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INDEX

International Maritime Conventions Volume II: Navigation, Securities, Limitation of Liability

INDEX INDEX abandoned ships 292 accidental collision 15 , 16 accidents or incidents of navigation other than collision 8 – 9 , 40 , 143 – 4 , 256 agency fees, brokerages or commissions 297 air-cushion vehicles 356 Albania 279 allision 144 Amoco Cadiz accident 69 , 90 , 96 arbitration: arrest of vessels 248 , 262 , 265 – 7 , 326 ; collision 20 ; salvage: interim payments 122 – 3 ; salvage: publication of awards 124 – 5 archaeological objects 81 – 3 , 120 Argentina 219 arrest of sea-going ships: 1952 Convention 279 ; arrest, notion of 199 – 200 , 231 ; burden of proof 221 – 3 ; charter by demise 227 – 32 , 244 – 6 ; claims in respect of which ship may be arrested 209 – 23 ; (claims): agreement relating to use or hire of ship 212 ; (claims): bottomry 213 ; (claims): carriage of goods 212 ; (claims): construction, repair or equipment 216 – 17 ; (claims): damage caused by any ship 211 ; (claims): disputes between co-owners 218 – 20 ; (claims): dock charges and dues 217 ; (claims): general average 213 ; (claims): goods or materials whenever supplied 213 – 16 ; (claims): loss of life or personal injury 211 – 12 ; (claims): master’s disbursements 218 ; (claims): mortgage or hypothecation of any ship 220 – 1 ; (claims): pilotage 213 ; (claims): salvage 212 ; (claims): title to or ownership of any ship 218 ; (claims): towage 213 ; (claims): wages 41 , 217 – 18 ; history 197 – 9 ; jurisdiction for arrest 246 – 58 ; jurisdiction on the merits 267 – 73 ; release of ship 232 , 259 – 68 ; reservations 201 – 2 ; scope of application 71 , 199 – 202 ; scope of application: excluded measures 202 – 9 ; ships that may be arrested 200 , 223 – 46 ; (ships): claim by owner of chartered ship against charterer 233 – 9 ; (ships): not owned by person liable 226 – 32 ; (ships): re-arrest and multiple arrest 239 – 46 ; (ships): in respect of which claim has arisen or sister ship 223 – 6 ; wrongful arrest, liability of claimant for 267 arrest of ships: 1952 Convention see arrest of sea-going ships; collision and civil jurisdiction 34 – 5 ; Collision Convention 1910: extension of prescription period 26 – 7 ; law costs due to state 141 ; maritime liens 156 , 161 , 171 , 172 , 181 – 2 , 226 – 7 , 229 , 230 ; salvage 122 , 212 , 289 – 90 ; seizure and 187 – 8 , 202 , 242 – 3 arrest of ships: 1999 Convention: arrest, notion of 280 – 2 ; burden of proof 314 – 15 ; claims in respect of which ship may be arrested 287 – 98 ; (claims): agreement relating to use or hire of ship 293 ; (claims): carriage of goods or passengers 293 ; (claims): co-owners 297 ; (claims): commissions, brokerages or agency fees 297 ; (claims): contract for sale of ship 298 ; (claims): disbursements 295 – 6 ; (claims): dues and charges 294 – 5 ; (claims): general average 293 ; (claims): good, materials, provisions, bunkers, equipment 294 ; (claims): insurance premiums 296 ; (claims): loss or damage caused by operation of ship 289 ; (claims): loss of life or personal injury 289 ; (claims): mortgages or hypothèques 298 ; (claims): ownership or possession 297 ; (claims): preventative measures to avoid pollution damage 290 – 2 ; (claims): (re)construction, repair, converting or equipping 294 ; (claims): salvage 173 , 289 – 90 ; (claims): sunk, wrecked, stranded or abandoned ships 292 ; demise charterer 300 – 2 ; enforcement of arrest 315 – 16 ; excluded ships 283 – 7 ; history 274 – 9 ; intended navigation 282 – 3 ; jurisdiction for arrest 312 – 14 ; jurisdiction on the merits 323 – 6 ; layout and structure 280 ; nationality of ships that may be arrested 282 ; parties 279 ; recognition and enforcement of judgments 326 – 8 ; release of security 320 – 2 ; release of ship from arrest 316 – 20 ; sea-going or not 282 – 3 ; ships that may be arrested 299 – 311 ; (ships): associated ships 307 – 9 ; (ships): not owned by person liable 307 ; (ships): other ships owned by person liable 306 ; (ships): re-arrest and multiple arrest 309 – 11 ; (ships): in respect of which claim is asserted 299 – 306 ; wrongful arrest, liability for 322 – 3 assistance: obligation to render assistance to persons in danger 67 – 8 , 88 , 98 ; post-collision obligations 27 – 9 , 41 , 88 associated ships, arrest of 307 – 9 Australia 235 – 6 , 237 – 8 bank guarantees 260 bankruptcy 241 , 259 – 60 , 285 ; see also insolvency proceedings bareboat registration 190 – 3 Belgium 33 , 140 bills of lading 212 , 237 , 254 , 265 , 293 , 332 , 352 , 362 – 3 ; maritime liens and mortgages 133 , 137 ; negligence clause 19 Bolivia 278 , 279 bottomry 139 , 144 , 145 , 213 , 220 Brazil 149 brokerages, commissions or agency fees 297 burden of proof: claim for which arrest is applied for 221 – 3 , 314 – 15 ; collision 5 , 12 – 13 ; limitation of liability: 1957 Convention 342 , 343 – 4 ; maritime liens 148 ; salvage 63 Cameroon 279 Canada 260 cas fortuit : 1910 Collision Convention 15 , 16 CEMAC (Communauté Economique et Monétaire de l’Afrique Centrale) 279 Central African Republic 279 certificates of competence to seamen 42 Chad 279 charges, registrable 166 – 7 , 298 , 302 – 3 ; see also mortgages: 1993 Convention China 278 , 279 choice of court agreements: collision 36 civil jurisdiction: collision 31 – 8 co-owners: arrest of ships and disputes between 218 – 20 , 238 , 258 , 297 – 8 collective bargaining agreements 148 collision: 1910 Convention: accidents covered (collision need not have taken place) 7 – 8 ; apportionment of damages 5 , 17 – 20 ; burden of proof 5 , 12 – 13 ; death or personal injury 6 , 19 – 21 ; formalities, absence of 5 , 23 – 4 ; history 3 – 7 ; language, official 7 ; liability regime 12 – 23 ; limitation of liability 23 , 30 ; limitation periods 25 – 7 , 156 – 7 ; no liability conceivable 14 – 16 ; non-observation of regulations 8 ; obligations of contracting parties 29 , 88 ; parties to 32 ; personal injury or loss of life 6 , 19 – 21 ; pilots 19 , 21 – 3 ; post-collision obligations 27 – 9 , 41 ; presumptions, absence of legal 24 – 5 ; prior liability regimes 12 ; relation with other Conventions or national laws 30 ; scope of application 7 – 11 , 32 , 71 ; two or more ships at fault 17 – 19 ; unilateral fault 16 – 17 collision: civil jurisdiction (1952 Convention) 31 ; cases to which Convention does not apply 32 – 3 ; choice of court agreements 36 ; counterclaims 36 – 7 ; courts in which action may be brought 33 – 6 ; parties to 31 ; place of collision 35 ; prohibition on bringing further action 35 – 6 ; rules of procedure 36 – 8 ; scope of application 32 collision: penal jurisdiction (1952 Convention) 39 ; circumstances in which flag relevant 41 – 2 ; conflict with other Conventions 42 – 3 , 256 – 7 ; nature of event 40 ; parties to 39 ; place where event occurred 41 ; position of persons involved 41 ; scope of application 39 – 41 collision: arrest of ships 211 , 228 – 9 , 230 , 231 , 269 ; maritime liens and indemnities for collision or other accident of navigation 143 – 4 Colombia 278 , 279 commissions, brokerages or agency fees 297 Communauté Economique et Monétaire de l’Afrique Centrale (CEMAC) 279 conflict between Conventions 42 – 3 , 147 , 256 – 7 Congo 279 consent 181 , 186 , 187 , 191 , 192 , 260 ; deregistration of vessels 169 – 70 containers/container ships 57 , 60 , 119 – 20 , 143 , 174 , 215 , 289 , 294 , 347 , 376 corporate veil, piercing 307 – 9 Costa Concordia accident 61 , 107 , 377 court, payment into 260 crew 219 – 20 ; abandoned ship (by owners) 292 ; arrest of ships 41 , 217 – 18 , 220 , 295 ; collision: 1910 Convention 11 , 13 , 23 , 28 , 41 ; collision: civil jurisdiction (1952 Convention) 33 , 34 ; collision or other incidents of navigation: penal jurisdiction (1952 Convention) 41 , 42 ; criminal proceedings 42 ; disciplinary proceedings 42 ; employment contract see separate entry ; maritime liens 142 , 144 , 148 , 152 , 158 , 172 – 3 , 177 – 8 , 182 ; salvage 52 , 55 – 6 , 59 – 60 , 66 – 7 , 71 , 116 criminal jurisdiction: collision and other incidents of navigation (1952 Convention) 39 – 43 , 257 – 8 cruise/passenger ships 142 , 172 , 377 cultural heritage, underwater 81 – 3 , 120 damages: arrest of ships 232 , 245 ; collision 5 , 15 , 17 – 21 , 23 , 33 , 37 ; maritime liens 150 ; pre-contractual 298 ; salvage: pollution 88 ; salvor’s misconduct 119 ; wrongful arrest, liability of claimant for 267 death: arrest of ship 211 – 12 , 289 ; collision: 1910 Convention 6 , 19 – 21 ; maritime liens 173 , 177 , 178 Denmark 251 , 252 , 255 disbursements: arrest of ships 210 , 218 , 295 – 6 ; maritime liens 145 ; remuneration due to salvor 58 , 59 , 105 , 113 disciplinary proceedings 41 – 2 dishonest conduct: salvage 118 – 19 dock/harbour/port dues and charges 142 , 149 , 173 – 4 , 217 , 218 , 294 , 295 drilling units 76 – 7 droit de suite 146 , 159 – 61 , 178 , 180 – 1 Ecuador 278 , 279 ejusdem generis 287 , 317 employment contract: arrest of ships 41 , 217 – 18 , 220 , 295 ; limitation of liability, claims excepted from 341 , 342 , 368 – 9 ; maritime liens 142 , 148 , 152 , 158 , 172 – 3 , 177 – 8 , 182 ; salvage: services rendered by crew of vessel in danger 55 – 6 ; salvors 116 environment: arrest of ships 291 – 3 ; detention of ships by governments or public authorities 205 , 206 , 208 – 9 ; salvage: protection of 85 , 87 , 88 , 90 , 91 – 2 , 93 , 94 – 8 , 103 – 4 , 109 – 14 , 116 , 118 ; see also pollution damage Equatorial Guinea 279 Erika accident 98 European Union: collision and death or personal injury 21 ; detention of ships by governments or public authorities 206 , 208 – 9 ; forced sale and change of registration 190 ; foreign order of arrest, enforcement of 251 – 2 ; jurisdiction 34 ; jurisdiction for arrest 251 – 2 , 255 , 256 – 7 ; oil tankers 208 – 9 ; salvage: places of refuge 107 exclusive economic zone 71 ; arrest of ships 206 ; wrecks 83 – 4 Finland 250 , 252 , 255 fisheries 290 floating platforms 75 , 76 – 7 , 356 force majeure : arrest 321 ; collision 15 , 16 forced sale 162 , 234 , 261 ; arrest of sea-going ships: 1952 Convention 202 , 244 – 5 ; arrest of ships: 1999 Convention 286 ; maritime liens and mortgages: 1926 Convention 141 , 159 ; maritime liens and mortgages: 1993 Convention 167 , 169 , 171 , 175 , 180 , 181 , 182 , 183 – 90 , 193 formalities: collision and absence of 5 , 23 – 4 ; maritime liens 160 – 1 France 33 , 50 , 75 , 96 – 7 , 138 , 140 ; arrest of ships 226 , 248 , 268 ; maritime liens 142 , 144 , 151 , 152 , 161 , 182 ; part-ownership of ship 219 fraud: salvage 65 , 118 Gabon 280 gages 139 general average: arrest of ships 213 , 228 , 237 – 8 , 293 , 308 ; limitation of liability: 1957 Convention 177 , 343 ; limitation of liability: 1976/1996 Convention 366 ; maritime liens 143 , 150 , 173 , 177 – 8 Germany 33 ; maritime liens 144 – 5 , 151 , 152 , 153 – 4 governments or public authorities: detention of ships by 203 – 9 , 284 – 5 Greece 253 habitual residence or place of business: arrest 200 – 1 , 244 , 269 , 283 ; collision 34 harbour/dock/port dues and charges 142 , 149 , 173 – 4 , 217 , 218 , 294 , 295 hazardous and noxious substances 104 , 174 , 209 health and safety: detention of ships by governments or public authorities 205 , 206 – 7 , 208 ; see also environment; pollution damage heritage, underwater cultural 81 – 3 , 120 High Speed Craft, International Code of Safety for (HSC Code) 207 historical objects 81 – 3 , 120 history: 1910 Collision Convention 3 – 7 ; arrest of sea-going ships: 1952 Convention 197 – 9 ; arrest of ships: 1999 Convention 274 – 9 ; limitation of liability: 1957 Convention 331 – 3 ; limitation of liability: 1976/1996 Convention 353 – 4 ; maritime liens and mortgages: 1926 and 1993 Conventions 131 – 4 , 162 – 4 Hong Kong 234 hotels 291 humanitarian cargoes: payment for salvage services 126 – 7 hypothecation 139 , 220 hypothèques see mortgages immunity of state-owned ships 9 , 147 , 165 , 284 incidents or accidents of navigation other than collision 8 – 9 , 40 , 143 – 4 , 256 indemnities: maritime liens 143 – 6 India 278 information: collision: 1910 Convention 28 – 9 ; maritime liens 160 – 1 ; notice of forced sale 184 – 6 ; publication of arbitral awards 124 – 5 ; registers open to public 167 , 168 ; salvage 93 , 124 – 5 inland navigation, ships of: arrest of ships 282 – 3 ; collision 8 – 9 , 32 ; maritime liens and mortgages 135 , 166 ; salvage 51 – 2 insolvency proceedings: arrest of ships 202 – 3 , 285 insurance 173 , 216 , 278 , 295 , 296 interest: right of salvor to 124 interim payments: salvage 78 , 122 – 3 International Management Code for the Safe Operation of Ships and for Pollution Prevention (ISM Code) 208 International Ship and Port Facility Security Code (ISPS Code) 207 International Tribunal for the Law of the Sea 206 interpretation of treaties 228 ; ordinary meaning of terms 231 Italy 135 – 6 , 140 ; arrest of ships 250 , 252 , 255 ; maritime liens 144 , 161 , 182 ; part-ownership of ship 219 joint and several liability 372 ; collision 5 , 7 , 19 – 21 ; salvage 65 – 6 , 108 – 9 , 121 jurisdiction: Admiralty Court 242 ; for arrest 246 – 58 ; collision: 1952 Convention on civil 31 – 8 ; collision or other incidents of navigation: 1952 Convention on penal 39 – 43 ; maritime liens and mortgages 165 ; on the merits 267 – 73 ; salvage 78 ; territorial waters 165 jurisdiction for arrest: 1952 Convention 246 ; after ship has sailed 251 ; authorised by judicial authority 246 – 8 ; authorised by judicial authority of contracting state in which arrest made 248 – 50 ; before arrival of ship 250 – 1 ; choice of judicial authority 252 ; exclusive jurisdiction: 1952 Convention on Penal Jurisdiction and UNCLOS 256 – 7 ; foreign court, arrest pursuant to order of 251 – 2 ; lis pendens 257 – 8 ; no jurisdiction on the merits and 253 – 4 ; ports form part of coast 249 ; ships ready to sail 249 , 250 ; when court has jurisdiction on the merits but ship not within jurisdiction 254 – 5 ; when decision on the merits already obtained 255 jurisdiction for arrest: 1999 Convention 312 – 14 jurisdiction on the merits: 1952 Convention 267 – 73 ; jurisdiction for arrest when no 253 – 4 jurisdiction on the merits: 1999 Convention: exceptions to general rule 325 ; general rule 323 – 5 ; time by which proceedings on merits must be brought 325 – 6 Latvia 280 liability salvage, exclusion of 72 – 3 life, loss of: arrest of ship 211 – 12 , 289 ; collision: 1910 Convention 6 , 19 – 21 ; maritime liens 173 , 177 , 178 limitation of liability: 1957 Convention 154 ; arrest of ships 203 ; burden of proof 342 , 343 – 4 ; claims where benefit of limitation applicable 337 – 41 ; collision caused by pilot: 1910 Convention 22 – 3 ; direct liability principle 341 ; excepted form limitation, claims 341 – 2 ; history 331 – 3 ; limitation fund, constitution of 347 – 8 ; limitation fund, distribution of 348 – 52 ; limits of liability 346 – 7 ; loss of right to limit 342 – 5 ; maritime liens 177 – 8 , 334 ; persons entitled to limit 334 – 6 ; reservations allowed by Protocol of signature 352 ; scope of application 333 – 4 ; ships to which applicable 336 ; single and cross liability 341 limitation of liability: 1976/1996 Convention 154 ; aggregation of claims 380 ; arrest of ships 203 , 285 , 286 ; bar to other actions 385 – 7 ; claims where benefit of limitation applicable 362 – 6 ; collision caused by pilot: 1910 Convention 22 – 3 ; excepted from limitation, claims 366 – 9 ; history 354 – 5 ; intended navigation 282 – 3 ; invoking limitation of liability 380 – 5 ; limitation without constitution of fund 387 – 8 ; limits of liability 372 – 80 ; loss of right to limit 369 – 72 ; maritime liens 177 – 8 ; persons entitled to limit 360 – 1 ; reservations 388 – 90 ; scope of application 71 , 354 – 60 ; scope of application: exclusions from 355 – 60 ; single liability principle 366 limitation periods: assistance 68 ; collision 25 – 7 , 156 – 7 ; extension of 26 – 7 , 158 – 9 ; maritime liens 155 – 9 , 160 , 161 , 178 – 9 , 181 – 2 ; salvage 68 , 123 – 4 lis pendens 257 – 8 maritime liens: and arrest of ships 156 , 161 , 171 , 172 , 181 – 2 , 226 – 7 , 231 , 278 , 301 , 302 , 304 – 6 ; salvage: 1989 Convention 120 – 1 maritime liens: 1926 Convention 41 ; categories of claims secured by 140 – 5 , 213 – 14 , 215 ; countries in force in 134 ; droit de suite 146 , 159 – 61 ; expenses incurred to preserve vessel or procure sale 141 – 2 ; extinction of 155 – 9 ; forced sale 141 , 159 ; history 131 – 4 ; indemnities 143 – 6 ; language, official 134 ; law costs due to state 141 ; national 146 , 160 – 1 ; properties on which can be enforced 147 – 51 ; ranking of claims inter se and in respect of hypothèques 146 , 152 – 4 ; sale of vessel 141 , 159 – 61 ; scope of application 134 – 8 maritime liens: 1993 Convention 295 ; bareboat registration 192 ; claims secured by 171 – 4 ; claims set out in Art_4(1) not secured by 174 ; droit de suite 178 , 180 – 1 ; extinction of 178 , 181 – 2 ; forced sale 169 , 171 , 175 , 180 , 181 , 182 , 183 – 90 ; history 162 – 4 ; national maritime liens and rights of retention 178 – 80 ; parties to 164 ; priorities, extent to which limitation proceedings may affect 177 – 8 ; priority of Convention maritime liens and of registered securities 175 – 6 , 192 ; ranking inter se 176 – 7 ; rule pursuant to which maritime liens travel with claims 182 – 3 ; scope of application 165 ; vessels to which applies 165 – 6 misconduct of salvor, effect of 118 – 19 mortgages 279 ; arrest of ships 220 – 1 , 260 , 298 , 302 – 3 ; extinction period for maritime liens 155 , 157 , 159 mortgages: 1926 Convention; countries in force in 134 ; forced sale 159 ; history 131 – 4 ; provisions on 138 – 40 ; ranking of claims secured by maritime liens inter se and in respect of hypothèques 146 , 152 – 4 ; scope of application 134 – 8 mortgages: 1993 Convention; bareboat registration 190 – 3 ; change of registration of vessel 169 – 71 ; forced sale 167 , 171 , 183 – 90 , 193 ; history 162 – 4 ; parties to 164 ; priorities, extent to which limitation proceedings may affect 177 – 8 ; priority of Convention maritime liens and of registered securities 175 – 6 , 192 ; provisions of hypothèques , charges and 166 – 71 ; ranking of registered securities inter se 168 – 9 ; registrable charges 166 – 7 ; scope of application 165 , 166 – 7 ; vessels to which applies 165 – 6 multiple arrest see re-arrest nationality of interested persons: collision 11 , 42 ; collision or other incidents of navigation: disciplinary or criminal proceedings 41 – 2 ; limitation of liability 71 , 335 , 355 ; maritime liens and mortgages 138 ; salvage 52 – 3 , 71 nationality of ships 71 ; arrest 71 , 197 , 200 , 249 , 282 , 320 – 1 ; change of registration 169 – 71 , 180 – 1 , 190 ; collision 9 – 10 , 32 , 71 ; conditions for registration 171 ; maritime liens 135 – 6 , 165 , 180 – 1 , 190 , 192 ; mortgages 135 – 6 , 165 , 169 – 71 , 190 – 3 ; salvage 52 – 3 , 71 , 116 neglect: salvage 118 negligence: collision 19 ; salvage 114 Netherlands 33 , 216 , 229 , 235 , 237 Nigeria 250 , 252 , 255 Norway 229 , 250 , 252 , 255 notice of forced sale 184 – 6 nuclear damage 174 oil tankers 69 , 72 – 3 , 121 , 174 , 208 – 9 ordinary meaning of terms 231 ownership of ship, arrest of ship in respect of dispute as to 218 , 233 – 4 , 258 – 9 , 297 , 304 P & I Club 279 ; letter of undertaking 260 passenger/cruise ships 142 , 172 , 379 penal arrest of ships 203 penal jurisdiction: collision and other incidents of navigation (1952 Convention) 39 – 43 , 256 – 7 pension contributions 218 perpetuatio jurisdictionis 251 personal injury: arrest of ship 211 – 12 , 289 ; collision: 1910 Convention 6 , 19 – 21 ; maritime liens 173 , 177 , 178 ; maritime liens and indemnities for 144 Peru 278 , 279 pilots/pilotage: arrest of ships 213 , 238 , 294 ; collision 19 , 21 – 3 ; maritime liens and dues 142 , 173 – 4 ; pollution damage 41 ; salvage 55 place of business or habitual residence: arrest 200 – 1 , 244 , 269 , 283 ; collision 34 platforms 75 , 76 – 7 , 358 pollution damage 69 , 174 ; CLC Convention 1992 41 , 71 , 84 – 5 , 111 – 12 , 209 , 285 – 6 ; salvage: rights of coastal states 94 – 5 ; seaworthiness of vessels to avoid 205 ; see also environment Port State Control: IMO Procedures for 205 ; Memorandum of Understanding (MoU) 204 – 5 port/harbour/dock dues and charges 142 , 149 , 173 – 4 , 217 , 218 , 294 , 295 ports/places of refuge 97 – 8 , 106 – 7 possession of ship, arrest of ship in respect of disputes as to 237 – 8 , 258 , 297 , 304 possessory liens 179 , 180 posterior potior est priori 152 prescription periods see limitation periods Prestige accident 98 presumptions, collision and absence of legal 24 – 5 pretius succedit in locum rei 150 public authorities 293 ; detention of ships by 203 – 9 , 284 – 5 ; salvage operations controlled by 80 – 5 public service see state-owned ships re-arrest and multiple arrest: 1952 Convention 238 – 9 ; prohibition of re-arrest 239 – 40 ; remedy in case of breach of prohibition 241 ; situations in which re-arrest permitted 241 – 6 re-arrest and multiple arrest: 1999 Convention 39 – 11 recognition and enforcement of judgments 326 – 8 refuge, ports/places of 97 – 8 , 106 – 7 registrable charges 166 – 7 , 298 , 302 – 3 ; see also mortgages: 1993 Convention registration 165 ; bareboat 190 – 3 ; change of 169 – 71 , 180 – 1 , 190 ; mortgages, hypothèques and charges 167 , 168 ; see also nationality of ships release of security: 1999 Arrest Convention 320 – 2 release for ship from arrest: 1952 Convention 232 , 257 – 8 ; bail or other security 258 – 60 ; failure to bring timely proceedings on the merits 262 – 7 ; linkage between proceedings for arrest and proceedings on the merits 260 – 1 release for ship from arrest: 1999 Convention 316 – 20 repairers, ship 228 ; rights of retention 84 , 162 , 169 , 176 , 178 , 179 – 80 , 184 , 186 , 188 , 294 res judicata 36 respondentia 139 , 213 , 220 retention, rights of 84 , 162 , 169 , 176 , 178 , 179 – 80 , 184 , 186 , 188 , 294 Rhine River 32 – 3 , 270 Roman law 150 , 152 , 154 Russian Federation 248 , 279 safety and health: detention of ships by governments or public authorities 205 , 206 – 7 , 208 ; see also environment; pollution damage sale of ship: arrest of ships and dispute arising out of contract for 299 ; forced sale see separate entry ; maritime liens 159 – 61 , 169 , 178 , 179 ; mortgages, hypothèques or charges 169 – 71 salvage: arrest of ship 122 , 212 , 229 , 230 , 231 , 237 , 269 , 289 – 90 ; maritime liens 142 – 3 , 150 – 1 , 173 , 177 – 8 salvage: 1989 Convention 69 – 70 , 143 , 368 – 9 ; abnormal amount of reward 87 – 8 ; assistance, duty to render 88 , 98 ; claims and actions 120 – 7 ; cultural heritage 81 – 3 , 120 ; danger, notion of 79 – 80 ; definition of property 75 – 6 ; definition of salvage 72 – 3 , 143 ; definition of vessel 73 – 4 ; duties of owner and master 92 – 4 ; duties of salvor 90 – 2 ; excluded vessels or other property 76 – 9 ; geographical scope 71 ; humanitarian cargoes 126 – 7 ; interest 124 ; interim payments 122 – 3 ; liability salvage, exclusion of 72 – 3 ; limitations of actions 123 – 4 ; mandatory provisions 86 , 87 – 9 ; maritime liens 120 – 1 ; non-mandatory provisions 86 , 89 ; parties to 70 ; performance of salvage operations 90 – 8 ; provisions that do not concern relationship between salvors and owners 86 , 89 – 90 ; public authorities, salvage operations controlled by 80 – 5 ; publication of arbitral awards 124 – 5 ; salvors, rights of see separate entry ; scope of application 71 – 80 ; security, duty to provide 121 – 2 ; state-owned cargoes 125 – 6 ; states, rights and cooperation of 94 – 8 ; undue influence of danger 87 salvage and assistance: 1910 Convention 47 – 8 , 143 , 344 ; amount of remuneration 61 – 3 ; apportionment of remuneration 66 – 7 ; assistance to persons in danger, obligation to render 27 , 67 – 8 ; burden of proof 63 ; by whom and to whom services may be rendered 52 – 7 ; challenging terms of salvage agreement 64 – 5 ; conditions for entitlement to remuneration 59 – 60 ; danger, notion of 59 – 60 ; from whom salvage remuneration is due 65 – 6 ; language 48 ; limitation of actions 68 ; nature of services 49 ; no remuneration due 63 ; persons, salvage of 62 , 67 ; place 52 ; remuneration due to salvor 41 , 57 – 67 ; scope of application 49 – 57 ; subject matter of services 49 – 52 ; ‘things on board’ 52 , 57 ; useful result 60 salvors, rights of (1989 Convention) 88 ; apportionment between owner, master and crew 116 ; apportionment between salvors 115 – 16 ; by whom reward must be paid 108 – 9 ; conditions for reward 98 – 9 ; criteria for fixing reward 85 , 88 , 100 – 8 ; fair rate for equipment and personnel 112 – 14 ; misconduct of salvor, effect of 118 – 19 ; out-of-pocket expenses 112 , 113 ; persons, salvage of 116 – 17 ; prohibition of salvage operations 119 – 20 ; SCOPIC Clause 114 – 15 ; services rendered under existing contracts 117 – 18 ; special compensation 109 – 14 , 116 – 17 , 143 SCOPIC Clause 114 – 15 sea-going ships: arrest of sea-going ships: 1952 Convention see separate entry ; arrest of ships: 1999 Convention 282 – 3 ; collision: 1910 Convention 8 – 9 , 11 ; collision: civil jurisdiction (1952 Convention) 32 ; limitation of liability: 1957 Convention 3386; limitation of liability: 1976/1996 Convention 358 – 9 ; maritime liens and mortgages: 1926 Convention 135 ; maritime liens and mortgages: 1993 Convention 165 – 6 ; meaning 9 , 166 , 336 ; salvage and assistance: 1910 Convention 51 – 2 seaworthiness of vessels 205 security 156 , 182 , 202 , 203 , 232 ; release of ship from arrest upon bail or other 258 – 60 ; salvage 120 – 2 , 177 seizure and arrest 187 – 8 , 202 , 242 – 3 severance pay 218 shipbuilders: rights of retention 84 , 162 , 169 , 176 , 178 , 179 – 80 , 184 , 186 , 188 , 294 Singapore 233 single ship companies 308 sister ship arrest provision 223 – 6 , 233 – 7 , 243 , 244 Slovenia 251 , 252 , 255 , 279 social insurance 172 – 3 , 218 , 295 solicitors 260 Spain 75 , 219 , 251 , 252 , 255 state-owned cargoes: salvage 125 – 6 state-owned ships 126 , 284 ; collision 9 ; immunity 9 , 147 , 165 , 284 ; maritime liens and mortgages 135 , 147 , 165 ; salvage 53 – 4 , 77 – 9 , 89 subrogation 182 – 3 , 241 , 283 ; objective 150 sunken ships 143 , 175 , 189 , 212 , 292 , 339 , 361 ; 1910 Salvage Convention 50 ; 1989 Salvage Convention 74 , 75 , 76 , 107 Sweden 251 , 252 , 255 Switzerland 33 taxation: maritime liens 142 , 149 territorial sea 71 , 83 , 84 , 156 , 165 ; arrest of ships 249 – 5 time limits 265 ; assistance 68 ; collision 25 – 7 , 156 – 7 ; deregistration of vessels 170 ; forced sale 185 ; International Ship Security Certificate 207 ; maritime liens 155 – 9 , 160 , 161 , 178 – 9 , 181 – 2 ; salvage 68 , 123 – 4 title to ship, arrest of ship in respect of dispute as to 218 , 237 – 8 , 258 tonnage dues 142 , 149 , 204 towage: arrest of ships 213 , 238 , 295 ; salvage 54 – 5 , 60 , 117 – 18 treaty interpretation 228 ; ordinary meaning of terms 231 undue influence of danger: salvage 87 UNESCO: underwater cultural heritage 81 – 3 , 120 United Kingdom: arrest of ships 197 , 199 – 200 , 213 , 214 , 215 – 16 , 217 – 18 , 219 , 221 , 233 – 4 , 235 – 6 , 237 , 244 , 254 , 260 , 272 – 3 ; collision 22 , 23 , 29 , 33 ; maritime liens 145 , 152 ; salvage 55 , 62 , 80 , 104 , 106 , 123 – 4 ; state-owned ships 285 ; towage and salvage 55 United States: allision 144 ; arrest of ships 197 ; collision 12 , 14 , 16 , 24 – 5 , 27 , 29 ; salvage 77 , 78 , 108 , 125 Venezuela 278 – 9 wages: arrest of ships 41 , 217 – 18 , 220 , 295 ; maritime liens 142 , 148 , 152 , 158 , 172 – 3 , 177 – 8 , 182 warships: collision 9 ; definition 147 ; maritime liens and mortgages 135 , 147 , 165 ; salvage 53 – 4 , 77 – 8 wrecks 173 , 189 , 292 , 339 , 361 ; 1910 Salvage Convention 50 ; 1989 Salvage Convention 74 , 75 , 76 , 82 , 120 ; Nairobi Convention 83 – 4 ; UNESCO Convention 82 , 120 wrongful arrest, liability of claimant for: 1952 Convention 267 wrongful arrest, liability for: 1999 Convention 323 – 4

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