and sailing rules (Collision Regulations) 392
  • losses
    • actual not speculative charter 467–8
    • apportioning 472–3
    • cargo claimed against non-carrying ship 478
    • causing by unlawful means 216–17
    • colliding ships 478
    • consequential 473, 837–8
    • constructive total loss (CTL) 110
    • currency of 373–4
    • delays 758
    • expectation 373
    • fixture, loss of use during repairs 468–70
    • of life 22, 441, 445–6
    • limitation or exclusion of liability, conduct barring 766, 767
    • mental element
      • ‘intent to cause such loss’ 774–5
      • loss probably resulting 780–1
    • partial loss of ship and incidental losses 468–74
    • particular average 662
    • payment for, general average 655
    • physical damage to insured ship 478
    • pure economic loss 412, 473–4, 838
    • reliance 373
    • yardstick applicable to ascertain loss sustained 464–6
    • see also damages
  • LRIT (Cooperative Data Centre), EU 36, 47
  • LSSA see Lloyd’s Standard Salvage and Arbitration Clauses (LSSA), changes to
  • luggage
    • defined 796
    • PAL 1974 limits for loss of or damage to 801
    • PAL 2002 Protocol on loss or damage 809, 812
  • Lyme Bay canoeing tragedy (1993) 123
  • MAIB (Marine Accident Investigation Branch) 91, 117
  • maintenance of ship, mortgagor obligations 187
  • management of ships
    • agreements 146–8
    • authority of ship managers
      • actual or implied 148–9
      • crew, engagement of 151
      • exceptional repairs 152
      • extent of authority to bind owners 150
      • issuing proceedings in name of principal 150
      • owner as an undisclosed principal 149–50
      • technical matters 151–2
    • best endeavours
      • obligations of ship manager 152, 153–4, 155
      • and reasonable care 155–6
      • risk management in drafting of best endeavour clauses 154–5
      • breach of contract and contractual protection of manager/employees
      • exclusion of liability 164
      • indemnity and Himalaya clauses 165–6
      • liability and limitation 165
    • broad terms 147
    • confidentiality clauses in agreements 152
    • CREWMAN A and B 2009 (ship management agreement) 135, 146, 147, 165
    • criminal liability 161–4
      • mens rea offences 162–4
      • non-strict liability offences 162
    • discretion of managers 150
    • duties of ship manager
      • ‘account of profits’ 158
      • fiduciary duty 156–8
      • ‘no conflict’ rule 158
      • reasonable care and best endeavours 155–6
      • statutory 159–64
      • and statutory duties 161
    • exclusion of liability 164
    • fiduciary duty of ship manager
      • breach of 156–8
      • general principles 156
    • indemnity and Himalaya clauses 165–6
    • insurance and risk management 166–7
    • limitation of liability 165, 746, 772–4
    • obligations of ship manager 152–5
      • best endeavours 152, 153–4
      • risk management in drafting of best endeavour clauses 154–5
    • overview 145
    • reasonable endeavours 153, 154
    • shipbrokers and agents 145
    • SHIPMAN 2009 (form) see SHIPMAN 2009 (management agreement form)
    • statutory duties
      • criminal liability 161–4
      • duties of company under ISM Code and effect of 2010 amendments 160–1 effect upon manager’s duties 161
      • ISM Code, general obligations under 159
      • major non-conformity 159
    • third-party managers 146
    • see also ship-ownership
  • manslaughter
    • collisions at sea, involuntary manslaughter for breach of duty 408–10
    • Corporate Manslaughter and Corporate Homicide Act 2007 (CMCH Act), criminal liability under
      • applicable organisations 128
      • corporate killing offence 126–7
      • deaths in custody 127
      • duty of care 127, 128–9
      • elements of offence 127–8
      • fines 130
      • gross negligence killing 127
      • Law Commission proposal 126–7
      • penalties 129–30
      • prosecutions 130
      • question of law and of fact 129
      • reasons for offences under 127
      • reckless killing 127
    • gross negligence see gross negligence manslaughter
  • Mareva relief, freezing injunctions 356
    • see also freezing injunctions, evaluation
  • Marine Accident Investigation Branch (MAIB) 91, 117
  • Marine Environment Protection Committee (MEPC) 32, 875
  • Maritime and Coastguard Agency (MCA) 47
  • maritime assistance services 569
  • Maritime Environment Committee (MEP) 52
  • Maritime Guidance Note, UK 22
  • Maritime Labour Convention (MLC) 2006, general safety and environmental measures 53–4
  • Maritime Safety Committee (MSC) 21, 221, 875, 880
  • Maritime Subsidy Board, US Department of Maritime Administration 222
  • MARPOL (International Convention for the Prevention of Pollution from Ships) 1973 824
    • amendment 885
    • and Criminalisation Directives 58
  • MARTHA (fatigue prediction software model) 50
  • Maritime Assistance Services (MAS) 46–7
  • MAS (Maritime Assistance Services) 46–7
  • master of ship
    • agreement of salvage, authority to enter into
      • actual authority 516
      • basis to bind cargo interests to a salvage contract 517–23
      • basis to bind principal to a salvage contract 517
      • at common law 516–23
      • implied by operation of law 516
    • authority
      • to bind cargo-owners 589
      • to enter into salvage agreement 516–23
      • towage contracts 587–9
    • civil liability 417–18
    • compulsory pilotage area, duties in 718–19
    • defence under Criminalisation Directives 55–6
    • dismissal of salvor under contract 541–3
    • limitation of liability issues 762–3
    • and pilots
      • common law, respective duties under 721
      • exchange of information 719–20
      • person in command 719
      • relationship of pilot with master 719–21
      • reporting duties 720
      • respective roles of master and pilot 719
    • responsibility and authority 81–2
    • role under ISPFS Code 95
    • salvage issues
      • authority to enter into salvage agreement see above
      • authority under Salvage Convention 523–4
      • dismissal of salvor under contract 541–3
  • Memoranda of Understanding (MOUs)
    • compliance with international safety measures 69–70
    • Latin America (1992) 69–70
    • Paris MOU see Paris Memorandum of Understanding (MOU)
    • Tokyo (1993) 42, 69–70
  • Memorandum of Agreement (MOA)
    • binding contracts, shipbuilding 229, 230
    • sale and purchase risks (second-hand ships) 292, 315–16, 325
  • mens rea offences
    • criminal liability 125, 162–4
    • limitation of liability 774
  • MEP (Maritime Environment Committee) 52
  • MEPC (Marine Environment Protection Committee) 32, 875
  • Mercantile Fund 491
  • Merchant Shipping Act (MSA) 1988
    • effect of reform upon British ship-ownership 143–4
    • fishing vessels, irregularity on 140–1
    • fundamental changes brought by 139
    • owning British ship under 140
  • Merchant Shipping Act (MSA) 1995
    • collisions at sea
      • civil liability 412
      • criminal liability 401
      • definition of vessel and ship 391
      • limitation periods for commencement of claims 477
      • loss of life and personal injury claims 445
      • proportionate fault rule 435, 440
      • ships subject to 390
      • statutory offences under 402–8
      • statutory presumption of fault and subsequent abolition 388
      • time bar defence 433, 434
      • ‘used in navigation’ 391
    • court jurisdiction 850
    • eligibility to own a British ship under
      • British connection and majority interest 142
      • EU Treaty, British citizens and nationals under 141–2
    • harbour authorities 692, 693, 702, 750
    • Limitation Fund, bar to other actions 850
    • limitation of liability 742, 743, 750
      • exclusion of total liability 763–4
    • oil spills, criminal liability 872
    • pollution control 825, 826
    • salvage
      • application of 1989 Convention 487, 489, 490
      • recognised subject 489
      • wrecks 490
  • Merchant Shipping Acts
    • statutory offences under 119–22
      • breach of documentation and reporting duties 403–4
      • collisions at sea 122, 402–8
      • conduct endangering ships, structures or individuals 405–7
      • dangerously unsafe ship 120, 404–5
      • directions following shipping casualties, breach of duty to give 408
      • disobeying Collision Regulations 402–3
      • failure to give assistance to vessels after collision or to vessels/persons in distress 403
      • life-saving safety measures 120, 407
      • lighthouses, buoys or beacons 407–8
      • logbook of ship 119
      • notices 119–20
      • rules of special ships 120
      • safe manning regulations 120
      • unsafe operation of ships 121–2, 404–5
      • see also Merchant Shipping Act (MSA) 1988; Merchant Shipping Act (MSA) 1995
  • Meridian rule of attribution 98, 103–4, 112
  • misrepresentation
    • Enron scandal 297
    • Misrepresentation Act 1967
      • exceptions clauses, curtailment (Section 3) 303–5
      • remedies under 305–7
    • representations inducing a contract amounting to 297–300
    • salvage 513–14
    • and silence 297–8
    • statements made during negotiations 296, 297
    • see also sale and purchase risks (second-hand ships)
  • mitigation (damages) 368–73
    • benefit derived by mitigating party 370–3
    • expectation loss 373
    • reasonable conduct 369
    • reliance loss 373
    • unreasonable conduct and break in chain of causation 369–70
  • mortgagee’s interest insurance (MII) 219
  • mortgage of ships
    • appurtenances 173
    • cargo on board not part of security 174
    • charge compared 177–8
    • charterparties, covenant as to 188
    • chattel security 178
    • common law possessory lien compared 178
    • comparison of ship mortgage with other types of security 177–8
    • conflict of laws
      • Convention on Maritime Liens and Mortgages (1993), ratification issues 183, 185
      • law governing mortgage and law of agreement to grant a mortgage 180–1
      • priorities between foreign liens and mortgages 181–5
      • whether proposals for a uniform approach 185
    • freight not part of security 174
    • further advances 179
    • harbour authority’s claims, effect upon mortgagee’s priority 180
    • inherent risks 169
    • interference with third-party contracts by mortgagee 207–18
      • Collins v Lamport decision 210–11
      • De Mattos v Gibson decision 208–9
      • equitable remedy 209
      • impairment factor 210–11
      • issues 207–8
      • knowledge of circumstances 209
      • OBG v Allan decision 211–18
      • statutory basis 210
    • loan agreement 169
    • mortgagee rights 192–207
      • foreclosure 207
      • information provision 187
      • and minor default 192
      • receiver appointments 206–7
      • sale, power of 198–206
      • to take possession 193–7
    • mortgagor obligations
      • bound by contractual covenants 186–8
      • charterparties, covenant as to 188
      • collateral security, assignment of earnings as 188
      • discharge of claims or liens 188
      • insurance 186–7
      • legal trading 188
      • maintenance of ship in good condition and repair 187
      • notification of mortgagee 187
      • not to sell or grant a charge on the ship 188
      • statutory 188
    • mortgagor rights
      • Foresight Driller II example 191
      • ownership right of mortgaged ship 189
      • redemption right (no clog on equity of redemption) 189–92
    • nature of 170–4
    • OBG v Allan decision
      • details of case 216
      • impact upon mortgagees and previous authorities 217–18
      • modern strand of authorities prior to 211–15
      • reformulation of economic torts 215–18
    • pledge compared 178
    • possession, right of mortgagee to take
      • default, matters amounting to 193
      • mode of exercise of powers 195–6
      • rights and obligations in possession 196–7
      • security, impairment of 194–5
    • preferred ship mortgage (Greek legislation) 177
    • priorities
      • between foreign liens and mortgages 181–5
      • further advances 179
      • harbour authority’s claims, effect 180
      • Hopkinson v Rolt rule 179
      • between mortgages 178
    • ‘project finance’ transaction, newly constructed ships 169–70
    • property subject to mortgage 173–4
    • property transfer theory, origin and deconstruction 170–2
    • purpose of registered mortgage 173
    • redemption right (no clog on equity of redemption) 189–92
    • registration scheme, statutory 174–6
    • rights in rem/rights in personam 181, 185, 195
    • risk management and insurance issues of mortgagee 218–19
    • sale, power of
      • effect of sale by mortgagee 205–6
      • nature of duty of mortgagee in exercise of 199–205
      • role of mortgagee/extent of power 198–9
      • source of power 198
    • security, impairment of 194–5
    • statutory, prevailing theory 172–3
    • unregistered ships and status of unregistered mortgage 176
    • validity from 178
  • MSC (Maritime Safety Committee) 21, 221, 875, 880
  • narrow channels, steering and sailing rules (Collision Regulations) 395–6
  • National Contingency Plan for Marine Pollution from Shipping and Offshore Installations 825
  • natural phenomenon defence, pollution 843–4
  • navigational risks 22
  • necessity defence, collisions at sea 433
  • negligence
    • collisions at sea 389, 411–12, 426–7
      • three-stage negligence test 411–12
      • two negligent acts, clear line between 440–1
    • contributory negligence see contributory negligence
    • dock-owners 699
    • general average entitlement 667
    • gross negligence/gross negligence manslaughter 63, 123, 124–6, 649
    • independent contractors 747
    • passenger claims/PAL 1974 Convention 802
    • pilots 723–30
    • principles 411, 413
    • salvage
      • negligent misconduct under common law 530–7
      • remedy for negligence conduct under Convention 529–30
      • Tojo Maru case see below
    • ‘serious’ negligence, elusive concept under Criminalisation Directive (Directive 2009/123/EC) 60–4
    • servants or agents of carrier 802
    • stevedores 747
    • Tojo Maru case (salvage)
      • arbitrator’s decision 531
      • CA decision 532–3
      • damages by way of counterclaim 537
      • House of Lords decision 534
      • judge at first instance 532
      • method of assessment of award 537
      • method of assessment of damages 537
      • ‘more good than harm’ principle 534, 535
      • ordinary principles of negligence at common law applied 536
      • summary of principles 535
      • volunteers on land and professional salvors 534–5
  • nemo dat quod non habet doctrine, joint tenants 136
  • NEWBUILDCON (standard new building contract) 17–18
    • establishment by BIMCO (2008) 222
    • excusable delays under 263–4
    • form 2012 18
    • objectives 222
    • sections and clauses
      • Clause 14 (builder’s refund guarantee) 245, 273, 276, 278
      • Clause 19 (completion stage) 252
      • Clause 20 (approvals) 252
      • Clause 21 (supplies) 252, 257
      • Clause 24 (modifications of specification) 252, 264
      • Clause 26 (modifications of specification) 252
      • Clause 27 (sea trials) 253, 260
      • Clause 31 (passing of property) 254
      • Clause 34 (delays) 252, 260, 263, 264
      • Clause 35 (builder’s obligations) 254, 255, 257
      • Clause 37 (guarantee obligations) 256, 257
      • Clause 38 (insurance obligations) 257
      • Clause 39 (termination events) 245, 258, 259, 261, 264, 275, 276, 277
      • Clause 42 (dispute resolution) 285
      • Clause 45 (assignment) 284
      • outline 222, 241
      • Section 1 (description of vessel) 244
      • Section 2 (price and method of payment) 244, 245
      • Section 3 (specification) 252
  • Nissos Amorgas incident (Venezuela 1997) 844–5
  • ‘no cure, no pay’ principle, salvage 481, 482, 484, 485, 511, 552, 553, 557, 605
  • non-conformity, meaning under ISM Code 79
  • non-disclosure, salvage 513–14
  • non-separation agreements, general average 676–7
  • Norwegian Sale Form (NSF) 292
    • ‘appropriate amendments,’ subject to 314
    • Clause 2 (deposit) 316, 323, 324, 325, 326
    • Clause 3 (payment of purchase price) 330, 332, 333, 353
    • Clause 4 (inspection) 327, 328, 344
    • Clause 5 (time and place of delivery and notices) 333, 334, 353
    • Clause 6 (diver’s inspection and dry docking) 328–9, 343
    • Clause 7 (seller’s obligation regarding listing spares, etc) 334
    • Clause 8 (documents) 334, 335
    • Clause 9 (encumbrances)
      • actual or contingent liabilities 337
      • construction by courts 336–8
      • documentation 334
      • encumbrances or debts at time of delivery 337
      • guarantee provision 337
      • indemnity provision (liabilities incurred prior to delivery) 337–8
      • other breaches by seller 353
      • risk management 18
      • safeguarding against breach of 338–9
      • seller’s undertaking 335–6
      • spurious claims 337
    • Clause 11 (condition of vessel on delivery) 335, 339–48
      • 1993 and 2012 forms 344–5
      • additional exceptions under 2012 form 345
      • ‘free of cargo’/’free of stowaways’ 345
      • omissions in 2012 form 345
    • Clause 13 (buyer’s default) 324, 325, 326, 351
    • Clause 14 (seller’s default) 333, 334, 335, 351–2, 353
    • Clause 15 (buyer’s representatives) 323
    • Clause 18 (entire agreement clause)
      • exceptions clauses and estoppel 302
      • express wording (2012 form) 348
      • notification to class 342
    • see also sale and purchase risks (second-hand ships)
  • notice of readiness (NOR) 292, 329–35
    • ‘advance deposit’ 331
    • deliverable state 331–4
    • essential documentation for exchange at delivery 334–5
    • when payment of price arranged 330–1
  • notices
    • Merchant Shipping Act offences 119–20
    • notice of readiness see above
    • port safety 699–700
  • novus actus interveniens
  • NSF see Norwegian Sale Form (NSF)
  • nuclear damage 821, 872–4
    • Brussels Supplementary Convention 1963 and Protocols of 1964 and 1982 872
    • Joint Protocol Relating to the Application of the Vienna Convention and the Paris Convention 1988 873
    • limitation of liability issues 762
    • NUCLEAR 71 (Convention relating to Civil Liability in the Field of Maritime Carriage of Nuclear Material 1971) 874
    • Paris Convention on Third Party Liability in the Field of Nuclear Energy 1960 872, 873–4
    • UK legislation 874
    • Vienna Convention on Civil Liability for Nuclear Damage 1963 872, 873–4
  • Nuuk Declaration 2011, pollution 826
  • objective evidence, meaning under ISM Code 79
  • OCIMF see Oil Companies International Marine Forum (OCIMF)
  • OECD (Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development), Paris Convention on Third Party Liability in the Field of Nuclear Energy 1960 872, 873–4
  • OHSAS (Occupational Health and Safety Standard) 18001 73–4
  • oil companies, deterrent effect of vetting by
  • Rowan case
  • vetting practice 91–2
  • and Vitol charter 92, 93
  • Oil Companies International Marine Forum (OCIMF) 4, 24, 76
  • oil pollution
    • current regime 829–30
    • Fund Convention 1992 830, 831
    • international compensation regime 829–31
    • IOPC Funds 831
    • limitation of liability 762
    • oil pollution damage compensation fund 39
    • oil pollution emergency plans (OPEPs) 685
    • Oil Pollution Incident Response Training Guidelines for UK Offshore Oil Industry 685
    • old regime 829
    • OPRC (International Convention on Oil Pollution Preparedness, Response and Co-operation) 1990 825–6
    • persistent oil 867
    • sea-going vessels carrying persistent oil in bulk 834–5
    • Secretary of State powers in relation to legislation 684–6
    • Small Tankers Oil Pollution Indemnity Agreement (STOPIA) 578, 830, 860, 861
    • spills, criminal liability under MSAs 872
    • Supplementary Fund 2003 830–1
    • Tankers Oil Pollution Indemnity Agreement (TOPIA) 578, 830, 860
    • see also compensation; International Oil Pollution Compensation Funds (IOPC Funds); pollution
  • oil rigs, and salvage 490
  • oil spills 845, 872
  • open port duty, harbour authorities 690
  • operative mistake, salvage 514–16
  • Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) 76
  • out-of-pocket expenses
    • environmental salvage 571
    • partial loss of ship and incidental losses 473
    • salvage compensation 549
  • ownership see ship-ownership
  • P&I clubs 22, 76, 479, 860
    • compulsory insurance 734
    • passenger claims 815
    • salvage 555, 558, 578
    • unseaworthiness 673
    • see also protection and indemnity (P&I) cover
  • P&I insurance see protection and indemnity (P&I) cover
  • Pacific Adventurer incident (2009) 740
  • PAL 1974 Convention (Athens Convention 1974 relating to Carriage of Passengers and their Luggage by Sea)
    • application and scope 794–5
    • contributory negligence 802
    • definitions
      • ‘cabin luggage’ 796
      • ‘carrier’ 795–6
      • ‘contract of carriage’ 796
      • ‘loss of or damage’ 796
      • ‘luggage’ 796
      • ‘passenger’ 796
      • ‘performing carrier’ 796
      • ‘period of carriage’ 796–7
      • ‘ship’ 795
    • exclusion of application 795
    • fault-based liability under 791–2, 797–8
    • ‘international carriage,’ applicable to 794, 795
    • invalidity of contractual provisions 814
    • jurisdiction 803
    • limitation of liability 799–801
      • death or personal injury 800–1
      • losing right to limit 801
      • luggage, limitation for loss or damage 801
      • prohibition of contracting out 800
    • and LLMC (Convention on Limitation of Liability for Maritime Clauses) 1976 804–5
    • negligence of servants or agents of carrier 802
    • non-seagoing and sea-going ships 805–6
    • persons liable 797
    • presumed fault under 798
    • and Protocol of 1996 805–6
    • ratification 792
    • risk assessment, relevance 798–9
    • strict liability, shift from fault-based 791–2
    • time limits 802
    • travel agents, contracts of carriage through 803–4
    • valuables, carriage of 801–2
    • see also passenger claims
  • PAL 2002 (2002 Protocol to PAL 1974 Convention) see Athens Convention 2002 (2002 Protocol to PAL 1974 Convention)
  • Panamanian flag, and flags of convenience 69, 181
  • Paris Memorandum of Understanding (MOU), 1982
    • blacklist of flags 33, 42
    • compliance with international safety measures 69
    • conformity requirements of flag States 40
    • European Quality Shipping Information System established by 74
  • part charterers 745
  • partial loss of ship and incidental losses 468–74
    • detention damages
      • loss and expenses, apportioning 472–3
      • mitigation issues 470–1
      • out-of-pocket expenses/other consequential losses 473
      • pure economic loss 473–4
      • routine repairs during collision damage repairs 472
    • fixture, loss of use 468–70
    • repairs
      • cost of 468
      • loss of use of fixture during 468–70
      • routine repairs during collision damage repairs 472
  • passenger claims
    • amounts of potential liability 820
    • Athens Convention 2002 791, 797, 807, 820
    • background 792–3
    • contributory negligence 802
    • death or personal injury claims 808, 809, 812
    • definitions
      • ‘cabin luggage’ 796
      • ‘carrier’ 795–6
      • ‘contract of carriage’ 796
      • ‘loss of or damage’ 796
      • ‘luggage’ 796
      • ‘passenger’ 796
      • ‘period of carriage’ 796–7
      • ‘ship’ 795
    • Erika III measures (2009) 43–4
    • IMO Reservation/Guidelines 2006 792, 820
      • background 815–16
      • Blue Cards 817
      • non-war risks insurance 817
      • war-or terrorism-risks insurance 816–17
    • LLMC (Convention on Limitation of Liability for Maritime Clauses) 1976 744
    • loss of life and personal injury 751
      • see also life, loss of
    • luggage
      • defined 796
      • PAL 1974 limits for loss of or damage to 801
      • PAL 2002 Protocol on loss or damage 809
    • minimum tonnage 744
    • MS (Carriage of Passengers by Sea) Regulations 2012 819
    • negligence 802
    • PAL 1974 Convention see PAL 1974 Convention (Athens Convention 1974 relating to Carriage of Passengers and their Luggage by Sea)
    • PLR (Passengers Liability Regulation) 2009 817–19
    • Protocol 2002 see Athens Convention 2002 (2002 Protocol to PAL 1974 Convention)
    • regional organisations, competence 793
    • strict liability, shift from fault-based 791–2
    • tacit acceptance procedure 793
    • travel agents, contracts of carriage through 803–4
    • valuables, carriage of 801–2, 812
  • passenger ships and roll-on/roll-off (ro-ro) vessels
    • safety and environmental measures
      • EU level developments 49
      • human element developments 50
      • IMO level developments 49–50
  • passing of property
    • contract, risk by 254
    • deliverable state 321
    • Sale of Goods Act (SOGA) 1979 321–2
    • statute, risk by 253
  • PCS see Port State Control (PCS)
  • penalties
    • ISM Code 89–90
    • MSA 1995, statutory offences under 403, 404, 406
    • under CMCH Act 2007 129–30
  • performance of voyage, risks at 19–23
    • accident aftermath 23
    • bulkhead failures and stresses, management 21
    • cargo loading 21
    • clear instructions requirement 21
    • crew training 21
    • discharge port 22
    • emergency procedures, accident aftermath 23
    • injury prevention 22
    • loss of life prevention 22
    • navigational 22
    • pilot, communication with 23
    • piracy risk assessment and planning 20–1
    • stowaways 22
    • voyage planning 20
  • Permanent Cooperation Framework, accident investigation 43
  • personal injury claims
    • Athens Convention 2002 (2002 Protocol to PAL 1974 Convention) 812
    • collisions at sea 445–6
    • fault-based liabilty caused by non-shipping incident 809
    • PAL 1974 Convention (Athens Convention 1974 relating to Carriage of Passengers and their Luggage by Sea) 800–1
    • passenger claims 751
    • strict liability 808
  • personal injury claims, collisions at sea, ‘thin skull’ rule 459, 460
  • personnel of ship
  • ISMO Code 82
  • towage contracts, liability and cross-indemnity issues 641–2
  • pilotage
    • compulsory 715
    • compulsory pilotage area, duties of masters and pilots 718–19
    • IMO recommendations 713–14
    • liability of harbour authorities with respect to 722–3
    • services, obligation to provide 700–2, 714–16
    • see also pilots
  • Pilotage Commission, Advisory Committee on Pilotage 713
  • pilots
    • accountability for safety and risk management 715–16
    • authorisation
      • EU Directive and Regulations 716–17
      • under PA 1987 716
      • revision of duties by PMSC 2012 and IMO Resolution A.960 717–18
    • authority 719–21
    • charges by competent harbour authority 730
    • civil liability 417–18
    • communication with 23
    • compulsory pilotage defence, abolition (1913) 722
    • Directive 1999/42/EC 701–2, 714
    • duties in a compulsory pilotage area 718–19
    • duties of competent harbour authority in relation to 714–18
      • under PA 1987 714–15
      • recognition of qualifications 715
      • services, obligation to provide 714–16
    • function 712
    • IMO recommendations 713–14
    • International Best Practice for Maritime Pilots 714
    • International Maritime Pilots Association 714
    • liability
    • and master of ship
      • exchange of information 719–20
      • person in command 719
      • relationship of pilot with master 719–21
      • reporting duties 720
      • respective roles of master and pilot 719
    • negligence, liability of ship-owners for
    • offence not to have 718–19
    • PA 1987 713, 714–15
    • recognition of qualifications 715
    • relationship with master 719–21
    • revision of duties by PMSC 2012 and IMO Resolution A.960 717–18
    • risk assessment 713
    • and risks 712–30
    • rules of engagement 718
    • statutes 713–14
    • training, certification and operational procedures 714
    • voluntary services, when exceptional 499–501
    • see also pilotage
  • Piper Alpha oilrig explosion (1988) 123
  • piracy issues
    • general average entitlement, effect of fault on 669–71
    • risk assessment and planning 20–1, 94
    • terrorism, and piracy activities 94
  • places of refuge
    • status of places of refuge in the UK 47
    • and traffic monitoring
      • background 44–5
      • CMI Conference, draft instrument approved by 45
      • further EU measures 47–8
      • IMO Guidelines 46–7
      • status of places of refuge in the UK 47
    • and Wreck Removal Convention 735–6
  • platforms 490, 743
  • pledge, ship mortgage compared 178
  • PLR (Passengers Liability Regulation) 2009 817–19
    • additional provisions 818–19
    • application 818
    • scope 818
  • pollution
    • accidental causation following marine accident 58
    • Bunkers Convention (Bunker Oil Pollution Damage Convention) 2001 862–6
      • compulsory insurance 864–5
      • liability 863–4
      • more than one person liable 863
      • no provisions for limitation of liability 864
      • pollution damage 863
      • responder immunity 865–6
    • BWM Convention (International Convention for the Control and Management of Ships, Ballast Water and Sediments) 827–8
    • channelling provisions 846–8
    • Civil Liability Convention (CLC) 1992 see CLC (Civil Liability Convention) 1992
    • Committee on Safe Seas and the Prevention of Pollution from Ships (COSS) 29, 38–9
    • Criminalisation Directives on ship-source pollution see Criminalisation Directives on ship-source pollution
    • damage see pollution damage
    • European Maritime Safety Agency, pollution prevention role 37
    • Fund Assembly 1992 831, 835, 838, 860
    • Fund Convention 1992 see Fund Convention 1992
    • Hong Kong Convention (Hong Kong International Convention for the Safe and Environmentally Sound Recycling of Ships) 828
    • International Convention on the Control of Harmful Anti-Fouling Systems on Ships 827
    • International Sewage Pollution Prevention (ISPP) Certificate 334, 335, 336
    • Intervention Convention 825
    • London Convention on the Prevention of Marine Pollution by Dumping of Wastes and Other Matters 826–7
    • MARPOL (International Convention for the Prevention of Pollution from Ships) 58, 824
    • National Contingency Plan for Marine Pollution from Shipping and Offshore Installations 825
    • Nuuk Declaration 2011 826
    • oil see oil pollution
    • ‘polluter pays principle’ 51
    • Salvage Convention see International Salvage Convention 1989
    • SOLAS (International Convention for the Safety of Life at Sea) 72, 824
    • Special Compensation of Protection and Indemnity Clause (SCOPIC) see SCOPIC (Special Compensation of Protection and Indemnity Clause) 2000 560
    • Supplementary Fund Protocol see Supplementary Fund Protocol 2003
    • Tanker Management Self-Assessment (TMSA) 578
    • towage contracts 651
    • UNCLOS (United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea) 822–4
      • and Criminalisation Directives 57–8
      • ‘innocent passage’ 823
      • jurisdiction and rights and duties of States 823–4
      • sovereign obligations 823
    • Wreck Convention see WRC (Wreck Removal Convention) 2007
    • see also compensation
  • pollution damage
    • advisors, use of 839
    • Bunkers Convention (Bunker Oil Pollution Damage Convention) 2001 863
    • caused in 1969 CLC States 853
    • CLC (Civil Liability Convention) 1992 836, 837
    • defined 837
    • direct property damage and consequential loss or expenses 837–8
    • environmental 838–9
    • Fund Convention 1992 837
    • loss or expenses 837–8
    • MSAs, bringing claims under 851
    • prevention of normal business operations 838
    • property 837
    • pure economic loss 838
    • types of claim 837–9
    • in United States 828
    • see also oil pollution; pollution
  • port authority, civil liability 418–19
  • Port Maritime Safety Code (PMSC) 2012 680, 682
    • compliance with 689–90
    • duty to maintain port in good condition 695–6
    • pilots
      • IMO recommendations 713
      • revision of duties 717–18
    • responsibility 689
    • scope and aim 689
  • ports
    • contractual duty to make reasonably safe 699–700
    • duty to maintain in good condition 695–6
    • duty to operate 690–2
    • entry into, extent of control 95
    • facility requirements 96
    • Guide to Good Practice on Port Marine Operations 2012 682, 690, 696, 713
    • harbour authorities, duties in relation to 695–6, 699–700
    • major, in UK 683
    • open port duty 690
    • role in inspections and enforcement of legislation 686
    • security 712
    • see also Port State Control (PCS)
  • Port State Control (PSC) regime 5
    • blacklisting of substandard ships by 71
    • Directives amending 33–4
    • insurance issues 109
    • mandatory inspections 33
    • role in enforcement 70–1
    • THETIS information system supporting 36
  • port trusts 683
  • possession, mortgagee in
    • due diligence, obligation to act in 197
    • right of mortgagee to take possession
      • default, matters amounting to 193
      • mode of exercise of powers 195–6
      • security, impairment of 194–5
    • rights and obligations in possession
      • freight, right to 196–7
      • operation and management, obligations during 197
  • The Prestige disaster (2002) 27, 28, 31, 45, 54, 383, 829
    • pollution 847, 848
  • privity 99, 109
  • privity of contract doctrine, towage contracts 635
  • property
    • concept 488–9
    • general average, subject to 655, 665
    • pollution damage 837
    • preservation where imperilled 665
    • property transfer theory, origin and deconstruction 170–2
    • salvage 489–90
  • property salvage 546
  • proportionality
    • proportionate fault rule see proportionate fault rule, collisions at sea
    • Wreck Removal Convention (WRC) 2007 732–3
  • proportionate fault rule, collisions at sea 434–45
    • application 435
    • causative potency and blameworthiness 436–40
    • ‘clear preponderance of blame’ 436–7
    • collision between ship and a non-ship 442–5
      • apportionment of blame when ship collides with bridge 443–4
      • avoidance action causing damage to objects 444–5
    • composite faults approach 438
    • exceptions to 440–5
      • ‘agony of the moment’ defence, success 440
      • collision between ship and a non-ship 442–5
      • innocent third ship claims against one of the tortfeasors 441–2
      • loss of life or personal injury 441
      • two negligent acts, clear line between 440–1
    • unit approach 438, 442, 443
  • protection and indemnity (P&I) cover 10, 23, 109, 186
    • P&I clubs see P&I clubs
    • see also insurance issues
  • proximity, collisions at sea 411, 412
  • public authorities, salvage operations controlled by 504–6
  • purchase and sale of ships see sale and purchase risks (second-hand ships)
  • ‘qualifying ships,’ tonnage tax 144, 145
  • quality shipping 25
  • Quality Shipping Campaign 75, 76
  • RDC (running-down clause), insurance issues 478, 479
  • reasonableness requirement
    • ‘all reasonable endeavours’ 526, 527
    • best endeavours and reasonable care 155–6
    • conduct 369
    • exceptions clauses, curtailment (Misrepresentation Act 1967, Section 3) 305
    • exclusion clauses, ship-building contracts 238
    • general average 664
    • identification doctrine 102
    • port safety 699–700
    • reasonable endeavours 153, 154
    • salvage, due care 529
    • traffic monitoring and places of refuge (Directive 2009/17/EC) 46
    • unreasonable conduct and break in chain of causation 369–70
    • Wreck Removal Convention (WRC) 2007 732–3
    • York-Antwerp Rules (YAR) 658
  • receiver appointments, mortgagee rights 206–7
  • recklessness
    • Criminalisation Directives on ship-source pollution 62, 63
    • reckless killing, under CMCH Act 2007 127
    • towage contracts 649
  • Recognised Organisations (ROs) 30, 40, 75
  • Recognised Security Organisations (RSOs) 95
  • recourse claims, limitation of liability 755–6, 757–8
  • recycling provisions 828
  • Redffren incident (Nigeria 2009) 845
  • refuge, places of
    • IMO Guidelines 568–9
    • in international scene 569–70
    • maritime assistance services 569
    • UK approach to 570
  • registration of ships, in UK
    • Central Register 142
    • conflict of laws 180
    • evidence, provision of 135
    • ‘flagging out’ of ships to foreign registries 139
    • and flags of convenience 145
    • ‘quota hopping’ by non-British ships, preventing 140
    • Registration of British Vessels 1823–5 170
    • see also ship-ownership
  • regulatory regime 27–66
    • Criminalisation Directives on ship-source pollution see Criminalisation Directives on ship-source pollution
    • Erika measures see Erika I measures (2000); Erika II measures (2002); Erika III measures (2009)
    • general safety and environmental measures
      • ballast water and waste residue 50–2
      • bulk carriers 48–9
      • crew training and certification 53
      • ECDIS 50
      • mandatory measures 50
      • Maritime Labour Convention 2006 53–4
      • passenger ships and roll-on/roll-off (ro-ro) vessels 49–50
      • ship recycling 52–3
  • rejection of vessel
    • sale and purchase risks (second-hand ships) 354
    • termination of shipbuilding contract 260
  • remedies
    • damages see damages
    • general average entitlement 666
    • sale and purchase risks (second-hand ships)
      • breaches by seller 353
      • breach of statutory terms by seller 353–4
      • buyer’s remedies 351–4
      • delay in delivery or non-delivery as per contract 351–3
      • whether freezing injunctions a protective measure for buyer 354–60
      • measure of damages 360–73
      • Misrepresentation Act 1967, under 305–7
      • non-performance by one party, available options 349–51
      • seller’s remedies 351
    • shipbuilding contracts
      • delays 264–5
      • guarantee defects 255
      • liquidated damages 260, 264, 280–2
      • specific performance 264–5
      • termination of contract 265
  • repairs
    • authority of ship managers 152
    • ballast/laden method 470
    • civil liability of ship-repairers 419
    • cost of 468
    • exceptional 152
    • loss of use of fixture during 468–70
    • mortgagor obligations 187
    • negligence of ship-repairers 747
    • routine repairs during collision damage repairs 472
    • time equalisation method 470
  • reporting duties, breach under Collision Regulations 403–4
  • res ipsa loquitur, breach of duty of care 420–2
  • resources, ISMO Code 82
  • respondeat superior principle 617, 726, 729
    • limitation of liability 770, 771, 773
  • responder immunity 571, 865–6
  • restitutio in integrum principle, damages 463–4, 467
  • rights in rem/rights in personam 390, 504
    • mortgage of ships 181, 185, 195
  • risk exposure 8–9
  • risk management 3–25
    • accountability for 715–16
    • and assessment 6–7
    • best endeavour clauses, drafting 154–5
    • by brokers 307–8
    • collective responsibility and commitment 16–25
    • definition of ‘risk’ 5
    • funding for risk control and training 25
    • by harbour authorities 679–736
    • high-risk and low-risk ships 42
    • and insurance 166–7
    • legal 8
    • limitation of liability and role of ISM Code 117–19
    • mortgage of ships, risks in see mortgage of ships
    • option agreements, drafting of shipbuilding contracts 242–4
    • PAL 1974 Convention (Athens Convention 1974 relating to Carriage of Passengers and their Luggage by Sea), relevance of risk assessment under 798–9
    • refund guarantee 273–5
    • rescission by builder 284
    • safety culture 10
    • sale and purchase risks (second-hand ships)
    • science of 4
    • shipbuilding contracts, making 229–32
    • ship-ownership see ship-ownership
    • stages
    • standards for risk control 16–17
    • towage contracts 647–9
    • and tug fitness 609–10
  • risk profile 9
  • risk tolerance 9–10
  • RNLI see Royal National Lifeboat Institution (RNLI)
  • route (unauthorised), deviation through 669–71
  • Royal National Lifeboat Institution (RNLI) 491
    • salvage by lifeboat crews 506–7
  • Royal Navy, orders of naval commander 504
  • RSOs (Recognised Security Organisations) 95
  • running-down clause (RDC), insurance issues 478, 479
  • safe manning regulations, Merchant Shipping Act offences 120
  • SafeSeaNet (maritime information facility) 36, 47
  • safety and environmental measures
    • ballast water and waste residue 50–2
    • bulk carriers 48–9
    • compliance with international measures, role of flag State and PSC in enforcement 70–1
    • crew training and certification 53
    • definition of ‘safety management system’ under ISM Code 79
    • ECDIS 50
    • functional requirements for a safety management system 80
    • industry standards on safety and quality assessment 73–4
    • mandatory measures 50
    • Maritime Labour Convention 2006 53–4
    • passenger ships and roll-on/roll-off (ro-ro) vessels 49–50
    • ship recycling 52–3
    • see also ISM (International Safety Management) Code
  • safety culture 10
    • enhancement through collective responsibility 24–5
  • Safety Management Certificate (SMC) 79, 86
  • Safety Management Manual (SMM) 84, 107, 111
  • Safety Management System (SMS), ISM Code 79, 80, 81, 84, 91
    • attribution of liability 111, 117, 131
    • co-ownership 138
    • inefficient 117
    • risk management 8, 9
  • SAJ (Shipbuilders’ Association of Japan) contract form
    • articles and provisions
      • Article I (description of vessel) 244
      • Article II (price and method of payment) 244, 245, 276
      • Article III (delivery, speed, fuel consumption and dead weight)) 252
      • Article IV (approvals) 252
      • Article V (modifications of specification) 252, 263
      • Article VI (sea trials) 253
      • Article VII (delivery, passing of property) 254
      • Article VIII (delays) 252, 261, 262
      • Article IX (builder’s obligations) 254, 255, 256, 257
      • Article X (right to rescind) 252, 258, 270, 274, 285
      • Article XI (builder’s default) 274, 276, 277, 282, 283
      • Article XII (insurance obligations) 257, 270
      • Article XIII (dispute resolution) 285
      • Article XIV (assignment) 285
      • Article XVII (supplies) 252
      • Article XXI (sundry provisions) 278
      • outline 240
    • excusable delays under 263
    • wide use of 228
  • sale and purchase risks (second-hand ships) 291–383
    • binding contract and risk management 308–19
      • ‘buyer to be nominated,’ effect 316–19
      • intention, clear expression of 308–9
      • meaning of ‘subjects’ 310–14
      • non-signing of formal document, effect upon validity of contract 314–16
      • ‘subject to contract’ wording 309, 311
      • ‘subject to details’ wording 309, 311, 313
    • breach of contract 294, 297
    • brokers, risk management by 307–8
    • ‘buyer to be nominated,’ effect 316–19
    • classification of terms 319–22
      • breach of a condition or warranty 319
      • at common law 319–20
      • under SOGA 1979 320–2
    • classification societies, civil liability to buyers and other third parties 374–83
      • American approach 382–3
      • comparison with air industry 380–2
      • whether duty of care owed to third parties 375–80
    • completion stage, contractual terms at 293, 328–83
      • classification society inspection (dry-docking) 34, 328–9
      • closing meeting 292, 349
      • condition of vessel on delivery 339–48
      • non-performance by one party, available options 349–51
      • notice of readiness 329–35
      • post-delivery matters 360
      • see also Norwegian Sale Form (NSF)
    • condition of vessel on delivery 339–48
      • certificates 341
      • ‘as is’ provision see above
      • matters needing to be notified and when 343–4
      • notification to class 341–3
    • currency of loss 373–4
    • deposit, payment of
      • ‘banking day’ 323
      • commitment to contract 292
      • consequences of non-payment 324–6
      • successive sales 326
      • when payable/method of payment 323–4
    • exceptions clauses
      • curtailment by Misrepresentation Act 1967 (Section 3) 303–5
      • and estoppel 301–3
    • good faith concept 293–4
    • inducement to enter a contract
    • inspection stage, contractual terms at 327
    • intention, clear expression of 308–9
    • ‘as is’/‘as she was’ provisions
      • class free of recommendation 340
      • class maintained as additional exemption to ‘as is’ 341
      • effect upon SOGA, Section 14(2) 345–8
      • fair wear and tear excepted 340
      • free of average damage as additional exception to 340–1
    • making of contract 293–6
    • Misrepresentation Act 1967
      • exceptions clauses, curtailment (Section 3) 303–5
      • remedies under 305–7
    • negotiations and contract stage 291–2, 293–326
      • ‘but for’ test (inducement and causation) 298, 301
      • caveat emptor, effect 296
      • Confidentiality Agreement 299
      • ‘decisive part/real and substantial part’ (inducement and causation) 300
      • estoppel 301–3
      • exceptions clauses 301–5
      • express statements 297
      • implied statements 297
      • inducement and causation 300–1
      • Information Memorandum (IM) 299
      • making of contract 293–6
      • mere ‘puffs’ 296
      • misrepresentation, representations inducing a contract amounting to 228, 297–300
      • whether obligation for disclosure by seller 296–308
      • statements made during negotiations 296–7
      • statements of fact 297
    • non-signing of formal document, effect upon validity of contract 314–16
    • Norwegian Sale Form see Norwegian Sale Form (NSF)
    • notice of readiness 292, 293, 329–35
      • ‘advance deposit’ 331
      • deliverable state 331–4
      • essential documentation for exchange at delivery 334–5
      • when payment of price arranged 330–1
    • whether obligation for disclosure by seller 296–308
    • pre-inspection stage 322–6
    • rejection of vessel 354
    • remedies
      • breaches by seller 353
      • breach of statutory terms by seller 353–4
      • buyer’s remedies 351–4
      • delay in delivery or non-delivery as per contract 351–3
      • whether freezing injunctions a protective measure for buyer 354–60
      • measure of damages 360–73
      • Misrepresentation Act 1967, under 305–7
      • non-performance by one party, available options 349–51
      • seller’s remedies 351
    • risk management issues for buyers 354–60
    • standard forms, contractual terms under 322–6
    • ‘subjects,’ meaning of 310–14
  • Sale of Goods Act (SOGA) 1979
    • classification of terms under
      • class notation 321
      • de minimis rule 321
      • passing of property 321–2
      • sale by description 320–1
      • ‘satisfactory quality’ 236, 320
      • warranties 320
    • effect of ‘as is’ or ‘as she was’ upon (Section 14(2)) 345–8
      • narrow issue 347–8
      • wider issue 348
    • shipbuilding contracts
      • contractual terms implied 233–9
      • nature of contract under SOGA 227
      • sales versus agreements to sell 227
  • sale power of mortgagee in event of mortgagor default
    • effect of sale by mortgagee 205–6
    • nature of duty of mortgagee in exercise of 199–205
    • one-ship companies 209
    • role of mortgagee/extent of power 198–9
    • source of power 198 ‘true market value’ versus ‘proper price’ 200, 203
  • salvage
    • agreements 510–16
      • court intervention 512–16
      • historical development 510–11
      • International Salvage Convention 1989 511–12
      • master’s authority to enter into 516–24
      • ‘Salvom’ International Salvage Union Agreement 512
    • apportionment and payment 564
    • assessment of award and special compensation 546–53
    • awards
      • Article 13 558
      • assessment 537, 546–53
      • cause of action versus quantum meruit 507
      • ‘enhanced award’ and ‘safety net’ 484–7, 553
      • foundation of a right for an award 483
      • meritorious services 507–9
      • Nagasaki Spirit case 551
    • best endeavours of salvor 525–9
    • civil 482
    • civil liability 418
    • concept under maritime law 482–3
    • contract, under 483–4
    • Conventions 484–7
    • court intervention
      • economic duress/overbearing conduct by salvor 512–13
      • misrepresentation and non-disclosure 513–14
      • operative mistake 514–16
    • damage issues 555
    • danger
    • definition 482
    • disparity principle 482, 548–9
    • due care obligation 529–39
      • negligent misconduct under common law 530–7
      • reasonableness requirement 529
      • remedy for negligent misconduct under Convention 529–30
      • Tojo Maru case 531–7
      • unresolved issues 537–9
    • duties and conduct of salvors 524–40
    • duties arising under statute or official duty
      • coastguards and salvage operations 506
      • duty to assist a collision 502–3
      • duty to assist others in distress 503–4
      • lifeboat crews of RNLI, salvage by 506–7
      • officers under orders of a naval commander of Royal Navy 504
      • public authorities, salvage operations controlled by 504–6
    • economic duress 512–13
    • elements 492–510
    • engaged services 510
    • ‘enhanced award’ and ‘safety net’
      • prior to 1989 Convention 484–5
      • adoption into new Convention 486–7
      • and special compensation 553
    • environmental 486, 571–80
      • background 571–2
      • whether can be tacked on to present Salvage Convention 575–6
      • whether can stand alone 576–7
      • feasibility for proposed reform 577–8
      • financial considerations 578–9
      • International Salvage Convention 1989 552–3
      • International Working Group (IWG) 572
      • ‘marine environmental protection levy’ 579
      • out-of-pocket expenses 571
      • proposal for reform 574–9
      • reasons for reform 572–3
      • Salvors’ Environmental Protection Fund 579
      • views of commentators 574–5
    • fair rate 549, 552, 555–6
    • foundation of a right for an award 483
    • government intervention 566–70
      • potential offences by salvor or harbour master 567–8
      • SOSREP (Secretary of State Representative for Maritime Salvage and Intervention) 566–7
    • hovercraft/aircraft 491
    • International Salvage Convention 1989 487–92
      • Article 13 award 558
      • Article 14 552–6, 557
      • creation of ‘enhanced award’ and ‘safety net’ prior to 484–5
      • duty of owner of property to co-operate under 543–4
      • fair rate 555–6
      • general application 487–8
      • increment 556
      • master’s authority under 523–4
      • pollution 828
      • position of several salvors under 543
      • recognised subject of salvage 488–92
      • ‘relevant waters’ 488
      • remedy for negligent misconduct under 529–30
      • role 511–12
      • security for special compensation 556
      • substantial physical damage 555
      • territorial limits 554
      • threatened damage 555
      • towage versus salvage 584
    • jurisdiction 564–5
    • liability 484–5, 546
    • life 491–2, 546
    • by lifeboat crews of RNLI 506–7
    • limitation of liability issues 752–8, 756, 762
    • Lloyd’s Open Form (LOF) 1980 481, 484, 497, 511, 552, 553
    • Lloyd’s Open Form (LOF) 1990 522, 523, 546, 551
    • Lloyd’s Open Form (LOF) 1995 523, 546
    • Lloyd’s Open Form (LOF) 2000 511, 523, 546, 561
    • Lloyd’s Open Form (LOF) 2011 482, 523, 546, 562
    • Lloyd’s Standard Salvage and Arbitration Clauses (LSSA), changes to 562–4
      • costs 563–4
      • security for arbitrators’ fees 563
      • security for containerised cargo 563
    • master’s authority to enter into agreement
      • actual authority 516
      • basis to bind cargo interests to a salvage contract 517–23
      • basis to bind principal to a salvage contract 517
      • at common law 516–23
      • implied by operation of law 516
    • master’s authority under Salvage Convention 523–4
    • master’s dismissal of salvor under contract 541–3
    • meritorious services 507–9
    • misrepresentation 513–14
    • Nagasaki Spirit case 550–2
      • appeal award 551
      • award 551
      • CA decision 551–2
      • environmental salvage 553
      • fair rate 555
      • House of Lords decision 552
      • judicial decision 551
      • revision of law, underlying reasons for 485–6
    • negligence
      • negligent conduct under common law 530–7
      • occurring before salvage services rendered 539–40
      • Tojo Maru case see below
    • ‘no cure, no pay’ principle 481, 482, 484, 485, 511, 552, 553, 557, 605
    • non-disclosure 513–14
    • operative mistake 514–16
    • origin 482–3
    • out-of-pocket expenses 549
    • overbearing conduct by salvor 512–13
    • owner of property in danger, duties
      • to co-operate under common law 544
      • to co-operate under contract 544–5
      • to co-operate under Convention 543–4
      • obligation to provide security to salvors 545
    • potential offences by salvor or harbour master 567–8
    • property 546
    • public authorities, salvage operations controlled by 504–6
    • recognised subject 488–92
      • bunkers 489
      • definition of ‘capable of navigation’ 489
      • definition of ‘property’ 489–90
      • definition of ‘salvage operations’ 489
      • definition of ‘vessel’ 489
      • freight at risk 490
      • hovercraft/aircraft 491
      • life salvage 491–2
      • ship, vessel or craft 489
      • structures 490
      • wrecks 490
    • refuge, places of 568–70
    • responder immunity 571
    • revision of law, historical development 484–7
      • underlying reasons for revision by a new Convention 485–6
    • risks and liabilities under 481–579
    • Salvage Liaison Committee 556
    • ‘Salvom’ International Salvage Union Agreement 512
    • several salvors, position of 540–3
      • dismissal of salvor under contract by master of vessel being salved 541–3
      • dispossession of one by another under maritime law salvage 540–1
      • salvage under contract 542
      • salvage under maritime law 541–2
      • summary of principles 542–3
    • special compensation
      • concept 553
      • criteria 549–52
      • fair rate 549, 552, 555–6
      • Nagasaki Spirit case 550–2
      • out-of-pocket expenses 549
      • security for 556
    • Special Compensation of Protection and Indemnity Clause (SCOPIC) see SCOPIC (Special Compensation of Protection and Indemnity Clause) 2000
    • special maritime law principles 481
    • standing by a vessel in danger, services by 509
    • success 507–12
    • time limits 565–6
    • Tojo Maru case
      • arbitrator’s decision 531
      • CA decision 532–3
      • damages by way of counterclaim 537
      • House of Lords decision 534
      • judge at first instance 532
      • method of assessment of award 537
      • ‘more good than harm’ principle 534, 535
      • ordinary principles of negligence at common law applied 536
      • summary of principles 535
      • volunteers on land and professional salvors 534–5
    • versus towage 583–7
      • under common law 584–7
      • under Salvage Convention 1989 584
      • under TOWCON/TOWHIRE 1985 584
      • under UKSTC 1986 584
    • voluntary services
      • cargo-owners 501–2
      • pilots, when exceptional 499–501
      • under pre-existing agreement 497–9
      • rendered by a tug under towage contract 499
    • see also ISU (International Salvage Union); SOSREP (Secretary of State Representative for Maritime Salvage and Intervention)
  • ‘Salvom’ International Salvage Union Agreement 512
  • salvors
    • best endeavours 525–9
    • civil liability, collisions at sea 418
    • dismissal under contract 541–3
    • duties and conduct 524–40
    • duty of care 529–39
    • limitation of liability issues 748–9
    • obligation to provide security to 545
    • overbearing conduct by 512–13
    • possible claims by 840–2
    • potential offences by 567–8
    • remedy for negligent misconduct under Convention 529–30
    • Salvors’ Environmental Protection Fund 579
    • several, position of 540–3
      • dismissal of salvor under contract by master of vessel being salved 541–3
      • dispossession of one by another under maritime law salvage 540–1
      • salvage under contract 542
      • salvage under maritime law 541–2
      • summary of principles 542–3
      • Tojo Maru case 534–5
    • as volunteers 583
    • and Wreck Removal Convention 735
  • SCOPIC (Special Compensation of Protection and Indemnity Clause) 2000 481, 511, 553
    • CLC 1992 and Fund Conventions, application 841, 842
    • and International Group of P&I (IGP&I) Clubs 556, 557
    • and International Salvage Union (ISU) 556, 557
    • invoking 557
    • oil pollution 841
    • and Salvage Liaison Committee 556
    • sub-clauses 557–61
      • discount (cl 7) 558
      • dispute resolution (cl 15) 560
      • duties of contractor (cl 10) 558–60
      • general average (cl 14) 560
      • invoking SCOPIC (cl 2) 557
      • payment of remuneration (cl 8) 558
      • pollution prevention (cl 13) 560
      • relationship with Article 13
      • award (cl 6) 558
      • security (cl 3) 557–8
      • ship-owners’ casualty representative (cl 11) 560
      • special representatives (cl 12) 560
      • substitution of Article 14 (cl 1) 557
      • tariff rates (cl 5) 558
      • termination (cl 9) 558–60
      • withdrawal (cl 4) 558
    • see also salvage
  • SDRs (special drawing rights) 44
  • The Sea Empress disaster (1996) 3, 23
  • seaplanes, defined 391
  • sea trials, acceptance or rejection 252–3
  • seaworthiness
    • towage contracts 603
    • see also unseaworthiness
  • Secretary of State, oil pollution legislation, powers relating to 684–6
  • Secretary of State Representative for Maritime Salvage and Intervention (SOSREP) see SOSREP (Secretary of State Representative for Maritime Salvage and Intervention)
  • security
    • arbitrator’s fees 563
    • cargo not part of 174
    • chattel 178
    • classification societies, role in relation to 72–3
    • comparison of ship mortgage with other types of security 177–8
    • general average 675–7
    • impairment of 194–5
    • mortgagor obligations 188
    • obligation to provide to salvors 545
    • ports 712
    • salvage
      • arbitrator’s fees 563
      • obligation to provide security to salvors 545
      • special compensation 556
      • Special Compensation of Protection and Indemnity Clause (SCOPIC) 557–8
    • see also International Ship and Port Facilities Security (ISPFS) Code
  • servants
    • limitation of liability 746–7
    • negligence 802
  • shipbuilding contracts 221–89
    • accrued rights of parties upon cancellation of contract 226–7
    • approvals 252
    • assignment 284–5
    • binding contract requirement 229–30
    • bridging contract 227–8
    • builder’s obligations
      • defects guarantee, provision 254–7
      • insurance of vessel 257–8
      • refund guarantee, provision 258
    • buyer’s property rights to partly constructed hull 224–5
    • civil liability of shipbuilders or ship-repairers 419
    • class rules and regulations 244
    • condition precedent or subsequent 230–1
    • construction stage 251–3
    • contract drafting stage, risk management 17–18
    • contract for sale or a contract of construction and sale 223
    • contract price adjustment clauses 246
    • contractual terms 232–9
      • common law developments 234–5
      • compliance with description (law prior to 3 January 1995) 233–4
      • conditions 232
      • exclusion clauses and UCTA 1977 238–9
      • fitness for purpose 236, 237–8
      • general 232
      • implied at common law 233, 234–5
      • implied under SOGA 1979 233–9
      • innominate 232
      • ‘merchantable quality,’ demise of 235–6
      • ‘shipped in good condition’ 232
      • statutory developments 235
      • warranties 232
    • defects guarantee, provision
      • exclusions from guarantee 255–6, 257
      • guarantee period and conditions of cover 254–5
      • remedy for guarantee defects 255
      • risk minimisation 256–7
    • delays
      • construction stage 252
      • delivery of vessel 246, 351–3
      • excusable under NEWBUILDCON 263–4
      • excusable under SAJ form 263
      • prevention principle 263
      • price escalation issues 246
      • remedies 264–5
    • delivery
      • passing of property and risk by contract 254
      • passing of property and risk by statute 253
    • description of vessel 244
    • dispute resolution 285
    • disputes, events causing 262–3
    • essential terms 231–2
    • exclusion clauses, and UCTA 1977 238–9
    • fitness for purpose
      • and ‘merchantable’ quality 236
      • reliance on skill and judgment of seller 237
      • Slater v Finning decision 237
      • subject matter, idiosyncrasy of 237–8
    • fluctuation clauses 246
    • force majeure events see force majeure events
    • general framework 240–2
    • General Technical Specification 241–2
    • invitation to tender, legal effect 227
    • letter of intent 227
    • making of, risk management 229–32
    • manufacturer’s or builder’s liability to third parties 286–9
    • materials, property in prior to completion 225
    • ‘merchantable quality,’ demise of
      • law until 3 January 1995 235–6
      • law following 3 January 1995 236
      • sale and purchase risks (second-hand ships) 320
    • modifications of specification 252
    • nature 223–7
    • negotiations, legal significance of representations made during 228
    • option agreements and risk management in drafting 242–4
    • overcapacity prior to 2008 221
    • payment method 244–51
      • buyer’s performance guarantee 245
      • buyer’s refund guarantee 245–6
      • contract price adjustment clauses 246
      • fluctuation clauses 246
      • price escalation issues 246–51
    • pre-contract stage 227–8
    • price escalation issues
      • builder’s delay in delivery 246
      • Clarkson’s Clean Indexes 246
      • consideration, lack of 247–8
      • cost fluctuations and increase in price 246
      • economic duress 248–51
      • lawful act duress 249
      • Stilk v Myrick principle 247
    • quality of new shipbuilding 221
    • remedies
      • delays 264–5
      • guarantee defects 255
      • liquidated damages 260, 264, 280–2
      • specific performance 264–5
      • termination 265
    • repudiation 149, 260–1
    • rescission by builder, effect 282–4
    • SAJ contract form see SAJ (Shipbuilders’ Association of Japan) contract form
    • Sale of Goods Act (SOGA) 1979
      • contractual terms implied under 233–9
      • nature of contract under 227
      • sales versus agreements to sell 227
    • ‘satisfactory quality’ 236, 320
    • sea trials, acceptance or rejection 252–3
    • specification 241–2
    • standard terms 222
    • supplies by buyer 252
    • termination see termination of contract
    • warranties 232, 320
  • Ship Inspection Report Exchange (SHIRE) system 24–5
  • SHIPMAN 2009 (management agreement form) 135, 146, 147–8
    • authority of ship managers (Clause 3) 148–9, 150, 151
    • best endeavours, manager’s obligations (Clause 8) 152, 155
    • commercial management (Clause 6) 148
    • crew management (Clause 5) 148
    • duties of ship manager 155–6
    • insurance and risk management (Clause 10) 167
    • liability to owners (Clause 17) 155–6, 164
    • obligations of ship manager 151, 155
    • technical management (Clause 4) 148, 151
    • see also management of ships
  • ship management see management of ships
  • ship operations
  • Ship-owners Association of Japan (SAJ) see SAJ (Shipbuilders’ Association of Japan) contract form
  • ship-ownership
    • acquiring 135–6
    • authority of manager to bind owner, extent of 150
    • bankruptcy, acquired by 136
    • bill of sale, as title 135
    • bunkers, position of owner in relation to 489
    • casualty representative of owner 560
    • ‘commercial’ management test, and UK tonnage tax 145
    • compensation contributions, further 860
    • co-ownership 136–8
    • corporate bodies, owners as 402–3
    • decline of British shipping 143
    • defence applicable to owners under Criminalisation Directives 55–6
    • evidence of 130
    • fishing vessels
      • British, eligibility to own 143
      • irregularity of MSA 1988 on 140–1
    • harbour damage, liability of ship-owners for 703–11
      • contributory negligence defence, whether sustainable 709–10
      • options for owner 710–11
      • recoverable damages by harbour 711
      • River Wear Commission v Adamson case 703–9
      • statutory cause of action against registered owner 703–9
    • HNS Convention, liability under 868
    • inheritance, acquired by 136
    • insurance issues 167
    • limitation of liability see limitation of liability
    • Merchant Shipping Act 1988
      • effect of reform upon British ship-ownership 143–4
      • fishing vessels, irregularity on 140–1
      • fundamental changes brought by 139
      • owning British ship under 140
    • Merchant Shipping Act 1995, eligibility to own a British ship under
      • British connection and majority interest 142
      • EU Treaty, British citizens and nationals under 141–2
    • mortgaged ship, ownership right 189
    • owner as an undisclosed principal 149–50
    • pilot negligence, liability for
    • principles 135–8
    • relationships of owners with others 13–14
    • shipping register, UK 139
    • statutory overview of, and registration of British ships 139–45
      • old law (MSA 1894) 139
      • effect of reform upon British ship-ownership 143–4
      • eligibility to own a British fishing vessel 143
      • Factorame case (1991) 140–1
      • Merchant Shipping Act 1988 139–41, 143–4
      • Merchant Shipping Act 1995 141–2
    • subrogation rights 846
    • transmission, acquired by 136
    • undisclosed principal, owner as 149–50
    • wreck removal, liability of registered owner 734
    • see also management of ships
  • ships
    • building contracts see shipbuilding contracts
    • collisions see collisions at sea; Colregs (International Regulations for Preventing Collisions at Sea), 1972
    • conduct endangering 405–7
    • definition of ‘ship’ 391, 489, 743, 795, 866
    • management see management of ships
    • non-seagoing 805–6
    • operations see ship operations
    • ownership see ship-ownership
    • partial loss and incidental losses 468–74
    • recycling 52–3
    • sale and purchase of see sale and purchase risks (second-hand ships)
    • salvage, recognised subject 489
    • seagoing 743, 805–6
    • security alert system 96
    • shipboard operations, ISMO Code 82–3
    • special rules, Merchant Shipping Act offences 120
    • substandard 71, 74
    • total loss
      • actual not speculative charter 467–8
      • value of ship where no market 466–7
      • yardstick applicable to ascertain loss sustained 464–6
    • value where no market 466–7
    • see also cargo; freight; vessels
  • ship security officer (SSO) 96
  • shore line, defined 490
  • signals, Collision Regulations 401
  • single-hull tankers, phasing out 31–3
  • slot charterers 745, 746
  • Small Tankers Oil Pollution Indemnity Agreement (STOPIA) see STOPIA (Small Tankers Oil Pollution Indemnity Agreement)
  • SMC (Safety Management Certificate) 79
  • SMS see safety management system (SMS), ISM Code
  • Solar I incident (2006) 861
  • SOLAS (International Convention for the Safety of Life at Sea) 1974 824
    • amendment 879, 885
    • certification required by 72
  • SOSREP (Secretary of State Representative for Maritime Salvage and Intervention) 47
    • government intervention 566–7
    • Intervention Convention 825
  • sound, Collision Regulations 401
  • Special Compensation of Protection and Indemnity Clause (SCOPIC) see SCOPIC (Special Compensation of Protection and Indemnity Clause) 2000
  • special drawing rights (SDRs) 44
  • speed safety, steering and sailing rules (Collision Regulations) 392–4
  • steering and sailing rules (Collision Regulations – Part B, Section 1) 392–6
    • action to avoid collision (Regulation 8) 394
    • collision risk (Regulation 7) 394
    • narrow channels (Regulation 9) 395–6
    • proper lookout (Regulation 5) 392
    • safe speed (Regulation 6) 392–4
    • Traffic Separation Schemes (Regulation 10) 396
  • stevedores, limitation of liability issues 747–8
  • STOPIA (Small Tankers Oil Pollution Indemnity Agreement) 578, 821, 830, 860
    • general scope 861
  • stowaways 22
  • stress management 21
  • strict liability
    • CLC (Civil Liability Convention) 1992 842
    • death or personal injury caused by a shipping incident 808
    • HNS (Hazardous and Noxious Substances) Convention 2010 868–9
    • non-strict liability offences 162
    • shift from fault-based to, in passenger claims 791–2
  • strikes, force majeure events 262
  • structures, salvage 490
  • subrogation rights
    • Fund Convention 1992 854–5
    • ship-ownership 846
    • Supplementary Fund Protocol 2003 859
  • substandard ships, tackling 71, 74
  • Supplementary Fund 2003 830–1
    • Assembly 857
    • ‘established claims’ 857
    • three-tier compensation system 833
  • Supplementary Fund Protocol 2003
    • applicability 856–7
    • communication obligations and denial of compensation 858–9
    • denial of compensation
    • Fund Assembly 1992 860
    • jurisdiction 859–60
    • liability conditions 857
    • ‘membership’ fee 858
    • reasons for 856
    • recognition and enforcement 860
    • subrogation rights 859
    • time bar 859
    • time of payment 857
  • tacit acceptance procedure 65–6, 793, 881–5
  • Tanker Management Self-Assessment (TMSA) 4, 9, 24
    • regulatory enforcement 73, 76, 91
  • tankers, single-hull: phasing out under Erika I measures 31–3
  • Tankers Oil Pollution Indemnity Agreement (TOPIA) see TOPIA (Tankers Oil Pollution Indemnity Agreement)
  • technical matters, authority of ship managers 151–2
  • tenants in common 136
  • termination of contract
    • builder’s accrual rights, effect on 283–4
    • buyer’s default and builder’s rights 275–84
      • determining existing of default 276
      • effect of default 276–7
      • performance guarantee for unpaid instalments, builder’s rights under 277–8
    • contract null and void 282
    • contractual limits of right to claim damages 274–5
    • effect 282–4
    • Rainy Sky decision
      • bonds, relevant clauses 269
      • court at first instance 271
      • dissenting judge 271
      • facts of case 268–9
      • issue 270
      • parties’ arguments 270
      • ratio of majority of the CA 271
      • relevant provisions of shipbuilding contracts 269–70
      • risk of 273
      • Supreme Court 271–2
    • refund of prepaid instalments
      • guarantee per se versus performance bond 266–8
      • issues of construction 268–72
    • sale proceeds, application 282–3
    • termination by buyer
      • discharge from primary obligations 266
      • effect for builder’s default 266–75
      • liquidated damages instead of termination 260
      • occurrence of terminating event not leading to termination 259–60
      • Paget’s Law of Banking 268
      • refund guarantee and risk management 273–5
      • refund of prepaid instalments 266–72
      • rejection of vessel by buyer 260
      • repudiation of contract 149, 260–1
      • specific contractual events 258–9
    • see also shipbuilding contracts
  • terrorism, and piracy activities 94
  • THETIS information system 36
  • third parties
    • classification societies, civil liability to 374–83
      • American approach 382–3
      • comparison with air industry 380–2
      • whether duty of care owed to third parties 375–80
    • harbour authorities’ liability to
      • maintenance of port in good condition 695–6
      • unmarked wrecks 694–5
    • infrastructures of shipping companies 14–15
    • manufacturer’s or builder’s liability to 286–9
    • third-party liability insurance 845–6
    • towage contracts
      • allocation of liability between tug and tow 640–1
      • Contracts (Rights of Third Party) Act 1999 637–8
      • control and ‘two employers’ conundrum 620–3
      • control theory 619–20
      • transfer of contract rights to third parties 635–8
      • tug and tow 618–23
      • unit theory 442, 618–19
    • see also third-party contracts, interference by mortgagee
  • third-party contracts, interference by mortgagee
    • Collins v Lamport decision 210–11
    • De Mattos v Gibson decision 208–9
    • equitable remedy 209
    • impairment factor 210–11
    • issues 207–8
    • knowledge of circumstances 209
    • OBG v Allan decision
      • details of case 216
      • impact upon mortgagees and prevous authorities 217–18
      • modern strand of authorities prior to 211–15
      • reformulation of economic torts 215–18
    • reformulation of economic torts 215–18
      • alleged wrongs 215–16
      • breach of contract, inducing 216
      • elements of tort 216–17
      • loss, causing by unlawful means 216–17
    • statutory basis 210
    • wrongful interference with contractual rights, tort of 211, 212, 214
    • see also third parties
  • third-party ship managers 112, 146
  • Three Pillars of EU competences 56
  • time equalisation method, repairs 470
  • time limits
    • channelling provisions, pollution 851–2
    • Fund Convention 1992 855
    • general average 677
    • HNS (Hazardous and Noxious Substances) Convention 2010 871
    • passenger claims
      • Athens Convention 2002 (2002 Protocol to PAL 1974 Convention) 812–13
      • PAL 1974 Convention (Athens Convention 1974 relating to Carriage of Passengers and their Luggage by Sea) 802
    • salvage 565–6
    • Supplementary Fund Protocol 2003 859
    • time bar defence, collisions at sea 433–4
  • TMSA see Tanker Management Self-Assessment (TMSA)
  • tonnage, minimum 743–4
  • tonnage tax, UK 144–5
  • TOPIA (Tankers Oil Pollution Indemnity Agreement) 578, 821, 830, 860
    • general scope 861
  • Torrey Canyon incident (1967) 829, 881
  • towage contracts
    • agency of necessity 589
    • authority of master 587–8
      • to bind cargo-owners 589
    • authority of tugmaster 589–92
    • best endeavours, completion of towage 610–12
    • binding contract, making 587–95
    • civil liability 418
    • commencement 595
    • common law
    • condition of tow 613–16
      • common law 614–15
      • duty to disclose 613
      • express terms in contract 615–16
      • ‘fitness to be towed’ 615
    • contract for services 595
    • cross-indemnity 641–2
    • danger, effect on 495–6
    • definitions
      • old, under common law 582–3
      • ‘tender’ 583
      • ‘towage’ 581, 582
      • under TOWCON/TOWHIRE 1985 583
      • ‘towing’ 583
      • under UKSTC 1986 583
      • ‘vessel’ 583
      • ‘whilst towing’ 583
    • duties of tow
      • condition of tow 613–16
      • specification of what is required and to disclose condition of tow 613
    • examples at common law
      • The Apollon 598
      • The Blenheim v The Impetus 599
      • The Clan Colquhoun 596
      • The Glenaffric 597–8
      • The Ramsden 598
      • The Uranienborg 597
    • exception clauses, ambit 624–7
    • exclusion clauses, limitations 629–34
    • fitness of tug, duties of tug-owners in relation to 601–8
      • contractual terms of standard towage contracts on tug’s fitness 607–8
      • decisions in favour of an absolute warranty of fitness 602–6
      • no general rule about absence of a warranty of fitness 609
      • position of fitness when specific tug requested 608–10
      • tug fitness and risk management 609–10
      • view that there is no absolute warranty of fitness 606–7, 608–9
    • general average 666
    • good faith
      • whether duty of 592–3
      • whether existing in towage contracts 593–4
    • Himalaya clauses 635–7, 649, 650
    • indemnity clauses 627–9
    • interruption of towing, consequences 599–600
    • ‘knock-for-knock’ clauses 582, 645–7, 652
    • limitation of liability 638–40, 650
    • no-suit clause and ‘Himalaya’ provision 635–7
    • offshore, liabilities under 640–9
    • offshore supplytime charters
      • charterer remaining liable for damage caused by hazardous and noxious substances 651
      • consequential damages 650
      • limitation of liability 650
      • mutual exclusions 650
      • mutual indemnities 650
      • pollution and insurance clauses 651
      • risk allocation under SUPPLYTIME 1989 650–1
      • SUPPLYTIME (1989) 650–1
      • SUPPLYTIME (2005) 651–2
    • offshore towage contracts, liabilities under 640–9
    • pre-contractual duties 592–4
    • recklessness 649
    • relationship between tug and tow under UKSTC 617–18
    • remuneration paid to tug 617
    • risk management 647–9
    • skill and diligence, duty to exercise throughout 612–13
      • during towage 616
    • standard forms
      • BIMCO/ISU Wreckfixed (2011) see below
      • HEAVYCONBILL (2007) 582
      • SALVCON (2005) 582
      • SUPPLYTIME (1989) 582, 645, 650–1
      • SUPPLYTIME (2005) 582, 645, 651–2
      • TOWCON/TOWHIRE see below
      • UKSTC (United Kingdom Standard Towage Conditions) (1986) see below
      • WRECKSHIRE (2010) 582
    • subcontracting authority 634–5
    • substitution of tugs 634–5
    • SUPPLYTIME (1989) 582
      • ‘loss of profit,’ conflicting views 645
      • risk allocation under 650–1
    • SUPPLYTIME (2005) 582
      • ‘loss of profit,’ conflicting views 645
      • risk allocation under 651–2
    • termination of towing 600–1
    • third parties
      • allocation of liability between tug and tow 640–1
      • Contracts (Rights of Third Party) Act 1999 637–8
      • control and ‘two employers’ conundrum 620–3
      • control theory 619–20
      • transfer of contract rights to 635–8
      • and tug and tow 618–23
      • unit theory 442, 618–19
    • towage versus salvage 583–7
      • under common law 584–7
      • under Salvage Convention 1989 584
      • under TOWCON/TOWHIRE 1985 584
      • under UKSTC 1986 584
    • TOWCON/TOWHIRE international ocean towage forms (1985) 582
      • allocation of liability between tug and tow 641, 642
      • best endeavours, completion of towage 611
      • commencement of towage 595
      • condition of tow 614, 615
      • contractual terms of standard towage contracts on tug’s fitness 608
      • definitions 583
      • indemnity clauses 629
      • termination of towing 601
      • towage versus salvage 584
      • transfer of contract rights to third parties 637
    • transfer of benefits 634–5
    • tug and tow, allocation of liability between 640–9
      • cross-indemnity 641
      • financial losses 642–3
      • liabilities for loss of/damage to each other or to third parties 640–1
      • liability and cross-indemnity with regard to personnel 641–2
      • ‘loss of profit,’ conflicting views 643–5
    • tug-owners, duties of 601–8
    • UKSTC (United Kingdom Standard Towage Conditions) (1986)
      • best endeavours, completion of towage 611
      • collisions at sea 418
      • commencement of towage 595
      • contractual terms of standard towage contracts on tug’s fitness 607–8
      • control and ‘two employers’ conundrum 621
      • definitions 583
      • duration of towage 595
      • exception clauses 626
      • general average 666
      • Himalaya and no-suit clause 635–7
      • indemnity clauses 629
      • liability between tug and tow under 617–18
      • substitution and Himalaya clause 634–8
      • towage versus salvage 584
    • unfair contract terms 594–5
    • unseaworthiness of tug 645–7
    • voluntary services rendered by tug under 499
  • TOWCON/TOWHIRE international ocean towage forms (1985) 582
    • allocation of liability between tug and tow 641, 642
    • best endeavours, completion of towage 611
    • commencement of towage 595
    • condition of tow 614, 615
    • contractual terms of standard towage contracts on tug’s fitness 608
    • definitions 583
    • indemnity clauses 629
    • termination of towing 601
    • towage versus salvage 584
    • transfer of contract rights to third parties 637
  • traffic monitoring and places of refuge (Directive 2009/17/EC)
    • background 44–5
    • CMI Conference, draft instrument approved by 46
    • further EU measures 47–8
    • IMO Guidelines 46–7
    • status of places of refuge in the UK 47
  • Traffic Separation Schemes 389, 391, 396
  • training
    • of crew 21, 53
    • of pilots 714
  • travaux préparatoires 104, 746, 747, 769
  • travel agents, contracts of carriage through 803–4
  • Trinity House rules 388
  • tugmaster, authority of 589–92
  • uberrima fides contracts 296, 593, 594
  • UKSTC (United Kingdom Standard Towage Conditions) (1986)
    • best endeavours, completion of towage 611
    • collisions at sea 418
    • commencement of towage 595
    • contractual terms of standard towage contracts on tug’s fitness 607–8
    • control and ‘two employers’ conundrum 621
    • definitions 583
    • duration of towage 595
    • exception clauses 626
    • general average 666
    • Himalaya and no-suit clauses 635–7
    • indemnity clauses 629
    • liability between tug and tow under 617–18
    • substitution and Himalaya clause 634–8
    • towage versus salvage 584
  • UNCLOS (United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea) 1982 822–4
    • and Criminalisation Directives 57–8
    • ‘innocent passage’ 823
    • jurisdiction and rights and duties of States 823–4
    • sovereign obligations 823
  • undisclosed principal, owner as 149–50
  • unfair contract terms, towage contracts 594–5
  • United Kingdom Standard Towage Conditions (1986) see UKSTC (United Kingdom Standard Towage Conditions) (1986)
  • United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS) 1982 see UNCLOS (United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea) 1982
  • United States (US), pollution damage 828
  • unit theory, tug and tow 442, 618–19
  • unregistered ships, and status of mortgage 176
  • unsafe ships (Merchant Shipping Act offences)
  • unseaworthiness
    • general average entitlement 671–3
    • negligence of ship-repairers 747
    • towage contracts 641, 645–7
  • US Coast Guard, ‘Qualship 21’ 74
  • US Department of Maritime Administration, Maritime Subsidy Board 222
  • valuables
    • passenger claims 801–2, 812
    • theft of, limitation of liability 763–4
  • vessels
    • conduct where in sight of each other (Collision Regulations – Part B, Section II)
      • action by give-way vessel (Regulation 16) 398
      • action by stand-on vessel (Regulation 17) 398
      • crossing situation (Regulation 15) 397
      • specification of responsibilities between vessels (Regulation 18) 398
    • crossing situation (Collision Regulations) 397
    • in danger, standing by 509
    • definition of ‘vessel’ 391, 489, 583, 835
    • delivery
      • condition of vessel on 339–48
      • delays 246, 351–3
      • deliverable state 321
      • encumbrances or debts at time of 337
      • essential documentation for exchange at 334–5
      • liabilities incurred prior to 337–8
      • non-delivery as per contract 351–3
      • passing of property and risk by contract 254
      • passing of property and risk by statute 253
      • post-delivery matters 360
      • see also under Norwegian Sale Form (NSF)
    • failure to give assistance to following collision 403
    • fishing
      • British, eligibility to own 143
      • irregularity of MSA 1988 on 140–1
    • give-way, action by (Collision Regulations) 398
    • insurance see insurance issues
    • rejection by buyer 260
    • salvage, recognised subject 489
    • sea-going vessels carrying persistent oil in bulk 834–5
    • specification of responsibilities between (Collision Regulations) 398
    • stand-on, action by 398
    • see also ships
  • vicarious liability doctrine 98
    • collisions at sea 412–16
    • dual 623
    • limitation of liability 746–7
    • see also employers
  • The Viking Islay accident (2007) 90
  • Voluntary Member State Audit Scheme (VIMSAS) 31
  • voluntary services
    • cargo-owners 501–2
    • exceptions 498–9
    • pilots, when exceptional 499–501
    • under pre-existing agreement 497–9
    • rendered by a tug under towage contract 499
  • Voyage Data Recorders (VDRs), introduction of 33–4
  • voyage planning 20
  • warranties
    • absolute warranty of fitness
    • shipbuilding contracts 232, 320
  • waste residue, general safety and environmental measures 50–2
  • wilful misconduct
    • Collision Regulations, disobeying 402
    • compulsory insurance 735
    • Criminalisation Directives on ship-source pollution 62
    • defined 774
    • passenger claims 811
    • and recklessness 776
  • WRC (Wreck Removal Convention) 2007
    • application 731–2
    • coming into force 736
    • compulsory insurance 734–5
    • ‘convention area,’ defined 731–2
    • definitions 731–2, 733
    • effect 759–60
    • liability of registered owner 734
    • ‘maritime casualty,’ defined 732
    • objectives 732
    • obligations under 733
    • and places of refuge 735–6
    • proportionality and reasonableness 732–3
    • and salvors 735
    • ‘wreck,’ defined 732
  • wrecks
    • abandoned 693–4
    • duty to mark 694
    • harbour authorities, statutory duties in relation to 692–5
    • removal
      • limitation of liability claims 758–61
      • LLMC (Convention on Limitation of Liability for Maritime Clauses) 1976 759–60
      • UK reservation for expenses 759
      • Wreck Removal Convention (WRC) 2007 see WRC (Wreck Removal Convention) 2007
    • salvage 490
    • unmarked, liability to third parties for 694–5
  • York-Antwerp Rules (YAR) 653
    • of 1890 656
    • of 1924 656, 657, 661
    • of 1950 656
    • of 1974 656, 657, 658, 659
    • of 1994 656
    • of 2004 656–7, 659
    • and BIMCO 657
    • construction
      • commercial practicability over principle 658–9
      • conflict between lettered and numbered rules 657–8
    • expenses at port of refuge (Rule XI) 656, 661, 663
    • origin and application 656–7
    • provision of funds (Rule XX) 656, 661
    • Rule A 661, 664
    • Rule C 665
    • Rule D 666
    • Rule E 665
    • Rule Paramount added to 658, 664
    • salvage remuneration (Rule VI) 656
    • temporary repairs (Rule XIV) 656, 659
    • voluntary nature of 657

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