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Index

Remedies in Construction Law

Page 407 Index Index Abatement 19.1 – 19.62 exclusion of rights 19.22 – 19.24 Housing Grants, Construction and Regeneration Act 1996 19.48 – 19.61 limits 19.10 – 19.12 nature of 19.2 , 19.7 statutory 19.9 Account of profits 11.54 – 11.59 Adjudication 25.58 – 25.73 approach of Act 25.63 – 25.73 background 25.60 –26.62 construction operations 25.66 courts, and 25.71 , 25.72 limitation 24.48 – 24.55 quantum meruit, and 5.43 – 5.45 reference of dispute to 25.69 success of 25.73 Adjudicator powers to rectify 2.54 , 2.55 specific performance, and 22.44 , 22.45 Affirmation rescission, and 3.41 – 3.43 Alternative dispute resolution 25.74 – 25.96 binding effect 25.80 Anticipatory breach 6.7 Anti-suit injunctions forum shopping 21.62 – 21.71 Arbitration 25.15 – 25.57 agreements to arbitrate 25.19 appeals from awards 25.48 – 25.56 Arbitration Act 1996 25.18 challenges to awards 25.48 – 25.56 choice of arbitrator 25.39 – 25.42 confidentiality 25.23 – 25.29 decision on form 25.57 disadvantages 25.33 – 25.35 discretion of tribunal 25.31 documents only procedure 25.32 enforceability of awards 25.48 – 25.56 expedition 25.38 expense 25.43 – 25.47 injunction, and 21.76 – 21.82 limitation 24.42 – 24.47 objectives 25.16 privacy 25.23 – 25.29 procedure 25.30 – 25.37 rescission, and 3.69 , 3.70 separate proceedings 25.37 Arbitration clauses Set-off, and 19.62 Arbitrator powers 21.82 specific performance, and 22.43 power to rectify 2.51 – 2.53 Assignment black holes, and 10.54 – 10.65 Bankruptcy Set-off in 19.32 – 19.42 Battle of the forms 20.12 – 20.15 Betterment measure of damages, and 9.21 – 9.23 Black hole cases 10.1 – 10.76 assignment, and 10.54 – 10.65 Buncefield explosion see Buncefield explosion Contracts (Rights of Third Parties) Act 1999 10.66 – 10.73 Dunlop v Lambert , rule in 10.7 – 10.52 exception to rule 10.4 – 10.6 general rule 10.2 , 10.3 Latent Damage Act 1986 10.74 – 10.76 loss suffered by third party 10.1 Panatown see Panatown the St Martins extension 10.13 – 10.20 Breach of statutory duty, damages for 12.69 Bribery rescission, and 3.26 , 3.27 Buncefield explosion 10.53 Call on bond injunction restraining 21.89 Causation damages, and 11.2 – 11.13 damages in negligence, and 12.23 – 12.29 Page 408 Causing loss by unlawful means 12.73 Civil Liability (Contribution) Act 1978 17.1 – 17.59 ability of defendants to satisfy award of damages 17.18 – 17.20 aim of 17.1 assessment of contribution 17.43 – 17.58 discretion of court 17.44 dishonesty 17.48 one party fraudulent and another negligent 17.47 proper approach 17.51 – 17.56 vicarious liability 17.49 , 17.50 sums paid by defendant to claimant 17.57 , 17.58 damage, meaning 17.8 – 17.13 “liable” 17.21 – 17.42 factual basis of claim 17.34 restitutionary liabilities 17.25 – 17.28 timing issues 17.36 – 17.42 questions arising 17.6 the same damage 17.7 – 17.20 Claiming finance costs and interest 18.1 – 18.37 Commercial construction projects 1.7 Concurrent delay 14.47 – 14.69 analysis of events 14.57 causation 14.49 causative effect 14.47 , 14.68 caused by employer and contractor 14.59 computer programming evidence 14.50 , 14.55 , 14.56 critical path through works 14.51 determination of actual cause 14.69 employer and contractor 14.60 , 14.61 extension of time, and 14.53 float in contract programme 14.58 later event for which employer responsible 14.63 , 14.64 programming tools 14.50 , 14.55 – 14.56 Conflict of interest rescission, and 3.26 , 3.27 Construction law meaning 1.2 Contempt of court 21.58 – 21.61 Contracts (Rights of Third Parties) Act 1999 10.66 – 10.73 Contributory negligence damages, and 11.23 – 11.29 negligence damages, and 12.39 – 12.43 Co-ownership specific performance, and 22.42 Corporate insolvency Set-off, and 19.43 – 19.47 Damages additional profit 11.46 adequacy specific performance, and 22.38 , 22.39 assessment of loss of chance 11.17 benefits to be taken into account 11.45 – 11.52 benevolent payments from third parties 11.51 causation 11.2 – 11.13 “but for” 11.5 concurrent causes 11.7 effective 11.3 – 11.6 novus actus interveniens 11.8 – 11.13 contributory negligence 11.23 – 11.29 distinguishing claims from claims within contract 11.60 , 11.61 expectation 11.19 – 11.22 foreign currency awards 11.30 – 11.35 in lieu of injunction 21.35 – 21.45 interest as 18.5 – 18.8 see also interest loss of opportunity to bargain 11.54 – 11.59 mental distress, for 11.36 – 11.44 Misrepresentation Act 1967, under 3.32 – 3.40 negligence 12.4 – 12.46 see also Negligence, damages in payments by insurers 11.52 physical inconvenience, for 11.36 – 11.44 reliance 11.19 – 11.22 standard of proof 11.14 – 11.18 balance of probabilities 11.14 taxation 11.53 tort see Tort, damages in Damages for breach of contract 8.1 – 9.39 Hadley v Baxendale see Hadley v Baxendale losses within reasonable contemplation 8.5 – 8.27 measure of damages see Measure of damages Deceit, damages for 12.61 – 12.65 date of misrepresentation 12.65 Declarations 23.1 – 23.43 added to other claims 23.3 – 23.5 advantages 23.1 , 23.12 – 23.15 exclusion of jurisdiction by agreement 23.10 granting 23.43 interim 23.19 – 23.27 jurisdiction of courts 23.9 legal effect of judgement 23.11 nature of 23.2 negative 23.28 – 23.42 abuse of power 23.31 – 23.35 enforcement of arbitration, and 23.42 jurisdictional advantage 23.37 reluctance of courts to grant 23.41 resolution of disputes 23.40 Page 409 rights, of 23.17 , 23.18 summary of principles 23.16 Defective Premises Act 1972 exclusion clauses, and 20.72 Delay concurrent see Concurrent delay damages for breach of contract, and 8.19 frustration, and 7.19 – 7.21 loss of profit, and 13.5 rescission, and 3.44 Dispute boards 25.93 – 25.96 Dispute resolution 25.1 –26.97 Dunlop v Lambert , rule in 10.7 – 10.52 The Albazero 10.9 – 10.12 Duress rescission, and 3.23 – 3.25 Economic torts 12.70 – 12.73 Engineer’s decision 25.97 Equitable relief limitation 24.36 – 24.37 Exclusion clauses 20.1 – 20.74 battle of the forms 20.12 – 20.15 consequential losses 20.39 – 20.45 construction contra proferentem 20.18 consumer contracts 20.71 Contracts (Rights of Third Parties) Act 1999 20.74 Defective Premises Act 1972 20.72 deliberate breach 20.34 – 20.36 entire agreement clauses 20.46 fraud, and 20.29 – 20.33 incorporation 20.2 – 20.15 indirect loses 20.39 – 20.45 interpretation 20.16 – 20.51 liability for negligence 20.19 – 20.27 remedies for misrepresentation, and 20.70 repugnancy 20.37 , 20.38 schemes allocating risks 20.47 – 20.51 strict construction 20.17 sufficiency of notice 20.4 – 20.11 terms implied by statute 20.73 Unfair Contract Terms Act 1977 20.52 – 20.69 Extension of time clauses 14.32 – 14.46 acceleration 14.39 calculation 14.36 construction 14.43 , 14.35 delay, and 14.37 , 14.38 failure to operate machinery 14.40 , 14.41 provisions limiting right to claim 14.42 supervising officer 14.34 waiver of compliance with condition precedent 14.45 Foreign court recovery of damages awarded by 15.19 – 15.21 Foreign currency awards 11.30 – 11.35 Forum shopping Anti-suit injunctions 21.62 – 21.71 Fraud exclusion clauses, and 20.29 – 20.33 limitation 24.28 – 24.30 limitation clauses, and 20.29 – 20.33 rescission, and 3.51 Frustration 7.1 – 7.53 acts of third party 7.35 amount or significance of variations 7.23 application of doctrine 7.14 – 7.31 consequences of discharge through 7.44 – 7.50 default of contractor, and 7.32 – 7.34 delay 7.19 – 7.21 destruction of subject matter of contract 7.15 – 7.18 difficulties in obtaining supplies 7.25 – 7.27 doctrine 7.2 – 7.8 doctrine not to be lightly invoked 7.10 effect 7.9 effect of contractual provisions 7.38 – 7.43 extrinsic evidence as to assumptions of parties 7.11 – 7.13 foundation of modern law 7.4 Law Reform (Frustrated Contracts) Act 1943 7.46 – 7.50 legislative changes 7.29 , 7.30 modern doctrine 7.5 multi-factorial approach 7.7 mutual mistake, and 7.51 – 7.53 object of doctrine 7.6 price, changes in 7.22 sanctity of contract, and 7.2 , 7.3 secondary obligation, and 7.44 self-induced 7.32 – 7.37 shortage of labour 7.24 standard forms provisions 7.39 – 7.43 strikes 7.28 variation instruction, and 7.37 war, and 7.31 Fundamental breach repudiation, and 6.8 , 6.9 Global claims 16.1 – 16.35 adequacy of pleading 16.13 – 16.25 apportionment of loss and expense caused by disruption 16.29 – 16.32 categories 16.6 Page 410 effect of authorities 16.34 essence of 16.33 loss and expense claim 16.26 meaning 16.27 pleadings stage 16.8 – 16.11 sufficiency of pleadings 16.5 tensions presented by 16.3 Good faith repudiation, and 6.19 Hadley v Baxendale 8.1 – 8.27 acceptance of responsibility 8.11 – 8.13 categories of consequences of breach of construction contract 8.20 commercial background of contract 8.17 , 8.18 damage likely to incur 8.14 delay, and 8.19 effect of final certificate 8.21 falling property market, and 8.27 holding costs, and 8.24 knowledge of business activities 8.22 , 8.23 losses within reasonable contemplation 8.5 – 8.27 particular type or kind of loss 8.15 , 8.16 reasonable foreseeability 8.8 , 8.9 reformation of principles 8.7 two rules 8.6 Housing Grants, Construction and Regeneration Act 1996 19.48 – 19.61 abatement, and 19.48 – 19.61 set-off, and 19.48 – 19.61 Indemnity clauses 15.59 – 15.64 construction 15.63 FIDIC Red Book 15.61 JCT Standard Building Contract (SBC/Q) 2007 15.60 Inducing breach of contract 12.71 Infringement of intellectual property rights 12.66 – 12.68 Injunctions 21.1 – 21.90 anti-suit forum shopping 21.62 – 21.71 arbitration proceedings, and 21.76 – 21.82 contempt of court, and 21.58 – 21.61 damages in lieu 21.35 – 21.45 final mandatory 21.7 – 21.9 final prohibitory 21.2 – 21.6 freezing 21.21 – 21.33 interim 21.10 – 21.20 limitation 24.36 – 24.37 notification 21.34 nuisance, and 21.83 – 21.86 powers of arbitrator 21.82 refusal in respect of tendering process 21.90 restraining call on board 21.89 restraining proceedings bought in breach of agreed dispute resolution procedure 21.72 – 21.75 retention monies, and 21.87 – 21.88 trespass, and 21.83 – 21.86 Insolvency Set-off in 19.28 – 19.47 Interest damages, as 18.5 – 18.8 adjudication 18.19 , 18.20 Arbitration Act 1996 18.15 – 18.18 delay, and 18.12 , 18.13 exercise of discretion 18.11 Late Payment of Commercial Debts (Interest) Act 1998 18.21 – 18.37 rate 18.14 Senior Courts Act 1981 18.9 – 18.14 Interim injunctions 21.10 – 21.20 Laches rescission, and 3.44 Lapse of time 19.25 , 19.26 Late Payment of Commercial Debts (Interest) Act 1998 18.21 – 18.37 compensation 18.35 discretion of court 18.33 inaccurate invoices, and 18.34 ousting of statutory interest 18.25 period over which statutory interest runs 18.29 qualifying debts 18.28 rate of interest 18.30 , 18.31 section 2 18.22 statutory interest 18.24 substantial remedy 18.26 Latent Damage Act 1986 10.74 – 10.76 Legislative changes frustration, and 7.29 , 7.30 Letter of intent quantum meruit, and 5.20 Limitation 24.1 – 24.56 acknowledgement 24.35 adjudication 24.48 – 24.55 amendment of proceedings 24.38 – 24.41 arbitration 24.42 – 24.47 claims for contribution under Civil Liability (Contribution) Act 1978 24.31 – 24.32 claims in tort 24.8 – 24.26 concealment 24.28 – 24.30 contract by deed 24.3 contract claims 24.2 – 24.7 accrual of cause of action 24.4 – 24.7 Defective Premises Act 1972 24.34 Page 411 equitable relief 24.36 – 24.37 fraud 24.28 – 24.30 injunctions 24.36 – 24.37 longstop date 24.27 mistake 24.28 – 24.30 negligence 24.8 – 24.15 accrual of cause of action 24.11 – 24.15 negligence and latent damage 24.16 – 24.26 date of knowledge 24.20 – 24.26 knowledge 24.20 – 24.26 starting date 24.19 nuisance 24.33 , 24.34 specific performance 24.36 – 24.37 tolling agreements 24.56 trespass 24.33 , 24.34 Limitation clauses 20.1 – 20.74 battle of the forms 20.12 – 20.15 Contracts (Rights of Third Parties) Act 1999 20.74 fraud, and 20.29 – 20.33 incorporation 20.2 – 20.15 interpretation 20.16 – 20.51 sufficiency of notice 20.4 – 20.11 Unfair Contract Terms Act 1977 20.52 – 20.69 Liquidated damages 14.1 – 14.31 decrease 14.23 – 14.26 deduction 14.70 , 14.71 increase 14.23 – 14.26 prevention principle 14.27 – 14.31 purposes 14.3 Litigation 25.2 – 25.14 case management 25.9 directions 25.11 expert witnesses 25.12 , 25.13 part 20 proceedings 25.7 pre-action protocol 25.5 , 25.6 reasoned judgement 25.14 Loss and expense, recovery of 18.2 – 18.4 Loss of profits 13.2 – 13.14 additional work 13.4 delays 13.5 exclusion clauses 13.38 limitation of liability clauses 13.38 recovery in contract 13.2 – 13.6 recovery in tort 13.7 – 13.14 duty of case 13.11 , 13.12 negligent misrepresentation 13.14 work omitted from contract 13.6 Measure of damages 8.2 – 8.4 , 9.1 – 9.39 advice of expert 9.18 betterment 9.21 – 9.23 cost of repairs 9.3 – 9.15 date of assessment 9.24 – 9.28 date of cause of action 9.24 date of repairs or reinstatement 9.25 defective performance 9.7 , 9.8 delay in completion 9.2 delay in remedial works 9.26 diminution in value 9.3 – 9.15 diminution in value of property 9.27 diminution in value of reversion of freehold 9.15 disproportionate cost, and 9.11 expenses incurred 9.28 mitigation of loss 9.29 – 9.39 see also Mitigation of Loss nature of breach, and 9.1 reliance upon advice 9.16 – 9.20 replacement chattel 9.14 subrogated actions 9.10 Mediation 25.76 , 25.82 – 25.89 form of 25.84 judiciary, and 25.86 nature of 25.83 Mental distress damages for 11.36 – 11.44 Misrepresentation rescission, and 3.5 – 3.22 Mistake limitation 24.28 – 24.30 Mini-trial 25.90 – 25.92 Mitigation of loss 9.29 – 9.39 appeal, and 9.39 burden of proof 9.32 construction cases 9.35 duty to take reasonable steps 9.31 increase of overall costs, and 9.38 standard of reasonableness 9.33 , 9.34 Misrepresentation Act 1967 3.32 – 3.40 consequential losses 3.40 damages under 3.32 – 3.40 distinction between fraudulent and innocent misrepresentation 3.35 purchase of property on bases of misrepresentation 3.39 Mutual mistake frustration, and 7.51 – 7.53 rectification, and 2.22 – 2.35 Negligence exclusion clauses, and 20.19 – 20.27 limitation 24.8 – 24.15 Negligence and latent damage limitation 24.16 – 24.26 Negligence, damages in 12.4 – 12.46 causation 12.23 – 12.29 concurrent causes 12.25 intervening act of third part7 12.29 negligent advice 12.26 – 12.28 personal injury cases 12.24 Page 412 contributory negligence 12.39 – 12.43 economic loss 12.10 – 12.22 cases arising out of construction projects 12.16 – 12.22 control mechanism 12.11 damage to other property 12.19 , 12.20 deterrent effect of potential liability 12.14 , 12.15 direct consequence of physical damage 12.22 duty of care 12.13 , 12.14 proximity 12.12 special relationship of proximity 12.21 foreseeability 12.30 – 12.34 contract and tort 12.33 , 12.34 kind of damage 12.30 interrelationship between scope of duty, causation and foreseeability 12.35 – 12.38 measure of damages 12.44 personal injury 12.8 , 12.9 physical damage 12.8 , 12.9 scope of duty 12.4 – 12.7 Novus actus interveniens 11.8 – 11.13 Nuisance injunction, and 21.83 – 21.86 limitation 24.33 , 24.34 Nuisance, damages in 12.47 – 12.53 diminution in value 12.47 negotiating damages 12.49 Panatown 10.21 – 10.52 broad ground 10.36 – 10.46 facts 10.23 future developments 10.49 – 10.52 narrow ground 10.28 – 10.35 accountability to third party 10.33 , 10.34 displaced where other remedies 10.31 , 10.32 good law 10.29 rule of law, as 10.30 summary 10.35 result 10.47 , 10.48 spectre of double recovery 10.46 Penalty clauses 14.5 – 14.26 Cavendish Square Holdings B V v Makdessi ; ParkingEye Ltd v Beavis 14.13 – 14.19 implications of decision 14.20 – 14.22 law before Cavendish Square Holdings v Makdessi 14.5 – 14.12 unenforceability 14.5 – 14.26 Physical inconvenience damages for 11.36 – 11.44 Prevention principle see Liquidated damages Price, changes in frustration, and 7.22 Quantum meruit 5.1 – 5.46 additional work going beyond variation 5.13 – 5.18 adjudication 5.43 – 5.45 construction contracts 5.23 contract not concluded 5.21 contract terminated before works complete 5.33 contract void for want of authority 5.41 contract works for lump sum 5.31 , 5.32 contractual claim 5.3 – 5.7 cynical repudiation of contract 5.35 defective works 5.29 disputes as to valuation 5.5 free acceptance, role of 5.10 letter of intent, and 5.20 loss-making contract, and 5.34 meaning 5.2 negotiations in respect of terms of expected contract 5.25 – 5.26 payment by instalments, and 5.37 quantification 5.24 – 5.29 questions for court 5.22 repudiation by contractor 5.36 restitution, and 5.8 – 5.46 theoretical basis 5.9 valuation of claim 5.24 – 5.29 variation, and 5.13 – 5.18 variation to existing contract 5.6 , 5.7 work done in anticipation of contract 5.19 – 5.29 work done under contract discharged through breach 5.30 – 5.37 work done under contract with one party for benefit of another 5.46 work done under void or unenforceable contract 5.38 – 5.42 Recovery of costs 15.48 – 15.58 assessment 15.50 – 15.58 discretion of court 15.49 Recovery of damages foreign court, awarded by 15.19 – 15.21 passing on claim awarded in previous arbitration 15.22 – 15.26 passing on claim awarded in previous proceedings 15.11 – 15.18 recovery of monies paid in settlement of easier claim 15.27 – 15.47 third party (part 20) proceedings 15.2 – 15.10 defendant wishing to pass potential liability to more than one third party 15.8 disputes between third parties 15.9 joinder of proceedings 15.4 Recovery of damages and costs 15.1 – 15.64 Page 413 Recovery of monies paid in settlement of earlier claim 15.27 – 15.47 competent legal advice 15.36 , 15.37 evidence of settlement 15.35 reasonable settlement 15.38 – 15.46 relevance of settlement 15.28 – 15.34 settlement of number of claims 15.47 Recovery of overheads and management charges 13.15 – 13.37 delays, and 13.21 – 13.23 Eichleay Formula 13.29 , 13.30 Emden Formula 13.28 , 13.30 expense incurred in pursuing claimant’s legal remedies 13.37 formula basis 13.31 Hudson Formula 13.27 off-site 13.19 , 13.24 omission of work, and 13.20 on-site 13.18 salary expenses 13.33 search and seizure order 13.35 Rectification 2.1 – 2.57 adjudicator, powers of 2.54 , 2.55 aim of 2.4 arbitrator, powers of 2.51 – 2.53 carefully negotiated commercial contracts, and 2.34 conduct after date of contract 2.30 contractual provision allowing correction of errors 2.50 contractual provisions, impact of 2.46 – 2.50 discretionary remedy 2.56 , 2.57 entire agreement clause, and 2.33 , 2.46 – 2.49 intention of parties 2.27 , 2.28 material ascertaining true meaning of contract 2.11 – 2.15 mistake on face of contract 2.10 mutual mistake 2.22 – 2.35 ordinary and natural meaning of words 2.5 – 2.9 outward expression of accord 2.29 , 2.31 scope of remedy 2.17 , 2.18 standard of proof 2.19 – 2.21 unilateral mistake 2.36 – 2.45 awareness of omission or mistake 2.38 – 2.40 conceptual difficulties 2.43 degree of sharp practice 2.39 Remedies classification 1.4 meaning 1.3 Remedies under contract 4.1 – 4.9 machinery 4.9 rights granted 4.8 Repudiation at common law 6.4 – 6.20 acts on part of employer 6.14 after performance contract 6.8 anticipatory breach 6.7 condition of contract, and 6.16 delay 6.13 election by innocent party 6.18 fundamental breach, and 6.8 , 6.9 good faith, and 6.19 identification of grounds 6.20 lack of due progress 6.13 principles 6.5 , 6.6 temporary nonconformities 6.11 wrong reliance on expenses termination clause 6.15 Rescission 3.1 – 3.70 affirmation 3.41 – 3.43 arbitration, ad 3.69 , 3.70 bribery 3.26 , 3.27 clause allocating risk, and 3.56 , 3.57 clause excluding effect of misrepresentations 3.59 , 3.60 conflict of interest 3.26 , 3.27 contractual provision, effect 3.55 – 3.68 defences 3.41 – 3.44 delay 3.44 duress 3.23 – 3.25 election or decision 3.29 entire agreement clause, and 3.58 fraud, and 3.51 grounds 3.1 – 3.4 how effected 3.28 – 3.31 impossibility of restoration of parties’ pre-contractual positions 3.45 – 3.52 innocent misrepresentation 3.34 laches, and 3.44 misrepresentation, and 3.5 – 3.22 form of representation 3.7 inducement 3.20 – 3.22 materiality 3.20 – 3.22 reliance 3.20 – 3.22 representation must be false 3.10 – 3.12 representation, need for 3.6 – 3.9 representation of fact 3.13 – 3.16 representation of law 3.17 – 3.19 representation of opinion or intention 3.13 – 3.16 sales talk 3.9 remedy, whether 3.28 – 3.31 restriction of liability, and 3.61 – 3.68 right to rescind 3.30 third parties, and 3.53 , 3.54 voidable contract 3.2 Restitution Page 414 quantum meruit, and 5.8 – 5.46 Retention monies injunctions, and 21.87 – 21.88 Set-off 19.1 – 19.62 arbitration clauses, and 19.62 bankruptcy 19.32 – 19.42 connected cross-demands 19.3 contractual 19.18 – 19.21 corporate insolvency, and 19.43 – 19.47 equitable 19.13 – 19.17 exclusion of rights 19.22 – 19.24 Housing Grants, Construction and Regeneration Act 1996 19.48 – 19.61 insolvency, in 19.28 – 19.47 limitation 19.27 mutual liquidated demands 19.4 – 19.6 nature of 19.2 Shortage of labour frustration, and 7.24 Specific performance 22.1 – 22.46 adequacy of damages 22.38 , 22.39 adjudicator, and 22.44 , 22.45 arbitrator, powers of 22.43 contracts requiring constant supervision 22.29 – 22.35 co-ownership, and 22.42 exceptions to general rule 22.19 – 22.21 injustice to defendant 22.36 , 22.37 limitation 24.36 – 24.37 mutuality of remedy 22.40 , 22.41 nature of 22.1 principles for granting 22.5 , 22.6 reluctance of courts to grant in construction contracts 22.16 – 22.18 remedy rarely granted 22.4 special circumstances 22.22 – 22.24 sufficient definition 22.25 – 22.28 third parties 22.46 when not decreed 22.7 – 22.15 Strikes frustration, and 7.28 Taxation damages, and 11.53 Temporary nonconformities repudiation, and 6.11 Tendering process refusal of injunction in respect of 21.90 Termination 6.1 – 6.39 consequences 6.33 – 6.39 contractor’s reputation, and 6.2 defective works at date of 6.36 interplay of common law and contractual rights 6.30 – 6.32 loss, and 6.35 measure of loss 6.37 Red Book 6.24 , 6.27 SBC 6.23 , 6.26 standard forms of contract, under 6.21 – 6.29 The Albazero 10.9 – 10.12 Third parties see Black hole cases Tolling agreements 24.56 Tort, damages in 12.1 – 12.73 Trespass injunction, and 21.83 – 21.86 limitation 24.33 , 24.34 Trespass, damages in 12.54 – 12.60 loss of amenity 12.59 reasonable cost of reinstatement 12.55 , 12.56 Undertaking as to damages 21.46 – 21.57 assessment of damages for breach 21.46 – 21.57 Unfair Contract Terms Act 1977 20.52 – 20.69 application in non-consumer context 20.67 – 20.69 business liability 20.62 deals as consumer 20.57 deals on the other’s written standard terms of business 20.58 – 20.60 negligence 20.55 negligence liability 20.53 reasonableness 20.54 , 20.56 , 20.63 , 20.64 – 20.66 standard forms, and 20.61 Unilateral mistake rectification, and 2.36 – 2.45 War frustration, and 7.31

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