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Index

International Maritime Conventions Volume III: Protection of the Marine Environment


Page 465

Index

Index

  • Africa, West and Central 99100
  • agents: hazardous and noxious substances: liability and compensation (1996 Convention) 220, 223; oil pollution damage, civil liability for (CLC 1992) 131, 133, 141, 142
  • air pollution from ships: MARPOL 73/78 30, 37
  • air-cushion vehicles 24, 31
  • air-cushioned craft 43
  • arbitration: intervention on high seas (1969 Convention and 1973 Protocol) 1617; wrecks, removal of (2007 Convention) 97, 98
  • Asia/Pacific Region 99
  • audit, waste prevention 48
  • Australia 9, 193, 194, 1967
  • ballast tank, corrosion prevention of seawater 39
  • ballast water and sediments (2004 Convention) 55, 101; achieving purpose, manner of 589; burden of proof 58; ‘harmful aquatic organisms and pathogens’ 58; implementation 5961; inspection 59; MARPOL 73/78 and 32; recourse, right of 195; scope of application 558; ‘sediments’ 32, 58
  • Baltic Sea area 35
  • bank guarantee 88, 139, 146, 2223, 225
  • bareboat charter registration 56
  • bareboat charterer: civil liability for bunker oil pollution damage (2001 Convention) 193, 1945, 199; civil liability for oil pollution damage (CLC 1992) 130, 133; hazardous and noxious substances: liability and compensation (1996 Convention) 220
  • Belgium 56, 127
  • black, grey and white list 105
  • Black Sea area 35, 100
  • bulk carriers 39
  • bunker oil and HNS Convention 1996 212
  • bunker oil pollution damage, civil liability for (2001 Convention) 101, 189; basis of liability 196; burden of proof 195; enforcement of judgments 2067; exclusions from liability 196; geographical scope 190; insurance or
  • other financial security 93, 195, 199205; international validity of certificate 203; jurisdiction 206; language of certificate 202; limitation of liability 93, 1969; ‘oil’ 1901; parties to 189; person(s) liable 1925; recognition of judgments 2067; scope of application 1902; ‘ship’ 190, 191, 203; ‘shipowner’ 1934; supersession clause 207; time limits 202, 2056; time for suit 2056; wrecks, removal of (2007 Convention) 93, 94, 95
  • bunker oil pollution damage and CLC 1992 121
  • burden of proof: ballast water and sediments (2004 Convention) 58; bunker oil pollution damage, civil liability for (2001 Convention) 195; dumping of wastes (1972 Convention as amended by 1996 Protocol) 46; Fund Convention 1992 163, 1667, 179; HNS Convention 1996 21819, 237; intervention on high seas 11, 20; MARPOL 73/78 31; oil pollution damage, civil liability for (CLC 1992) 121, 135, 138, 13940, 142, 143, 166; wrecks, removal of (2007 Convention) 93
  • Cameroon 11
  • Canada 20910, 244; civil liability for oil pollution 131, 193, 194, 1967; intervention on high seas 45, 9, 10, 12, 13, 14, 1516
  • Caribbean 99
  • certificates: insurance or other financial security: Bunker Oil Convention 2001 2014; insurance or other financial security: CLC 1992 14450, 1512; insurance or other financial security: HNS Convention 1996 2259, 230; insurance or other financial security: wrecks (2007 Convention) 95, 96; MARPOL 73/78 30, 334, 36, 37; SOLAS Convention 1974 39
  • charts, nautical 135
  • chemical tankers 72, 745
  • civil law countries 131, 153, 170
  • classification societies 132
  • Coastguard vessels 44
  • common law countries 153, 170

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    compensation: bunker oil pollution damage, civil liability for (2001 Convention) see separate entry; hazardous and noxious substances: liability and compensation (1996 Convention) see separate entry; intervention on high seas (1969 Convention and 1973 Protocol): for damage caused by measures taken 1516; oil pollution damage, civil liability for (CLC 1992) see separate entry; oil pollution damage and Fund Convention see separate entry; port state control: European Directive 2009/16/EC 109
  • conciliation: intervention on high seas (1969 Convention and 1973 Protocol) 1617; wrecks, removal of (2007 Convention) 97
  • construction and equipment of ships: SOLAS Convention 1974 – dangerous goods 40
  • consultation: dumping of wastes (1972 Convention as amended by 1996 Protocol) 49; intervention on high seas (1969 Convention and 1973 Protocol) 1013, 25, 26, 49; removal of wrecks (2007 Convention) 83, 87, 90, 91
  • Cook Islands 137
  • crew: HNS Convention 1996 220, 223; intervention on high seas (1969 Convention and 1973 Protocol) 13; oil pollution damage, civil liability for (CLC 1992) 1312, 141; standards of training, certification and watchkeeping for seafarers (1978 Convention) see separate entry
  • criminal law: MARPOL 73/78 33
  • Cyprus 208
  • dangerous goods: European Traffic Monitoring and Information System Directive 11112; SOLAS Convention 1974 40
  • dangerous or polluting goods: traffic monitoring and information system (Directive 2002/59/ EC) 11114; see also hazardous and noxious substances
  • data recorder system 104, 109
  • Denmark 20910, 244
  • deregistration 81
  • detention of ships: MARPOL 73/78 34, 103; port state control: European Directive 2009/16/EC 109; port state control: Paris MoU 104
  • dispute settlement: intervention on high seas (1969 Convention and 1973 Protocol) 1617; removal of wrecks (2007 Convention) 87, 978
  • dumping of wastes (1972 Convention as amended by 1996 Protocol) 412; activities regulated 445, 80; annual reports 51, 534; ashore, disposal from 45; ‘dumping’ 43, 45; human health 49; human life, safety of 48, 49; implementation 501; incineration 44, 45; MARPOL 73/78 and 32, 37; monitor condition of seas 50, 52; obligations of contracting parties 469; parties to 41; permits 478, 49, 503; polluter bears cost 46, 47; precautionary approach 46, 48; purpose 41-–2; records 50, 52;
  • reports to IMO 51, 534; scope of application 434, 56; sovereign immunity 44; ‘vessels and aircraft’ 434; ‘wastes or other matters’ 37, 45
  • ejusdem generis rule 132, 146
  • employees: hazardous and noxious substances: liability and compensation (1996 Convention) 220, 223; oil pollution damage, civil liability for (CLC 1992) 131, 141, 142
  • enforcement of judgments: Bunker Oil Convention 2001 2067; CLC 1992 154; HNS Convention 1996 2401
  • estuaries 9, 58, 82
  • European Union: port state control 100, 10610; salvage 11314; traffic monitoring and information system 11114
  • exclusive economic zone 83, 113, 123, 1256, 138, 161, 190, 215, 216, 222, 2389, 240
  • experts: intervention on high seas and optional advice 12
  • harmful aquatic organisms and pathogens 58
  • hazard to navigation: removal of wrecks (2007 Convention) 79, 813
  • hazardous and non-hazardous deficiencies: port state control 1034, 109
  • hazardous and noxious substances: 1996 Convention see hazardous and noxious substances: liability and compensation; intervention on high seas: other substances (1973 Protocol) 1722; MARPOL 73/78 29, 36; Protocol of 2000 to 1990 OPRC Convention 268; SOLAS Convention 1974 40; see also dangerous or polluting goods
  • hazardous and noxious substances: liability and compensation (1996 Convention) 27, 1256; amendment of limits 2478; area in which the damage caused 21516; basis of liability 21819; burden of proof 21819, 237; channelling of liability 220; ‘damage’ 211; enforcement of judgments 2401; entry into force 2467;

    Page 467

    exclusions from scope of application 21618; final clauses 2448; history 20810; insurance of owner 149, 22430; International HNS Fund 2316, 23940; international validity of certificate 2289; jurisdiction 23840; language of certificate 228; liability of owner 21830; limit, loss of right to 224; limitation of actions 2368; limitation fund 2224; limitation of liability of owner 2204, 2478; nature of the damage 211-–12; ‘owner’ 218; recognition of judgments 2401; scope of application 21018; ‘ship’ 215; signatures 244; structure of 210; submission of data on total quantities of contributing cargo 2446; subrogation, right of 223, 2412; substances causing the damage 21215; supersession clause 207, 243; termination 248; time limits 227, 2368, 247, 248; transitional provisions 243; withdrawal of the consent to be bound 246; wrecks, removal of (2007 Convention) 94
  • hazardous ships, monitoring of (Directive 2002/59/EC) 11213
  • high seas: hazardous and noxious substances: liability and compensation (1996 Convention) 239; jurisdiction (1958 Convention) 4, 6; oil pollution casualties: intervention on high seas (1969 Convention) see separate entry; other substances: intervention on (1973 Protocol) 1722
  • history: civil liability for oil pollution damage (CLC 1992) 11719; Fund Convention 15660; HNS Convention 1996 20810; oil pollution casualties: intervention on high seas (1969 Convention) 3-–4; other substances: intervention on high seas (1973 Protocol) 1719
  • hospital ships 44
  • hydrofoil boats 24, 31
  • immunity, sovereign 44, 57, 121, 192
  • incineration see dumping of wastes (1972 Convention as amended by 1996 Protocol)
  • Indonesia 11
  • information: dangerous goods, transport of (Directive 2002/59/EC) 112; port state control: information system on inspections (Paris MoU) 1056; to coastal states on hazardous ships (Directive 2002/59/EC) 11213
  • inspection of ships: ballast water and sediments (2004 Convention) 59; MARPOL 73/78 334, 35; port state control: European Directive 2009/16/EC 1079; port state control: Paris MoU 99, 1026
  • insurance or other financial security 145; bunker oil pollution damage, civil liability for (2001 Convention) 93, 195, 199205; hazardous and noxious substances: liability and compensation (1996 Convention) 149, 22430; oil pollution damage, civil liability for (CLC 1992) 95, 122, 141, 14352; wrecks, removal of (2007 Convention) 88, 91, 92, 93, 956, 145
  • insurance or other financial security (CLC 1992) 95, 141, 14352; conditions of issue and validity of certificate 150; direct action against insurer or guarantor 1501; evidence 1468; international validity of certificate 150; language of certificate 149; nature and amount of security required 146; oil, definition of 122; party who is bound to insure 1456; period of validity of certificate 14950; ships owned by contracting State 1512; sum insured or secured 146
  • interest 139, 168, 169, 178
  • International Chamber of Shipping 194
  • International Fund 15660; administration of 1802; amount of compensation available 167-–70; burden of proof 163, 1667, 179; contributions to 17480; cooperation of contracting States 179; currency in which contributions must be paid 176; distribution where claims in excess of compensation payable 170; due date for contributions 179; establishment of 161; extinction of right to compensation 1701; intervene in proceedings, right to 1734; invoices 179; jurisdiction 171-–4; organisation of 1802; owner has not constituted a fund and payment from 170; rules on payment of compensation 16274; scope of application 161; time limits 1701, 179, 180; when compensation not due from 1657; when judgment or settlement not binding on 173
  • International Group of P&I Clubs 139, 194
  • International HNS Fund 2316; amount of compensation payable by 2335; budget 235; conditions required for the payment by 232; contributions 2356; establishment 231; judgments against 241; jurisdiction 23940; when payment of compensation is not due 232
  • International Labour Organization (ILO) 106
  • International Monetary Fund (IMF) 135, 1367
  • intervention on high seas: oil pollution casualties: intervention on high seas (1969 Convention) see separate entry; other substances (1973 Protocol) 1722
  • Ireland 5, 193, 194
  • Italy 81, 134
  • Japan 9, 129
  • joint and several liability 130, 1945
  • jurisdiction: bunker oil pollution damage, civil liability for (2001 Convention) 206; Fund Convention 1992 171-–4; high seas, vessels sailing on 4, 6; HNS Convention 1996 23840; oil pollution damage, civil liability for (CLC 1992) 138, 140, 1534
  • Latin America Region 99
  • Liberia 208
  • liquefied gas tankers 40, 767

  • Page 468

    Malta 193, 194
  • MARPOL 73/78: prevention of pollution from ships 2930, 101, 106, 111; detention of ships 34, 103; ‘discharge’ 32; general obligations of State parties 323; general scope of application 301, 56; ‘harmful substance’ 32; inspection of ships 334, 35; main purpose 312; national law 33; ‘ship’ 31; summary of annexes 357
  • mediation: removal of wrecks (2007 Convention) 97
  • Mediterranean Sea area 35, 100
  • Monaco 137
  • monitoring: condition of seas: dumping of wastes (1972 Convention as amended by 1996 Protocol) 50, 52; hazardous goods (Directive 2002/59/EC) 11213
  • national law: ballast water and sediments (2004 Convention) 60; dumping of wastes (1972 Convention as amended by 1996 Protocol) 42, 43; Fund Convention 1992 171, 173, 179; hazardous and noxious substances: liability and compensation (1996 Convention) 225; MARPOL 73/78 33; oil pollution damage, civil liability for (CLC 1992) 141, 144, 153; wrecks, removal of (2007 Convention) 87, 88, 95
  • nautical charts 135
  • naval/fleet auxiliaries 31, 44, 57, 107, 111, 191, 192, 217
  • Netherlands 16, 165, 20910, 244; civil liability for oil pollution 1289, 193, 194, 196
  • New Zealand 16
  • non-persistent oil 8, 122
  • Norway 152, 165, 193, 194, 1967, 20910, 244
  • notification: Bunker Oil Convention 2001 202; dangerous polluting goods carried on board (Directive 2002/59/EC) 112; Fund Convention 1992 171, 173; hazardous and noxious substances: liability and compensation (1996 Convention) 217; intervention on high seas (1969 Convention and 1973 Protocol) 1011, 1213, 26; port state control: Paris MoU 99, 105; wrecks, removal of (2007 Convention) 83, 86, 91, 92
  • nuclear damage 94; see also radioactive material
  • offshore units 24, 28
  • oil pollution and MARPOL 73/78 29, 30, 356
  • oil pollution casualties: intervention on high seas (1969 Convention) 111; arbitration 1617; ‘coastline’ 89; compensation for damage caused by measures taken 1516; conciliation 1617; conditions 710, 82; crew 13; geographic scope 6; guidelines for selection of measures 1315; history 34; human life, avoid risk to 13; ‘maritime casualty’ 46; obligations of State that takes measures 1015, 256, 49; ‘oil’ 8; OPRC Convention 1990: possible conflict with 23, 246; other substances (1973 Protocol) 1722, 27; parties to 19; relationship between Protocol and Convention 201; scope of application 47, 20; ‘ship’ 67; time limits 17, 22; updating list of other substances 212; voluntary discharge of oil 5
  • oil pollution damage, civil liability for (CLC 1992) 46, 11719, 216; ‘agent’ 131; amendment of the limits 1378; basis of liability 1335; bunker oil of dry cargo ships 189; burden of proof 121, 135, 138, 13940, 142, 143, 166; channelling of liability 12833, 141, 142, 195; ‘charterer’ 130, 133; conflict with other conventions 155; ‘crew’ 1312; enforcement of judgments 154; geographical scope 1256; intervention on high seas (1969 Convention) 1516; jurisdiction 138, 140, 1534; liability insurance 95, 122, 141, 143-–52; limit, loss of right to 1423; limitation fund 13840, 154; (distribution of) 1402, 154; limitation of liability of owner 13540, 1423, 2212; ‘manager’ 133; ‘oil’ 8, 121, 122; ‘operator’ 133; ‘owner’ 1278; person liable 12733; ‘pollution damage’ 1225; reasonability concept 124; recognition of judgments 154; scope of application 11926; ‘servant’ 131; ‘ship’ 11921; strict but not absolute liability 134; subrogation rights 141; supersession clause 207; time limits 137, 1523; wrecks, removal of (2007 Convention) 93, 94
  • oil pollution damage and Fund Convention 140, 142, 15660, 216; bunker oil of dry cargo ships 189; International Fund see separate entry; Supplementary Fund 160, 1828
  • oil pollution preparedness, response and cooperation (1990 OPRC Convention) 23, 82; comparison of 2000 Protocol with 278; geographic scope 24; hazardous and noxious substances: 2000 Protocol 268; parties to 23, 27; possible conflict between Intervention Convention and 23, 246; scope of application 234, 123; ‘ship’ 24
  • oil tankers 39, 72, 734, 103
  • P&I Clubs 139, 194
  • passenger ships 189, 2267
  • permits: dumping of wastes (1972 Convention as amended by 1996 Protocol) 478, 49, 503
  • Poland 163
  • polluter bears cost 46, 47
  • port state control: European Directive 2009/16/ EC; classification of ships 108; compensation 109; detention of ships 109; inspections 1079; origin and purpose 1067; refusal of access 10910; ‘ship’ 107; ships to which it applies 107; time limits 108
  • port state control: Paris MoU 99100, 108, 109; black, grey and white list 105; classification of ships 103; criteria for adherence to 1001; detention of ships 104; duties and powers of port authorities 1035; information system 1056; inspections 99, 1026; organisational structure 101; refusal of access 105, 110; ships to which it applies 102; signatories of 99; time limits 103, 104, 105

  • Page 469

    port state control agreements 99100; port state control: European Directive 2009/16/EC see separate entry; port state control: Paris MoU see separate entry
  • precautionary approach: dumping of wastes (1972 Convention as amended by 1996 Protocol) 46, 48
  • proportionality: intervention on high seas (1969 Convention and 1973 Protocol) 13, 1415; removal of wrecks (2007 Convention) 81
  • radioactive material 21112, 21617
  • records: ballast water and sediments (2004 Convention) 59; dumping of wastes (1972 Convention as amended by 1996 Protocol) 50, 52
  • registration of ships 56, 81, 99; bareboat charter registration 56; Flag and State of 43
  • reporting: dumping of wastes (1972 Convention as amended by 1996 Protocol) 51, 534; Fund Convention 1992: contributions 1745; incidents and accidents at sea (Directive 2002/59/EC) 113; removal of wrecks (2007 Convention) 89
  • Romania 16
  • Russian Federation 208; see also Soviet Union
  • safety of life at sea (1974 SOLAS Convention) 3840, 100, 106, 111
  • salvage 44; EU: ships in need of assistance 11314; hazardous and noxious substances: liability and compensation (1996 Convention) 220; oil pollution, civil liability for (CLC 1992) 133; oil, voluntary discharge of 5; ‘vessel’ 11920; wrecks, removal of (2007 Convention) 81, 82, 87, 923
  • Scandinavian delegations 127, 163; see also Denmark; Finland; Norway; Sweden
  • Scotland 164
  • sewage from ships: MARPOL 73/78 30, 37
  • ship, meaning of: bunker oil pollution damage, civil liability for (2001 Convention) 190, 191, 203; HNS Convention 1996 215; intervention on high seas (1969 Convention and 1973 Protocol) 67; MARPOL 73/78 31; oil pollution damage, civil liability for (CLC 1992) 11921; oil pollution preparedness, response and cooperation (1990 OPRC Convention) 24; port state control: European Directive 2009/16/ EC 107
  • ships, prevention of pollution from (MARPOL 73/78) 2930, 101, 106, 111; detention of ships 34, 103; ‘discharge’ 32; general obligations of State parties 323; general scope of application 301, 56; ‘harmful substance’ 32; inspection of ships 334, 35; main purpose 312; national law 33; ‘ship’ 31; summary of annexes 357
  • slot charterer 133
  • South Africa 193, 194, 1967
  • sovereign immunity 44, 57, 121, 192
  • sovereignty, State 16
  • Soviet Union: civil liability for oil pollution 128, 134, 135; intervention on high seas 13, 16; see also Russian Federation
  • Spain 6
  • Special Drawing Rights (SDRs) 1357, 157
  • standards of training, certification and watchkeeping for seafarers (1978 Convention) 101; chemical tankers 72, 745; emergency, occupational safety, security, medical care and survival functions 778; engine department 6772; liquefied gas tankers 767; master and deck department 636; oil tankers 72, 734; ports of State party 62; special requirements 727; watchkeeping 78
  • State owned or operated ships used for noncommercial purposes 31, 44, 578, 107, 111, 121, 166, 191-–2, 217
  • structure of ships: SOLAS Convention 1974 39, 40
  • submersibles 24, 31
  • subrogation rights 1412, 223, 2412
  • supersession clause 207, 243
  • Supplementary Fund 160; contributions to 1878; entry into force and claims in respect of which available 1834; establishment of 1823; extinction of right to compensation 186; rules governing payment by 1846
  • surveys: SOLAS Convention 1974 39
  • Sweden 8, 135, 192, 193, 194, 196
  • Syria 5
  • tanker, definition of 39
  • territorial waters 4, 6; bunker oil pollution damage, civil liability for (2001 Convention) 190, 200; Fund Convention 161; hazardous and noxious substances: liability and compensation (1996 Convention) 215, 216, 2389, 240; oil pollution damage, civil liability for 1256, 138, 222; oil pollution preparedness, response and cooperation (1990 OPRC Convention) 24; wrecks 79, 83, 867, 934
  • time charterer 133
  • time limits: Bunker Oil Convention 2001 202, 2056; Fund Convention 1992 1701, 179, 180; hazardous and noxious substances: liability and compensation (1996 Convention) 227, 2368, 247, 248; intervention on high seas (1969 Convention and 1973 Protocol) 17, 22; oil pollution damage, civil liability for (CLC 1992) 137, 1523; port state control: European Directive 2009/16/EC 108; port state control: Paris MoU 103, 104, 105; wrecks, removal of (2007 Convention) 967
  • Torrey Canyon 3, 14, 117
  • tourism 9, 83
  • traffic monitoring and information system: European Directive 2002/59/EC 11114; ‘dangerous goods’ 11112

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    training, certification and watchkeeping for seafarers, standards of (1978 Convention) 101; chemical tankers 72, 745; emergency, occupational safety, security, medical care and survival functions 778; engine department 6772; liquefied gas tankers 767; master and deck department 636; oil tankers 72, 734; ports of State party 62; special requirements 727; watchkeeping 78
  • Turkey 244
  • United Kingdom 117, 118; civil liability for oil pollution 124, 131, 135, 193, 194, 1967; deregistration 81; Headquarters of Fund 1992 172, 176; intervention on high seas 3, 7, 11, 14
  • United States: civil liability for oil pollution 121, 126, 129, 131, 134; intervention on high seas 3, 12, 16
  • USSR: civil liability for oil pollution 128, 134, 135; intervention on high seas 13, 16; see also Russian federation
  • voyage charterer 133
  • voyage data recorder system 104, 109
  • warships 31, 44, 578, 107, 111, 121, 166, 191, 192, 203, 217
  • wastes, dumping of (1972 Convention as amended by 1996 Protocol) 412; activities regulated 445, 80; annual reports 51, 534; ashore, disposal from 45; ‘dumping’ 43, 45; human health 49; human life, safety of 48, 49; implementation 501; incineration 44, 45; MARPOL 73/78 and 32, 37; monitor condition of seas 50, 52; obligations of contracting parties 469; parties to 41; permits 478, 49, 503; polluter bears cost 46, 47; precautionary approach 46, 48; purpose 412; records 50, 52; reports to IMO 51, 534; scope of application 434, 56; sovereign immunity 44; ‘vessels and aircraft’ 434; ‘wastes or other matters’ 37, 45
  • watchkeeping 78
  • West and Central Africa 99100
  • whale oil 122
  • white, grey and black list 105
  • wrecks, removal of (2007 Convention) 79; coastline or related interests 823; consultation 83, 87, 90, 91; Convention area 83; costs 88, 90, 935; criteria for determining whether hazard 846; dispute settlement 87, 978; exceptions to liabilities: owner 93, 945; general obligations of State to be complied with when becomes party to 88; geographical scope 83, 867; ‘hazard’ 813; insurance or other financial security 88, 91, 92, 93, 956, 145; location 90; marking 901; MARPOL 73/78 and 32; obligations and liabilities of owner 925; obligations of State in whose Convention Area wreck located 902; party who may determine whether wreck poses hazard 83; reporting obligation 89, 91; scope of application 7987; territorial sea 79, 83, 867, 934; time limits 967; ‘wreck’ 801

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