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INDEX

International Trade and Carriage of Goods

Page 407 INDEX Belgium consignees’ rights 98 Bill of lading delivery of cargo without surrender 127 – 130 evidence, as 127 – 128 nature of 127 slow steaming clauses, and 24 – 26 BIMCO Electronic Bills of Lading clause paperless trade, and 148 – 152 BIMCO slow streaming and virtual arrival clauses 398 – 400 BPO paperless trade, and 153 – 157 Carriage of Goods by Sea Act 1992 text 365 – 369 Charterparty clauses letters of indemnity, and 132 – 135 Consignees’ rights in European legal system 98 – 113 bill of lading in hands of shipper 101 – 102 formal test: proper holder 100 – 105 holder 99 holder entitled to delivery 99 – 109 improper use of bill of lading 102 – 104 material test: lawful holder 105 – 108 presentation by agent 104 – 105 real party in interest 111 – 113 right to claim damages 108 – 113 Consignees’ rights under Rotterdam Rules 81 – 97 background 82 – 84 becoming the controlling party 91 – 92 consignee, meaning 81 – 82 consignee’s rights as controlling party 92 – 94 Hague Rules, and 82 – 83 Hague-Visby Rules, and 83 Hamburg Rules, and 83 importance of recognizing consignee’s rights as controlling party 94 – 96 right to rely on contract particulars 86 – 88 right to rely on Rotterdam Rules 88 – 90 right to take delivery of goods 85 – 86 rights of consignees as consignees 84 – 90 rights of consignees as controlling parties 91 – 96 rights of consignees as holders 90 – 91 Rotterdam Rules 83 – 84 UNCITRAL 95 Containerisation 114 – 123 accuracy of documents, and 115 burden of customs debt 115 – 119 declarations and burden of financial risk 121 – 122 banks 121 insurers 121 – 122 declarations and burden of liability 118 – 120 declarations in respect of dangerous goods 118 – 119 declarations on condition and quantity of goods 119 – 120 discrepant declarations 114 – 123 duty to fill in customs documents 115 – 116 identification of debtors 117 – 118 moment when customs debt incurred 116 – 117 technical consequences 114 Declarations 234 – 243 forms 241 – 243 function 234 – 243 function under floating policy 234 – 236 function under non-fully obligatory open cover 236 – 238 nature of 234 – 243 timing of 238 – 243 Delegated performance 55 – 80 acts of delegate 70 – 78 agency, and 79 – 80 delegate principle 56 – 63 non-delegable performance 78 Page 408 overriding contractual definitions 63 – 70 recent developments 55 – 80 Documentary credit dilemma 197 – 207 Economic sanctions 165 – 176 international transactions 165 – 176 use of 165 Floating policies declarations see Declarations Marine Insurance Act 1906, under 228 – 232 terminology 226 – 227 France consignees’ rights 98 proper holder of bill of lading 100 Germany consignees’ rights 98 proper holding of bill of lading 100 Hague-Visby Rules text 357 – 364 ICC transit clause 250 – 263 commencement of risk 252 – 256 completion of transit 259 – 263 developments 250 – 263 fault lines 250 – 263 ordinary course of transit 256 – 259 ICCURBPO paperless trade, and 153 – 156 Incoterms 12 – 14 paperless trade, and 146 – 148 Insurable interest open covers, and 246 – 248 Insurance Act 2015 264 – 276 cargo warranties 266 – 269 contracting out 275 – 276 impact on standard cargo clauses/wordings 264 – 276 insuring cargoes in new era 264 – 276 potential impact of sections 10 and 11 on implied voyage conditions 269 – 275 sections 10 and 11 , impact on common warranties in cargo policies 265 – 269 text 370 – 397 Islamic letter of credit 177 – 196 al-wakalah 183 – 184 al-musharakah 184 – 185 autonomy and bank as legal buyer 191 – 192 interest ban 193 – 196 nature of 178 – 180 principle of autonomy 186 – 190 principle of strict compliance 192 – 193 recognising unlawfulness in Shari’a 190 – 191 Shari’a compliant transactions 180 – 185 UCP 600 compliance 185 – 196 Laytime and demurrage in CIF and FOB contracts 35 – 51 cancellation clauses and sale contracts 48 – 50 compensation regimes incorporated from charterparties 39 – 51 default position 36 – 37 free-standing obligation or indemnity 41 – 45 interpreting incorporated provisions in sale contract 45 – 48 loss of time 36 – 37 readiness and presentation within delivery period 50 – 51 self-contained compensation regimes 37 – 39 which charter incorporated 39 which charter terms incorporated 39 – 41 Lending on waybills 208 – 222 air waybills 219 – 220 claims against carrier 211 – 212 CMR consignment notes 219 – 220 commercial practice 208 consignor’s right to diverse 212 – 214 lack of any requirement for surrender 214 – 215 possibility of non–possessory security 220 – 222 sea waybills 215 – 219 Letters of credit 165 – 176 autonomy 167 – 168 common law doctrine of illegality 169 – 170 exceptions to autonomy 168 – 173 illegality under place of performance of contract 171 – 173 importance of 165 – 166 international uniform rules 166 irrevocable 166 Islamic see Islamic letters of credit nature of 166 revocable 166 revolving 167 sanction clauses in 173 – 176 sight credit 166 standby 167 unconfirmed 166 usance credit 166 Page 409 Letters of indemnity 124 – 144 application of Rules 140 beneficiary of 136 – 137 commercial flexibility 126 components 124 – 125 creditworthiness of entity issuing 135 – 136 delivery without bill of lading 124 – 144 discharge of cargoes without bills of lading 199 – 200 extra-contractual 125 – 126 fraud, and 126 illegality, and 126 impact of charterparty clauses 132 – 135 importance of terms of 137 – 138 international transactions 165 – 176 law and jurisdiction provisions 138 – 139 legal capacity of entity issuing 136 legal enforceability 135 length of time in force 139 – 142 nature of 124 need for cargo claimants to become holders of bills after delivery 142 – 143 obligation to accept, whether 131 – 132 practical issues affecting effectiveness 135 – 139 role in relation to delivery without surrender of bills of lading 130 – 131 use of 126 Netherlands consignees’ rights 98 Open covers 225 – 249 advantages 225 – 226 cargo insurance, and 225 – 249 declarations see Declarations fair presentation of risk 243 – 246 insurable interest, and 246 – 248 nature generally 232 – 234 nature of 226 – 232 terminology 226 – 227 types of 226 – 232 utmost good faith 243 – 246 Paperless trade 145 – 162 adjudications 157 – 162 options 157 – 160 bills of lading, waybills and delivery orders 150 BPO 153 – 157 BIMCO Electronic Bills of Lading clause 146 – 152 contractual parties 156 equivalent electronic record or procedure 146 – 147 filling in gaps before or after 160 – 162 gap-filling process 156 – 160 ICCURBPO 153 – 156 Incoterms 2010 146 – 148 legal implications 145 – 162 significant recent developments 146 – 156 Reasonable contract of carriage 3 – 14 alternative route to s.32(2) 8 – 9 authorising unreasonable contract 10 – 12 buyer’s remedies 10 CIF 12 – 13 CIP 13 circumstances where s.32(2) might be used 9 contract appropriate to grant sufficient protection 6 – 7 contract must give buyer protective rights against carrier 7 contract on usual terms 5 – 6 course of dealing between parties 11 examples of unreasonable contracts 7 – 8 express agreement 11 Incoterms 12 – 14 legislative history of provision 4 reasonableness test 4 – 7 statutory framework 3 – 4 Rotterdam Rules consignees’ rights under see Consignees’ rights under Rotterdam Rules Slow steaming clauses 15 – 34 benefits 16 bills of lading, and 24 – 26 BIMCO 18 CIF contracts 26 – 27 contractual solutions allowing for flexibility 29 – 32 FOB contracts 28 – 29 global financial crisis, and 15 international sales contracts, and 15 – 34 law and practice 17 reasonable contract of carriage, and 19 – 24 time of shipment/laycan 26 – 29 UCP 600 text 277 – 301 UN Convention on Contracts for International Carriage of Goods Wholly or Partly by Sea text 304 – 356

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