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INDEX

International Maritime Conventions Volume I: The Carriage of Goods and Passengers by Sea

INDEX INDEX “ abordage ” xiv, 263 accidents of the sea 29 – 30 , 33 “ acte de Dieu ” 33 ; see also act of God act of God 33 , 178 act of public enemies 34 act of war 33 – 4 , 178 , 264 , 386 , 408 ; see also war actual carrier 76 , 91 , 321 , 325 ; servants or agents of 85 – 6 “ adminstration ” 28 ; see also management advance payment 401 , 404 – 5 adverse weather conditions 30 – 1 agents of the carrier: Athens Convention 274 – 5 ; Hague–Visby Rules 46 – 7 , 64 ; Hamburg Rules 82 – 3 , 85 , 87 – 8 ; Rotterdam Rules 139 – 40 Andrea Doria 268 arbitration 91 , 95 , 96 , 97 , 142 , 242 – 3 , 331 , 361 ; and non-liner transportation 244 , 362 ; and volume contracts 243 ; Hamburg Rules 94 – 7 , 99 , 331 ; Rotterdam Rules 130 , 241 – 4 , 361 – 3 Arbitration Act 1996 95 armed conflict 178 – 9 “ armer ” 22 arrest: Hague–Visby Rules 34 – 5 ; of princes, rulers or people 34 – 5 , 179 – 180 ; of ships xvi, 96 ; Rotterdam Rules 179 – 80 , 240 – 1 , 360 Arrest Convention 1952 93 , 118 , 261 , 282 Arrest Convention 1999 xv, 93 – 4 , 118 , 261 , 282 “arrêt” 35 ; see also arrest “ assistance et sauvetage ” xiv; see also salvage Association for the Reform and Codification of the Law of Nations 49 Athens Convention relating to Carriage of Passengers and their Luggage by Sea 1974 xv, 62 , 63 , 64 , 71 , 99 , 113 , 259 – 93 , 377 – 431 ; and LLMC convention 290 ; application 260 – 1 , 386 , 408 ; burden of proof 259 , 263 , 265 – 7 , 275 , 280 – 1 , 286 ; compulsory insurance 275 – 80 , 387 – 9 , 410 – 12 , 419 ; declaration of non-application 261 , 394 ; final clauses 394 – 8 ; Institute Cyber Attack Exclusion Clause 423 ; Institute Radioactive Contamination, Chemical, Biological, Bio-chemical and Electromagnetic Exclusion Clause 423 ; invalidity of contractual provisions 285 – 6 , 393 – 4 , 416 ; jurisdiction 281 – 4 , 393 ; liability of the carrier 362 – 8 , 386 – 7 , 408 – 9 ; limits of liability 261 , 268 – 74 , 390 , 391 , 392 , 412 – 13 ; mandatory character 275 ; notice of loss or damage to luggage 280 – 1 , 415 ; period of application 262 ; period of responsibility 262 ; Protocol of 2002 276 , 286 , 291 – 3 ; recognition and enforcement of judgments 284 – 5 , 393 ; timebar for actions 281 , 392 – 3 , 415 ; travaux préparatoires 279 ; see also EU Regulation (EC) No 392/2009; IMO Reservation and Guidelines for Implementation of the Athens Convention Atkin, Lord 44 n164 Australian Sea Carriage of Goods Act 1904 36 , 42 , 52 bailment 33 , 82 , 90 , 165 Baltic and International Maritime Council (BIMCO) 119 “ bâtiment ” 13 ; see also ship Beare, Stuart 102 , 103 Beaufort Scale 30 – 1 Bergen Sisar 163 bill of lading: combined transport 119 ; contents 79 ; evidentiary effect 79 – 80 ; Hague–Visby Rules 5 – 12 , 14 – 16 , 45 – 6 , 53 – 4 ; Hamburg Rules 78 – 80 , 90 , 94 , 98 , 321 – 2 , 326 – 8 ; marine 138 ; on-board 152 ; received for shipment 10 , 14 , 53 , 78 , 149 , 152 , 154 ; reservations 79 – 80 ; Rotterdam Rules 118 , 119 , 138 , 144 – 5 , 149 , 152 , 154 , 156 , 213 n337, 214 , 215 , 220 n346, 221 ; shipped 14 , 78 , 302 , 316 , 327 – 8 ; transfer of 118 Bills of Landing Convention xiv Bingham, Lord 10 “blind eye knowledge” doctrine 67 – 8 Blue Cards 425 – 6 “breach” 199 British Federation of Traders’ Association 42 , 43 British Maritime Law Association 19 , 46 n172 Brussels Convention 1924 xvii, 88 n24, 99 , 119 , 174 , 244 Budapest Convention on the Contract for the Carriage of Goods by Inland Waterway (CMNI) 2000 126 – 8 , 130 , 138 , 169 Bunker Oil Convention 2001 xvi, 264 burden of proof: Athens Convention 265 – 7 ; Hague–Visby Rules 26 – 7 , 32 , 42 , 62 , 69 – 70 ; Hamburg Rules 82 – 3 , 90 ; phases of 173 – 7 ; Rotterdam Rules 125 , 126 , 172 – 7 , 199 , 202 cabin luggage 262 , 266 , 270 , 271 , 385 , 407 “ cabotage ” 5 Canadian Water Carriage of Goods Act 1910 17 , 34 , 36 , 42 , 47 capsizing 263 cargo 23 – 4 ; see also deck cargo carriage 385 – 6 , 407 – 8 ; by air 132 , 134 – 6 , 170 ; by inland waterways 134 , 138 ; by rail 7 , 134 , 137 – 8 ; by road 124 , 134 , 136 – 7 ; by sea 112 , 115 – 16 , 122 , 135 ; commencement 7 ; international 386 , 408 ; see also “carriage of goods”; contract of carriage “carriage of goods” 13 , 301 , 315 ; see also carriage Carriage of Goods by Sea Act 1936 57 Carriage of Goods by Sea Act 1992 144 , 163 carrier 8 , 76 , 301 , 315 , 321 , 337 , 385 , 407 ; actions against 26 , 235 – 7 , 359 – 60 ; actions in tort against 46 – 7 , 87 ; actual 76 , 85 – 6 , 91 , 321 , 325 ; conduct of 66 ; cooperation with the shipper 203 , 346 ; corporation as 64 – 5 ; execution of the instructions by 209 – 11 ; fault of 22 , 29 , 41 – 2 , 66 , 181 , 303 , 317 ; identity of 154 – 6 ; information supplied by 149 – 52 ; misconduct of 61 ; performing 268 , 385 , 387 , 407 , 409 ; period of responsibility 165 – 6 , 341 ; persons performing services for 139 – 40 ; privity of 22 , 29 , 41 – 2 , 66 , 181 , 303 , 317 ; servants or agents of 46 – 7 , 64 , 82 – 3 , 87 – 8 , 139 – 40 , 274 – 5 ; see also liability of the carrier; obligations of the carrier “ cas fortuit ” 31 Chambre Arbitrale Maritime of Paris 95 – 6 charter party 11 – 12 , 34 , 118 , 247 civil commotions 37 – 8 , 178 – 9 civil jurisdiction xvi, 227 civil war 34 , 264 , 386 , 408 , 422 , 423 CLC 1969 xvi, 33 , 276 , 281 CLC 1992 33 , 64 , 264 , 279 CLCL 1969 66 , 276 CMI see Comité Maritime International CMI London Conference 29 , 39 CMNI see Budapest Convention on the Contract for the Carriage of Goods by Inland Waterway (CMNI) 2000 CMR 47 , 48 , 57 , 75 , 83 , 99 , 123 – 34 , 136 , 137 , 170 , 205 – 6 , 230 Cockburn, CJ 33 Code of Navigation xvii, 54 , 146 Code of Practice for the Investigation of the Crimes of Piracy and Armed Robbery against Ships 2002 179 Colima 20 collision xiv, 263 Collision Convention 1910 xv, 263 Comité Maritime International (CMI) xiv–xv, 3 , 7 , 19 , 29 , 39 , 43 , 56 , 74 , 101 – 3 , 120 , 179 common law 26 , 30 , 33 , 35 , 42 , 44 , 46 , 66 , 79 , 113 , 144 , 174 , 175 n212, 178 , 185 , 275 , 279 , 284 compensation 190 – 1 , 267 , 344 competent court 53 , 107 , 129 , 224 , 236 – 7 , 239 , 359 – 60 ; definition 236 , 338 concurring causes 177 Conférence Diplomatique de Droit Maritime xiv; see also Diplomatic Conference on Maritime Law Conférence Internationale de Droit Maritime 3 “ connaissement ” 5 ; see also bills of lading consignee 51 , 138 , 141 , 153 , 156 , 207 , 321 , 337 ; obligation to accept delivery 213 – 14 , 351 – 2 ; obligation to acknowledge receipt 214 , 351 – 2 consignor 123 , 135 , 140 containers 24 – 5 , 57 – 8 , 107 , 160 , 338 container ships 84 , 125 , 184 container trade 110 n37, 120 , 125 contract of affreightment (COA) 75 , 245 contract of carriage 9 – 13 , 301 , 315 , 336 , 385 , 407 ; Athens Convention 272 , 283 – 5 ; à titre gratuit (free of charge) 113 ; à titre onereux (for a reward) 113 ; by sea 75 , 759, 321 ; door-to-door 103 , 110 , 120 – 4 , 136 – 8 , 148 , 150 , 152 , 154 , 156 , 166 – 9 , 197 , 201 , 207 , 243 ; Hague Rules 9 ; Hague–Visby Rules 8 – 14 ; Hamburg Rules 75 – 9 , 84 , 87 , 93 , 98 ; port-to-port 24 , 110 , 148 – 9 , 151 – 2 , 154 , 156 , 166 – 7 , 197 , 243 ; Rotterdam Rules 109 , 111 – 16 , 122 – 3 , 211 – 12 ; variations of 211 – 12 ; see also carriage; contract of affreightment (COA); volume contract contract particulars 338 “ contrat de transport ” 8 , 9 , 10 , 294 ; see also contract of carriage contributory fault 267 , 390 , 412 controlling party 138 , 141 , 181 , 337 , 355 – 7 ; instructions of 209 – 11 ; identity of 208 ; obligation to provide information, instructions or documents 212 ; rights of 205 – 12 “ convenablement ” 22 , 23 Convention Concerning International Carriage by Rail 1980 126 Convention for the Unification of Certain Rules for the International Carriage by Air 1999 126 Convention on Civil Jurisdiction in Matters of Collision 1952 263 Convention on the Contract for International Carriage of Goods by Road, 1956 126 corporation 64 – 5 Costa Concordia 261 COTIF 138 COTIF-CIM 123 , 125 – 8 , 130 – 2 , 134 , 137 – 8 , 170 crew 13 , 22 – 3 , 28 , 83 , 140 , 169 , 172 , 174 , 186 , 188 cruise contracts 260 – 1 cubic measure 55 culpa 29 custom 145 – 7 damage: as result of reckless action 66 – 8 ; Athens Convention 260 – 3 , 266 – 76 , 280 – 1 ; calculation of value 47 – 8 ; Hague–Visby Rules 11 , 25 , 39 , 47 – 8 , 55 , 62 – 4 , 68 – 70 ; Hamburg Rules 82 – 4 , 88 – 90 ; intent to cause 66 , 87 , 272 , 279 ; notice of 68 – 70 , 90 – 1 , 107 , 191 – 3 , 280 – 1 , 329 , 344 – 5 , 415 ; nuclear 261 , 365 , 394 , 416 ; pollution 275 – 6 ; Rotterdam Rules 125 , 126 , 129 , 130 , 134 – 5 , 137 , 172 – 93 ; seawater 19 ; sustained by the carrier 49 , 347 ; sustained by the ship 89 , 91 , 263 , 317 , 326 ; to luggage 99 , 260 , 266 – 7 , 270 – 1 , 280 – 1 , 390 , 392 , 407 , 412 – 13 ; to vehicles 270 – 1 , 390 , 412 – 13 ; see also compensation; liability of the carrier; liability of the shipper; loss dangerous cargo 182 ; see also dangerous goods dangerous goods 49 – 51 , 89 – 90 , 170 , 198 – 202 , 326 , 347 ; see also dangerous cargo dangers of the sea 29 – 33 Darya Radhe 50 “datos” 147 ; see also particulars death 262 – 6 , 269 , 277 , 287 , 390 , 399 , 412 , 419 , 426 – 7 “déchéance” 22 deck cargo 84 – 5 , 98 , 183 – 5 , 325 , 345 ; see also cargo; deck carriage deck carriage 12 , 84 , 183 – 5 ; see also cargo; deck cargo “ de façon approprieée ” 23 defect: in a ship 41 , 259 , 263 , 264 , 387 , 409 ; inherent 39 ; latent 41 delay 87 , 233 , 323 , 358 ; liability of the carrier 172 – 93 ; liability of the shipper 204 – 5 demurrage 24 , 51 , 80 , 226 Denning, Lord 67 detention 179 – 80 deviation: geographic 44 ; liability of the carrier 42 – 5 , 185 – 6 , 345 ; reasonability of 43 , 45 ; to save life or property 42 – 5 Devlin, LJ xiv, 5 n10, 14 n45, 67 “ diligence raisonnable ” 17 ; see also due diligence Diplock, LJ xvii, 67 Diplomatic Conference on Maritime Law xiv, 16 , 19 , 28 , 29 – 30 , 35 , 43 , 47 , 48 , 53 , 56 , 59 , 69 , 84 , 88 ; see also Conférence Diplomatique de Droit Maritime; Sous-Commission doctrine of stages 18 documentary shipper 46 – 8 , 138 , 140 – 1 , 181 , 202 – 3 , 337 , 347 document of title 5 , 6 , 7 , 9 , 10 , 78 dolus 66 “ domicile ” 130 , 236 , 239 , 282 – 3 , 338 “données” 147 ; see also particulars door-to-door contract 103 , 110 , 120 – 4 , 136 – 8 , 148 , 150 , 152 , 154 , 156 , 166 – 9 , 197 , 201 , 207 , 243 due diligence 17 , 19 – 20 , 25 , 26 , 41 – 2 , 65 , 169 , 175 , 171 Duke, Sir Henry 42 n159 e-commerce legislation 142 eiusdem generis rule 50 , 278 Elbe 231 Electromagnetic Exclusion Clause 423 electronic communications 106 – 7 , 337 electronic transport records 142 – 62 , 208 , 340 , 348 – 52 ; and delivery of the goods 214 – 23 ; issuance of 145 – 7 , 338 , 348 ; negotiable 338 , 352 – 4 ; non-negotiable 338 , 352 ; notion of 144 – 5 ; principle of equivalence with paper documents 142 – 3 ; transfer of 338 El Greco 231 “ émeute ” 38 ; see also riots employees 140 employment 267 , 274 England 20 – 1 , 26 , 33 , 37 , 38 , 47 , 64 , 67 , 69 , 205 English Carriage of Goods Act 1910 35 environment 182 ; see also pollution “équiper” 22 European Court of Justice 106 European Union 106 , 264 , 276 ; Council Decision of 12 December 2011 428 – 31 ; Regulation (EC) No 392/2009 291 – 3 , 401 – 406 “ exactitude ” 49 ; see also innacuracies excepted perils 26 – 42 , 177 – 83 explosion 21 , 259 , 263 – 4 express consent 248 , 250 , 252 – 3 fair opportunity doctrine 54 “ fait de prince ” 35 “ fait et faute ” 29 “ fait ou faute ” 29 fragile goods 40 fault 66 , 265 – 6 : as basis of liability 26 , 27 , 29 , 81 – 4 , 265 – 7 ; contributory 267 , 390 , 412 ; of the carrier 22 , 29 , 41 – 2 , 66 , 181 , 303 , 317 “ faute inexcusable ” 66 “ faute intentionnelle ” 280 “ faute ou negligence ” 49 , 265 ; see also fault; neglect “ faute personnelle ” 66 ; see also fault; privity ferry traffic 132 , 137 FIO(S) clauses 167 – 8 , 202 fire 29 , 82 – 3 , 176 , 181 , 263 – 4 f.o.b. seller 141 , 147 , 202 “ fonctions ” 274 “ force majeure ” 32 , 33 “ fortune de mer ” 30 ; see also perils of the sea France 65 , 144 freedom of contract 130 – 1 freight 338 freight ad valorem 61 “freight prepaid” clause 161 – 2 , 351 freight unit 56 “ freinte de route ” 39 Fund Convention 1971 xv geographic deviation 44 global limitation 53 , 98 , 261 , 364 , 404 gold monetary units 59 good faith 16 , 80 , 84 , 106 , 108 , 157 – 9 , 184 goods 12 , 76 – 7 , 105 , 112 – 13 , 301 , 315 , 321 , 338 ; commodity exchange price 48 ; current market price 48 ; dangerous 49 – 51 , 89 – 90 , 170 , 199 – 202 , 326 , 347 ; delivery 128 – 9 , 213 – 27 ; description 16 , 36 , 49 , 57 , 79 – 81 , 148 , 157 – 9 , 200 – 1 , 232 ; discharge of 13 – 14 , 76 , 181 – 2 ; fragile 40 ; handling 24 , 181 – 2 , 194 – 5 , 203 ; identification 40 , 148 – 9 ; loading of 13 – 14 , 76 , 148 – 9 , 181 – 2 ; misstatement of nature or value 45 – 6 ; order and condition 149 – 51 ; packing and marking 39 – 40 , 182 ; qualifying information 157 – 61 ; quantity 57 , 81 , 149 ; reasonable inspection of 150 – 1 ; sacrifice of 170 – 1 , 342 ; stowing 63 , 168 , 181 – 2 , 194 , 206 ; undeliverable 225 ; undelivered 223 – 7 , 354 ; value of 45 – 8 , 108 , 231 ; weight of 57 , 81 , 149 , 230 ; see also damage; loss governments 179 – 80 gross weight 57 guarantees: by the shipper 80 – 1 , 328 – 9 ; contractual 80 ; statutory 80 Hague Conference 1921 15 , 29 , 30 , 33 , 34 , 36 – 9 , 43 , 52 , 55 , 70 Hague Rules xv, 72 , 244 – 5 , 294 – 306 ; acts of omission 36 ; bill of lading 6 ; contract of carriage 9 ; deviation to save life or property 43 , 44 ; implementation 75 ; language 4 – 5 ; liability of the carrier 45 , 46 ; limits of liability 53 , 55 , 61 , 229 ; notice of loss or damage 68 – 9 ; riots and civil commotions 38 ; scope of application 119 ; seizure under legal process 35 ; States Parties 4 , 99 – 100 ; strikes or lockouts 37 ; see also International Convention for the Unification of Certain Rules of Law Relating to Bills of Lading 1924 (Hague–Visby Rules) Hague–Visby Rules see International Convention for the Unification of Certain Rules of Law Relating to Bills of Lading 1924 Hamburg Rules see United Nations Convention on the Carriage of Goods by Sea 1978 Harter Act 17 , 18 , 23 , 30 , 34 , 39 , 42 , 52 Hill, Sir Norman 16 , 17 , 20 n73, 34 , 36 – 7 , 41 holder 337 hostile act 179 hostilities 178 – 9 hull insurance 30 hundredweight 55 ILA Maritime Law Committee 52 IMCO xiv, xvn3 IMDG Code 50 , 201 , 202 Immunity Convention 1926 xvi, 13 n43 IMO 18 , 273 – 4 , 284 IMO Reservation and Guidelines 264 – 5 , 269 , 276 , 277 , 286 – 9 , 291 – 2 , 420 – 2 inadequacy 182 ; of marks 40 independent contractors 19 , 46 – 7 , 87 – 8 , 139 , 140 n115, 186 , 274 – 5 inevitable accidents 33 “ inexactitudes ” 49 ; see also innacuracies inherent defects 39 injury 262 – 6 , 269 , 277 , 287 , 390 , 399 , 412 , 419 , 426 – 7 inland waterways 122 , 125 , 128 , 134 , 138 inaccuracies 45 , 49 , 79 insufficiency: of marking 40 , 182 ; of packing 39 – 40 , 182 “ insuffisance ” 182 ; see also insufficiency insurance 275 – 80 , 387 – 9 , 410 – 12 , 419 ; action against insurer 279 – 80 ; amount of security 276 ; certificates 278 – 9 , 419 , 425 – 7 ; IMO Reservation and Guidelines 286 – 8 ; nature of security 276 , 278 ; obligation to provide 277 ; ships owned by State Parties 280 Intergovernmental Organization for International Carriage by Rail (OTIF) 138 International Association of Ports and Harbours (IAPH) 102 international carriage 292 , 386 , 408 International Chamber of Commerce (ICC) 97 , 102 , 119 International Chamber of Shipping (ICS) 102 International Convention for the Unification of Certain Rules of Law Relating to Bills of Lading 1924 (Hague–Visby Rules) 3 – 73 , 294 – 320 ; bill of lading 5 – 12 , 14 – 16 , 45 – 6 , 53 – 4 ; contract of carriage 8 – 14 ; implementation 73 ; liability of the carrier 17 – 48 , 62 ; liability of the shipper 49 – 51 ; limits of liability 52 – 68 ; mandatory nature 72 – 3 ; notice of loss or damage 68 – 70 ; origin 3 – 4 ; period of application 13 – 14 ; scope of application 5 – 14 ; SDR Protocol 1979 4 , 52 , 59 – 60 , 272 , 312 – 14 ; States Parties 4 ; time for suit 71 – 2 ; transport documents 14 – 16 ; Visby Protocol 1968 xvi, 5 , 6 , 16 , 52 , 55 , 61 , 71 , 268 , 307 – 11 international conventions xvi–xvii International Federation of Freight Forwarders Associations (FIATA) 102 International Monetary Fund (IMF) 59 – 60 , 233 International Union of Marine Insurance (IUMI) 102 ISM Code 18 , 23 , 26 Italian Civil Code 111 n40 Italian Code of Navigation xvii, 54 , 146 Italy 16 , 46 n170, 54 , 144 Joint Intergovernmental Group of Experts on Maritime Liens and Mortgages and Related Subjects (JIGE) xvn4 judicial proceedings 86 , 91 , 92 , 129 , 235 , 239 , 242 , 271 , 330 , 359 , 360 jurisdiction: actions against maritime performing parties 239 – 40 , 360 ; actions against the carrier 235 – 7 ; Athens Convention 281 – 4 , 393 ; choice of court agreements 237 – 9 , 360 ; consolidation of actions 239 – 40 , 361 ; Hamburg Rules 92 – 4 , 99 , 330 ; provisional and protective measures 240 – 1 , 360 ; recognition and enforcement 241 , 361 ; removal of actions 240 , 361 ; Rotterdam Rules 129 , 235 – 41 , 359 – 61 Keith of Avonholm, Lord 20 Lady Gwendolen 65 latent defects 41 Leerort 63 legislative history xvii see also travaux préparatoires letters of guarantee 81 lex fori 71 , 72 , 228 , 267 , 281 liability: ex recepto 81 ; global limitation 53 , 98 , 261 , 364 , 404 ; of actual carrier 85 – 6 , 325 ; of maritime performing parties 186 , 343 – 4 ; see also liability of the carrier; liability of the shipper; limits of liability liability of the carrier: actions in tort 46 – 7 , 87 ; acts or omissions of other persons 186 ; Athens Convention 362 – 8 , 386 – 7 , 408 – 9 ; basis of liability 26 , 172 , 342 ; burden of proof 26 – 7 , 32 , 42 , 82 – 3 , 172 – 7 , 265 – 6 ; calculation of compensation 190 – 1 , 344 ; concurrent causes 177 ; death or personal injury of a passenger 262 – 6 , 390 , 399 , 412 ; deck cargo 183 – 5 ; delay 172 – 93 ; deviation 42 – 5 , 185 – 6 ; EU Regulation (EC) No 392/2009 401 – 406 ; excepted perils 26 – 42 , 177 – 83 ; failure to execute the instructions 211 ; Hague-Visby Rules 17 – 48 , 46 – 8 , 62 ; Hamburg Rules 81 – 4 , 322 – 6 ; loss or damage 26 , 39 , 47 – 8 , 62 – 3 , 172 – 93 , 266 – 8 , 270 – 1 , 390 , 392 , 407 , 412 – 13 ; luggage 266 – 7 , 270 – 1 , 390 , 392 , 407 , 412 – 13 ; misstatement of the nature of goods 45 – 6 ; misstatement of the value of goods 45 – 6 ; Rotterdam Rules 172 – 93 , 342 – 5 ; valuables 268 , 390 , 412 ; see also carrier; limits of liability liability of the shipper: dangerous goods 49 – 51 , 89 – 90 , 199 – 202 , 326 , 347 ; delay 204 – 5 ; for other persons 202 ; Hague–Visby Rules 49 – 51 ; Hamburg Rules 80 , 88 – 90 , 326 ; Rotterdam Rules 199 – 202 , 204 – 5 ; wrong information relating to the goods 49 ; see also shipper Limitation Convention 1924 xv limits of liability: amendment of 61 , 273 – 4 , 397 – 8 , 417 – 18 ; amount of the limit 58 – 60 ; Athens Convention 261 , 268 – 74 , 390 , 391 , 392 , 412 – 13 ; calculation 55 – 8 ; claims subject to limitation 55 ; conditions for the application 53 – 5 ; death and personal injury 269 , 390 , 412 ; deductibles 271 ; Hague Rules 53 , 55 , 61 , 229 ; Hague–Visby Rules 12 , 52 – 68 ; Hamburg Rules 86 – 7 , 324 ; increase of 271 – 2 ; interest on damages and legal costs 271 ; loss caused by delay 233 , 358 ; loss of or damage to cabin luggage 270 , 412 ; loss of or damage to vehicles 271 , 412 – 13 ; loss of the right to 61 – 8 , 86 – 7 , 233 , 272 – 3 , 324 – 5 , 358 , 392 , 414 ; precedents 52 – 3 ; Rotterdam Rules 127 , 229 – 34 , 357 – 8 ; supplementary provisions 380 , 391 , 413 ; see also liability; liability of the carrier; liability of the shipper liner transportation 116 – 17 , 166 , 337 live animals 12 , 76 , 82 – 3 , 105 , 113 , 247 , 253 – 4 , 364 Liverpool Steam Ship Owners’ Association 42 , 43 LLMC Convention 1976–1996 63 , 64 , 87 , 261 , 269 , 276 , 277 , 280 , 290 lockouts 36 – 7 , 180 – 1 London Lighterage Clause 67 London Maritime Arbitration Association 95 loss 26 , 39 , 47 – 8 , 62 – 3 , 172 – 93 ; Athens Convention 260 , 266 – 7 , 270 – 1 , 280 – 1 , 390 , 392 , 407 , 412 – 13 , 415 ; calculation of the value 47 – 8 ; caused by delay 233 , 358 ; Hague–Visby Rules 11 , 25 , 39 , 47 – 8 , 55 , 62 – 3 , 68 – 70 ; Hamburg Rules 82 – 4 , 88 – 90 , 329 ; in transit 39 ; notice of 68 – 70 , 90 – 1 , 107 , 191 – 3 , 280 – 1 , 329 , 344 – 5 , 415 ; of luggage 260 , 266 – 7 , 270 – 1 , 390 , 392 , 407 , 412 – 13 ; of valuables 268 , 390 , 412 ; of vehicles 270 – 1 , 390 , 412 – 13 ; Rotterdam Rules 125 , 126 , 129 , 130 , 134 – 5 , 137 , 172 – 93 , 190 – 1 , 239 , 344 – 5 , 358 ; sustained by the carrier 49 , 89 , 91 , 317 , 326 , 347 ; see also compensation; damage Lugano Convention 1988 293 , 428 , 430 Lugano Convention 2007 108 , 293 , 428 , 430 luggage 113 , 262 , 270 , 385 , 407 ; cabin 262 , 266 , 270 , 271 , 385 , 407 ; loss of or damage to 99 , 260 , 266 – 7 , 270 – 1 , 280 – 1 , 390 , 392 , 407 , 412 – 13 machinery 56 Macmillan, Lord xvii management 28 , 65 Mansfield, Lord 33 , 38 “ marchandises ” 69 , 112 , 294 ; see also goods marine bill of lading 138 Marine Insurance Act 1906 44 marine pollutants 50 ; see also pollution Marion 65 Maritime Arbitration Commission of Beijing 96 Maritime Arbitration Commission of the Moscow Chamber of Commerce and Industry 96 maritime lien 26 maritime performing parties 186 – 8 , 337 , 343 – 4 ; actions against 239 – 40 , 360 marks 40 Maxine Footwear case 20 “ mercancias ” 112 ; see also goods Merchant Shipping Act 1894 64 MLM Convention 1926 xvi, 26 MLM Convention 1993 xv mobility equipment 402 , 404 Model Law on Acts of Piracy and Maritime Violence 179 Model Law on Electronic Commerce 142 Model Law on Electronic Signatures 142 monetary units 58 – 9 Montreal Convention 1999 47 , 125 , 127 , 130 , 131 , 132 , 134 , 135 – 6 , 170 , 206 multimodal transport 119 – 20 Muncaster Castle 19 , 20 National and International Arbitration Chamber in Milano 97 National Association for the Promotion of Social Science xiv national laws 123 – 4 natural accidents 33 ; see also acts of God “ nature spéciale ” 39 “ navire ” 13 , 294 ; see also ship “ navires de mer ” 13 neglect 265 – 6 “ neminem laedere ” 202 non-liner transportation 117 – 18 , 337 ; arbitration agreement 244 , 362 nuclear damage 261 , 365 , 394 , 416 nuclear incidents 99 obligations of the carrier: Hague-Visby Rules 17 – 25 , 72 ; Rotterdam Rules 123 , 128 , 164 – 71 , 181 , 203 , 211 , 247 , 341 – 2 ; see also carrier; liability of the carrier obligations of the shipper 193 – 205 , 346 – 8 ; carriage and delivery 164 , 193 – 5 , 346 ; cooperation with the carrier 203 , 346 ; persons sharing 140 – 1 ; providing information, instruction and documents 195 – 8 , 346 Ocean Liner Service Agreements (OLSAs) 246 – 7 , 251 Ocean Shipping Reform Act 1998 246 overriding obligation 20 – 2 package 55 – 7 , 61 ; see also packing packing: absence of 40 ; insufficiency 39 – 40 ; see also package pallets 58 , 77 , 160 Paris Convention 1960 99 , 332 particulars 147 – 8 , 198 passengers 385 , 405 , 407 Passengers’ Luggage Convention, 1967 282 Penal Jurisdiction Convention 1952 xvi, 263 Pennsylvania 65 performing carrier 268 , 385 , 387 , 407 , 409 performing parties 139 – 40 , 186 , 337 ; see also maritime performing parties perils of the sea: and acts of God 33 ; liability of the carrier 29 – 32 , 176 ; unavoidability 31 – 2 ; unforeseeability 31 – 2 permanent residence 282 – 3 Phillimore, Lord 34 , 41 , 70 Phillips, Lord 63 , 64 piracy 34 , 113 , 178 – 9 place of business 282 – 3 place of destination 113 “ poids brut ” 57 Poincaré francs 59 , 60 , 259 , 268 – 9 pollution xvi, 275 – 6 ; see also marine pollutants port-to-port contract 24 , 110 , 148 – 9 , 151 – 2 , 154 , 156 , 166 – 7 , 197 , 243 pound sterling 58 – 9 practice of the trade 145 – 7 “ pratique du commerce ” 146 ; see also practice of the trade “ préposé ” 46 , 88 , 274 ; see also agents of the carrier; servants of the carrier “ preposés et mandataires ” 88 , 275 ; see also independent contractors prescription 227 – 8 prima facie evidence 16 , 23 , 25 , 54 , 69 – 70 , 78 , 80 , 90 , 156 , 202 princes 34 – 5 “ principal établissement ” 282 , 283 ; see also principal place of business principal place of business 99 , 129 , 130 , 236 , 282 – 3 privity 22 , 29 , 41 – 2 , 66 , 181 , 303 , 317 prominent information 253 proper shipping name (PSN) 201 “properly” 22 , 23 , 24 Protocol to Amend the International Convention for the Unification of Certain Rules of Law Relating to Bills of Lading (Visby Rules) 307 – 11 public authorities 179 – 80 qualification 156 quality 39 quarantine restrictions 36 , 179 – 80 railway carriage 7 , 123 , 134 , 137 – 8 reasonability 159 , 197 ; of deviation to save life or property 43 , 45 ; of goods inspection 150 – 1 ; see also reasonableness reasonableness 197 , 210 ; see also reasonability “ réception des marchandises ” 69 reckless action 67 recklessness 64 , 67 Regional Economic Integration Organizations 396 Report of the Imperial Shipping Committee 52 reservation 156 , 158 residence habituelle 282 ; see also permanent residence restraint: of labour 36 – 7 , 180 – 1 ; of princes, rulers or people 34 – 5 revolution 33 right of control 129 , 205 – 7 , 337 ; exercise of 209 ; period of existence of 207 – 8 ; transfer of 208 – 9 ; see also controlling party riots 37 – 8 , 178 – 9 Rix, LJ 179 road carriage 124 , 134 , 136 – 7 road haulier 124 Rotterdam Rules see United Nations Convention on Contracts for the International Carriage of Goods Wholly or Partly by Sea 2008 rulers 34 – 5 , 179 – 80 “ saisie éxécution ” 35 “ saisie judiciaire ” 35 ; see also seizure under legal process salvage xiv, 38 – 9 , 42 , 182 Salvage Convention 1910 xv Salvage Convention 1989 xv, 182 saving life 38 – 9 , 83 saving property 38 – 9 , 83 , 182 Scott, Sir Leslie 11 , 16 n54, 27 , 69 SDR Protocol 1979 4 , 52 , 59 – 60 , 272 , 312 – 14 SDR see Special Drawing Right seawater damage 19 sea waybill 9 , 75 , 144 seaworthiness 15 , 17 , 18 – 22 , 32 seizure under legal process 35 – 6 , 179 – 80 servants of the carrier: Athens Convention 274 – 5 ; Hague–Visby Rulers 46 – 7 , 64 ; Hamburg Rules 82 – 3 , 85 , 87 – 8 ; Rotterdam Rules 139 – 40 ship 13 , 301 , 315 , 338 , 385 , 407 ; action against 26 ; defect in 264 ; equipment 22 – 3 ; Hague–Visby Rules 13 , 17 – 23 , 32 ; inspections and surveys 19 – 20 ; manning 22 – 3 ; obligations relating to 17 – 23 ; owned by States Parties 280 ; parts carrying goods 23 ; size of 32 ; supply of 22 – 3 ; see also seaworthiness shipper 321 , 337 ; act of omission by 181 ; documentary 138 , 140 – 1 , 146 – 8 , 181 , 202 – 3 , 337 ; guarantees by 80 – 1 , 328 – 9 ; information to be furnished by 148 – 9 ; persons performing services for 142 ; persons sharing obligations of 140 – 1 ; see also liability of the shipper; obligations of the shipper Shipping Act 1984 246 shipping incident 263 – 5 shipwreck 263 “ siège de son activité ” 283 ; see also place of business Singapore Conference 103 slot charters 116 , 118 Society of Maritime Arbitrators of New York 96 SOLAS 18 , 19 Sous-Commission 9 n22, 10 n32, 11 , 12 n38, 15 n48, 17 n60, 27 n93, 29 , 69 space charters 116 , 118 Special Drawing Right (SDR) 59 – 60 , 86 , 124 , 125 , 229 , 233 , 262 , 263 , 264 , 265 , 268 – 73 , 277 , 279 , 287 , 289 , 290 – 1 STCW Convention 23 Steyn, Lord 10 Stockholm Conference 7 , 19 , 53 , 56 , 59 , 56 stoppages of labour 36 – 7 , 180 – 1 strikes 36 – 7 , 180 – 1 SUA Convention 1988 179 “supplement” 137 Sweden 196 , 197 , 230 tariffs 54 “ téméraire 67 ”; see also reckless action “ témérairement ” 66 terrorism 34 , 178 – 9 , 286 through carriage 86 , 326 time for suit 71 – 2 , 91 – 2 , 127 , 227 – 8 , 358 – 9 Tokyo Conference 1969 120 tonnage agreements 75 Torrey Canyon xiv tramp trade 116 , 244 n398 “ transport de marchandises ” 294 ; see also “carriage of goods” transport documents 144 – 5 ; and delivery of the goods 214 – 23 ; contents 15 – 16 , 147 – 62 ; contract particulars 156 – 7 , 347 , 348 , 350 – 1 ; electronic equivalent 103 ; evidentiary effect 16 ; “freight prepaid” clause 161 – 2 , 351 ; Hague–Visby Rules 14 – 16 ; Hamburg Rules 78 – 81 ; information to be furnished by the shipper 148 – 9 ; information to be supplied by the carrier 149 – 52 ; issuance of 14 – 15 , 145 – 7 , 348 ; negotiable 147 , 152 , 162 – 3 , 215 , 219 – 23 , 337 , 352 – 4 ; non-negotiable 143 , 147 , 157 , 184 , 208 , 209 , 215 – 16 , 218 – 19 , 337 , 352 ; principle of equivalence with electronic communications 142 – 3 ; Rotterdam Rules 128 , 142 – 62 , 208 , 214 – 23 , 326 – 9 , 337 , 348 – 51 ; types 14 , 78 – 9 ; see also electronic transport records “ transporteur ” 294 ; see also carrier travaux préparatoires xvii; Athens Convention 279 ; Rotterdam Rules 115 , 116 , 122 , 234 , 237 , 245 – 9 ; Hague–Visby Rules 21 , 37 , 41 , 69 “ troubles civils ” 38 ; see also civil commotions UCP 600 78 , 162 unavoidability 31 – 2 UNCITRAL xv, 24 n86, 102 – 4 , 123 , 131 , 142 , 152 , 170 , 172 , 177 , 245 , 369 – 73 UN Convention on International Multimodal Transport of Goods 1980 xv, 120 UN Convention on the Liability of Operators of Transport Terminals in the International Trade 1991 xv, 123 unforeseeability 31 – 2 UNIDROIT 120 unification of maritime law xiv–xvi, 74 , 104 , 106 unit 56 – 7 , 61 unit of account 59 , 268 – 9 , 312 , 332 – 4 , 358 , 390 – 1 , 413 United Nations Conference on Trade and Development (UNCTAD) xv, 119 – 20 United Nations Convention on Contracts for the International Carriage of Goods Wholly or Partly by Sea 2008 (Rotterdam Rules) xv, 336 – 373 ; actions against the carrier 235 – 7 , 359 – 60 ; and other international instruments 125 – 6 , 131 , 365 ; arbitration 130 , 241 – 4 , 361 – 3 ; article 26 123 – 31 ; article 82 131 – 8 ; as “maritime plus” instrument 116 , 119 – 22 ; burden of proof 125 , 126 , 172 – 3 , 199 , 202 ; carriage preceding or subsequent to sea carriage 119 – 38 ; choice of court agreements 237 – 9 , 360 ; consignee 138 , 141 , 153 , 156 , 207 ; contract of carriage 109 , 111 – 12 , 122 – 3 ; contracts excluded from the scope of application 249 – 50 ; contractual approach 109 , 111 – 16 ; controlling party 138 , 181 , 355 – 7 ; criticism 104 n18; deck cargo 183 – 5 , 345 ; delay 188 – 90 ; delivery of the goods 128 – 9 , 213 – 27 , 351 – 4 ; deviation 185 – 6 , 345 ; documentary approach 109 , 116 – 18 ; documentary shipper 138 , 146 – 8 , 181 , 202 – 3 , 337 , 347 ; door-to-door contracts 120 – 4 ; electronic transport records 142 – 62 , 208 , 338 , 340 , 348 – 51 ; exceptions to the mandatory character 250 – 6 ; form requirements 106 – 9 ; freedom of contract 130 – 1 ; general provisions 336 – 8 ; history 101 – 5 ; interpretations 105 – 6 ; jurisdiction 129 , 235 – 41 , 359 – 61 ; liability 126 – 7 , 172 – 93 , 229 – 34 , 342 – 5 , 357 – 8 ; loss or damage to the goods 125 , 126 , 129 , 130 , 134 – 5 , 137 , 190 – 1 ; mandatory character 244 – 56 ; matters not governed by the convention 364 – 5 ; notice of loss or damage 191 – 3 , 344 – 5 ; obligations of the carrier 164 – 71 , 341 – 2 ; obligations of the shipper 128 , 193 – 205 , 346 – 8 ; performing parties 139 – 40 , 186 ; persons performing services for the carrier 139 – 40 ; persons performing services for the shipper 142 ; persons sharing obligations of the shipper 140 – 1 ; right of control 129 ; rights of the controlling party 205 – 12 ; scope of application 109 – 38 , 339 – 40 ; time for suit 127 , 227 – 8 , 358 – 9 ; trade approach 116 – 18 ; transfer of rights 162 – 4 , 357 ; transport documents 128 , 142 – 62 , 326 – 9 , 337 , 348 – 51 ; travaux préparatoires of 115 , 116 , 122 , 234 , 237 , 245 – 9 ; validity of contractual terms 363 – 4 United Nations Convention on the Carriage of Goods by Sea 1978 (Hamburg Rules) 74 – 98 , 321 – 35 ; actions against servants and agents of the carrier 87 – 8 ; actions in tort against the carrier 86 – 7 ; and other conventions 98 – 100 , 332 , 334 ; arbitration 94 – 7 , 99 , 331 ; bill of lading 78 – 80 , 90 , 94 , 98 ; claims and actions 329 – 31 ; contract approach 75 ; contract of carriage 75 – 9 , 84 , 87 , 93 , 98 ; deck cargo 84 – 5 , 98 , 325 ; documentary approach 75 – 6 ; general provisions 321 – 2 ; geographic approach 76 ; guarantees by the shipper 80 – 1 , 328 – 9 ; interpretation 74 ; jurisdiction 92 – 4 , 99 , 330 ; liability of the carrier 81 – 6 , 322 – 6 ; liability of the shipper 88 – 90 , 326 ; limits of liability 62 – 3 , 86 – 7 , 324 ; mandatory nature 97 – 8 ; notice of loss or damage 90 – 1 ; period of application 77 ; scope of application 75 – 7 , 322 ; States Parties 4 , 74 ; supplementary provisions 331 – 3 ; through carriage 86 , 326 ; time for suit 91 – 2 ; transport documents 78 – 81 United States 33 , 44 , 57 , 65 , 96 , 196 , 197 , 246 US Carriage of Goods Act 1936 54 , 56 usage 145 – 7 valuables 268 , 390 , 412 vehicles 107 , 266 , 270 – 1 , 338 , 390 “ vice cache ” 39 “ vice propre ” 39 Vienna Convention 1963 99 , 332 Vienna Convention on Contracts for the International Sales of Goods 1980 106 Vienna Convention on the Law of Treaties 1969 xvii, 4 , 18 , 93 , 100 , 127 , 275 Visby Protocol 1968 xvi, 5 , 6 , 16 , 52 , 55 , 61 , 71 , 268 , 307 – 11 volume contract 230 , 236 – 8 , 243 , 245 – 8 , 250 – 3 , 336 , 363 – 4 war 178 – 9 ; see also act of war War Automatic Termination and Exclusion 423 – 4 Ward, LJ 179 Warsaw Convention 1929 62 , 63 , 66 , 99 wastage 39 Waterway 2000 126 , 138 n109 waves 30 weight 57 , 81 , 149 , 230 ; unknown 15 , 16 , 160 wind force 30 – 1 York-Antwerp Rules 183

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