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Index

CMR: Contracts for the international carriage of goods by road

Page 433 Index Index Actions against successive carrier, 11.62 – 11.74 arbitration, 10.120 – 10.130 counterclaims and rights of set-off, 10.119 , 11.74 duplication, 10.37 – 10.42 jurisdiction, 10.21 – 10.50 limitation. See Limitation of actions procedural aspects, 10.1 – 10.130 security for costs, 10.50 . See also Claims Agency jurisdiction, 10.30 – 10.32 Agent carrier’s liability, 3.5 – 3.14 forwarder as, 1.13 – 1.54 Agreement concerning the Carriage of Dangerous Goods by Road (ADR), 8.2 – 8.4 , 8.9 – 8.10 Apportionment carrier’s liability, 6.107 – 6.110 combined transport, 2.40 successive carriers, 11.87 – 11.92 , 11.105 – 11.112 Arbitration, 10.120 – 10.130 Arbitration Act 1975, 10.127 , 10.129 Bailee, 1.5 Bill of lading, 2.30 , 2.35 Brussels Convention on jurisdiction and enforcement of judgments 1968, 10.47 – 10.48 Burden of proof carrier’s liability, 6.13 , 6.21 , 6.27 , 6.36 , 6.85 – 6.103 , 6.111 – 6.117 condition of vehicle, 6.36 – 6.39 delivery, fact of, 6.13 handling, loading, stowage or unloading of goods, 6.85 – 6.103 inherent vice, 6.27 , 6.103 parties to the contract, 1.44 – 1.45 Carriage containers, 2.8 – 2.11 contract of. See Contract of carriage impossibility in relation to, 5.25 – 5.30 livestock, 6.105 – 6.106 performance of, 5.1 – 5.47 Carriage by Air and Road Act 1979, 0.2 Carriage of Goods by Road Act 1965, 0.1 , 0.14 arbitration proceedings, 10.125 , 10.128 , 10.130 parties to the contract, 1.11 Text , Appendix A voluntary adoption of the CMR Convention, 1.63 Carrier agents and servants, 3.5 – 3.14 alternative arrangements between, 11.134 – 11.135 direct action against other, 2.43 loss or damage not caused by act or omission of, 2.21 – 2.25 reservations in consignment note, 4.24 – 4.31 , 4.35 , 6.79 , 6.104 sale of goods by, 5.43 – 5.47 status as, 1.11 – 1.54 , 3.3 – 3.4 “two separate persons”, 2.41 – 2.42 . See also Carrier’s liability See also Successive carriage Carrier’s liability, 6.1 – 6.117 agreed time limit, 7.2 – 7.4 apportionment, 6.107 – 6.110 avoidance of, 6.14 – 6.52 climatic conditions, 6.42 condition of vehicle, 6.36 – 6.39 inherent vice of goods, 6.25 – 6.27 instructions of claimant, 6.22 – 6.24 strikes, 6.52 theft and robbery, 6.43 – 6.51 traffic conditions, 6.40 – 6.41 unavoidable circumstances, 6.28 – 6.35 wrongful act or neglect of claimant, 6.15 – 6.21 Page 434 burden of proof, 6.13 , 6.21 , 6.27 , 6.36 , 6.85 – 6.103 , 6.111 – 6.117 cash on delivery, 7.30 –>7.40 defective condition of vehicle, 6.53 – 6.59 defective or inadequate packing, 6.64 – 6.71 defective packing by the sender, 6.78 – 6.80 delay. See Delay delivery, 6.9 – 6.13 force majeure , 6.4 , 6.28 – 6.31 handling, loading, stowage or unloading of goods by the sender, 6.72 – 6.103 inadequate marks or numbers, 6.104 inherent vice of goods, 6.25 – 6.27 , 6.103 livestock, carriage of, 6.105 – 6.106 Carrier’s liability— cont . nature of goods, 6.25 – 6.27 , 6.95 – 6.103 , 6.111 negligence, 6.5 no agreed time limit, 7.5 – 7.6 non-delivery of goods, 7.11 – 7.29 obligation to check loading and stowage, 4.31 , 6.81 – 6.84 open unsheeted vehicles, 6.61 – 6.63 period of, 6.7 – 6.13 refrigerated goods, 6.27 , 6.96 , 6.100 – 6.101 special risks. See Special risks successive carrier, 3.11 third parties, 3.1 – 3.14 agents and servants, 3.5 nature of liability, 3.12 other persons, 3.6 – 3.11 scope of employment, 3.13 – 3.14 Cas fortuit , 6.4 Case law CMR Convention, 0.18 – 0.20 parties to the contract the Continent, 1.46 – 1.53 England, 1.16 – 1.43 Cash on delivery, 7.30 –7.40 measure of damages, 7.36 –7.40 scope, 7.32 – 7.35 Channel Tunnel, 2.38 – 2.39 Cheques acceptance for payment of cash on delivery, 7.35 CIM Convention, 0.23 , 2.30 , 6.28 Claims arbitration, 10.120 – 10.130 counterclaims and rights of set-off, 10.119 , 11.74 jurisdiction, 10.21 – 10.50 limitation. See Limitation of actions practice, 10.18 – 10.19 procedural aspects, 10.1 – 10.130 reservations in respect of loss, damage or delay, 10.2 – 10.20 security for costs, 10.50 total loss, 10.20 , 10.63 – 10.72 Clause paramount, 4.19 Climatic conditions, 6.42 CMR Convention and combined (multimodal) transport, 0.3 , 2.1 – 2.44 and national law, 0.24 – 0.37 , 1.64 case law, 0.18 – 0.20 , 1.16 – 1.43 , 1.46 – 1.53 compatibility with Guadalajara Convention, 2.44 derogation, 12.1 – 12.8 French text, 0.14 – 0.17 , Appendix B history, 0.1 – 0.3 interpretation. See Interpretation modelled on the CIM Convention, 0.23 , 6.28 Protocol, 0.2 scope of application, 1.1 – 1.64 Text , Appendix A travaux preparatoires , 0.21 voluntary adoption, 1.60 – 1.64 Combined (multimodal) transport, 0.3 , 2.1 – 2.44 apportionment of liability, 2.40 Combined (multimodal) transport— cont . carriage by container, 2.8 – 2.11 Channel Tunnel, 2.38 – 2.39 direct action against carrier by other mode, 2.43 general rule, 2.6 – 2.16 proviso to, 2.17 – 2.40 separate entities, treatment of carrier as, 2.41 – 2.42 unloading from the vehicle, 2.11 a– 2.16 Compensation, 9.1 – 9.106 additional, 9.50 – 9.54 basis of calculation, 9.3 – 9.8 currency conversion rate, 9.64 damage, 9.47 – 9.49 delay, 9.42 – 9.46 extra-contractual claims, 9.65 – 9.71 interest, 9.60 – 9.63 limit of liability, 9.9 – 9.20 attempts to evade, 9.15 – 9.17 calculation, 9.18 – 9.20 loss of goods, 7.18 – 7.21 other expenses, 9.21 – 9.41 Buchanan case, 9.25 – 9.33 other case law, 9.34 – 9.41 recovery under Articles 23(5) and 26, 9.55 – 9.59 wilful misconduct. See Wilful misconduct Page 435 Consignee status as, 1.11 – 1.54 Consignment note, 1.4 , 1.8 – 1.9 , 1.12 , 1.30 , 4.1 – 4.31 absence of, 4.2 – 4.7 , 4.9 absence of signature, 4.12 carrier’s reservations, 4.24 – 4.31 , 6.79 , 6.104 CMR international, Appendix C contents, 4.15 – 4.23 , 11.36 – 11.37 form, 4.10 – 4.14 , Appendix C irregularity of, 4.8 – 4.9 IRU form, 4.10 , Appendix C jurisdiction, 10.28 need for, 4.3 – 4.9 , 11.21 – 11.48 open unsheeted vehicles, use of, 6.61 – 6.62 provision for cash on delivery charges, 7.30 – 7.31 successive carrier, 11.21 – 11.48 time limit for delivery, 7.2 – 7.4 Containers, 0.3 carriage, 2.8 – 2.11 Contract of carriage, 1.2 – 1.10 parties. See Parties to the contract Convention, CMR. See CMR Convention Counterclaims, 10.119 successive carrier, 11.74 Currency conversion rate compensation, 9.64 Customs documentation, 4.37 – 4.41 Damage to goods, 5.24 compensation, 9.47 – 9.49 delay, 9.44 – 9.49 period of limitation of actions for partial damage, 10.59 – 10.62 reservations, 10.2 – 10.20 Damages delay, 7.14 , 9.44 jurisdiction, 10.49 Dangerous goods, 8.1 – 8.14 definition, 8.2 packing, 8.8 – 8.9 Date time limit for delivery, 7.2 – 7.6 Defective packing, 4.32 – 4.36 , 6.64 – 6.71 Delay, 5.12 – 5.17 , 7.1 – 7.10 agreed time limit, 7.2 – 7.4 compensation, 9.42 – 9.46 defences, 7.7 – 7.8 definition, 7.1 no agreed time limit, 7.5 – 7.6 period of limitation of actions for partial delay, 10.59 – 10.62 reservations, 7.9 – 7.10 , 10.2 – 10.20 Delivery agreed time limit, 7.2 – 7.4 burden of proof, 6.13 carrier’s liability, 6.9 – 6.13 disposal of goods on, 5.12 – 5.24 impossibility in relation to, 5.31 – 5.34 no agreed time limit, 7.5 – 7.6 . See also Non-delivery of goods Derogation, 12.1 – 12.8 Disposal, right of, 5.2 – 5.24 delivery, on, 5.12 – 5.24 enforce the contract, right to, 5.18 – 5.23 restrictions on, 5.5 – 5.9 successive, 5.10 – 5.11 Documentation, 4.1 – 4.41 customs and other formalities, 4.37 – 4.41 successive carrier, 11.55 – 11.61 . See also Consignment note England scope of application of CMR Convention, 1.5 Estoppel suspension of period of limitation, 10.117 Force majeure , 6.4 , 6.28 – 6.31 Foreign judgments enforcement of, 10.44 , 11.124 – 11.126 Foreign Judgments (Reciprocal Enforcement) Act 1933, 10.128 Forum. See Jurisdiction Forwarder status, 1.13 – 1.54 France scope of application of CMR Convention, 1.4 status of parties to the contract, 1.51 French text of the CMR Convention, 0.14 – 0.17 , Appendix B cash on delivery charges, 7.36 damage due to delay, 9.44 interpretation of “agents and servants”, 3.8 – 3.9 Funeral consignments, 1.58 Furniture removal, 1.59 Germany status of parties to the contract, 1.53 Goods carriage by container, 2.8 – 2.11 damage, 5.24 , 9.44 – 9.49 defective packing, 4.32 – 4.36 , 6.64 – 6.71 definition, 1.6 delay, 5.12 – 5.17 , 7.1 – 7.10 delivery disposal on, 5.12 – 5.24 impossibility, 5.31 – 5.34 Page 436 disposal, right of, 5.2 – 5.24 delivery, on, 5.12 – 5.24 inherent vice, 6.25 – 6.27 , 6.103 loss, 5.12 – 5.17 , 7.12 – 7.15 nature of, 6.25 – 6.27 , 6.95 – 6.103 non-delivery, 7.11 – 7.29 packing, 4.26 , 4.32 – 4.36 sale by carrier, 5.43 – 5.47 unloading, 5.37 – 5.42 . See also Dangerous goods See also Loading and stowage Groupage shipments, 11.8 – 11.10 Guadalajara Convention compatibility with CMR Convention, 2.44 Hague-Visby Rules, 2.30 – 2.37 , 8.5 Handling special risks, 6.72 – 6.103 . See also Loading and stowage Hire, contract of not governed by the Convention, 1.3 – 1.5 Holland status of parties to the contract, 1.52 Impossibility, 5.25 – 5.47 carriage, 5.25 – 5.30 delivery, 5.31 – 5.34 expenses, 5.35 – 5.36 sale of goods by carrier, 5.43 – 5.47 unloading and storage, 5.37 – 5.42 Independent contractors, 3.9 Inherent vice, 6.25 – 6.27 , 6.103 burden of proof, 6.27 , 6.103 definition, 6.25 Insolvency successive carriers, 11.101 – 11.112 Insurance, 4.20 , 4.21 Lloyd’s Goods in Transit (C.M.R) policy document, Appendix D recovery of premiums, 9.35 Interest compensation, 9.60 – 9.63 International Chamber of Commerce (ICC), 0.1 International Institute for the Unification of Private Law (UNIDROIT), 0.1 International Road Transport Union (IRU), 0.1 Interpretation of the CMR Convention, 0.4 – 0.13 uniformity, 0.4 Judgments enforceable, 10.45 – 10.49 enforcement of, 10.43 – 10.44 , 11.124 – 11.126 enforcement of interim, 10.49 security for costs, 10.50 successive carriers, 11.124 Jurisdiction actions, 10.21 – 10.50 appropriate forum: agreed jurisdiction, 10.26 – 10.29 arbitral awards, 10.127 – 10.129 Article 31(1)(a) or (b), 10.30 – 10.36 claims, 10.21 – 10.50 claims between carriers, 11.119 – 11.123 duplication of actions, 10.37 – 10.42 enforceable judgments, 10.45 – 10.49 enforcement of judgments, 10.43 – 10.44 , 11.124 – 11.126 security for costs, 10.50 successive carrier, 10.34 – 10.36 , 11.67 , 11.119 – 11.123 Liability. See Apportionment of liability See Carrier’s liability See Limit of liability Limit of liability, 9.9 – 9.20 attempts to evade, 9.15 – 9.17 calculation, 9.18 – 9.20 successive carrier, 11.54 Limitation Act 1980, 7.29 , 10.114 , 10.125 Limitation of actions, 10.51 – 10.119 arbitration, 10.125 – 10.126 counterclaims, 10.119 , 11.74 period of limitation, 10.58 – 10.80 partial loss, damage or delay, 10.59 – 10.62 successive carrier, 10.69 , 11.54 total loss, 10.63 – 10.72 set-off, rights of, 10.119 , 11.74 successive carriers, 11.127 – 11.133 suspension of period, 10.101 – 10.108 by whom and against whom a claim may be made, 10.90 – 10.96 form of claim, 10.83 – 10.89 further claims, 10.112 national law, 10.113 – 10.118 onus of proof, 10.109 – 10.111 time for written claim, 10.97 – 10.100 written claim, 10.81 – 10.119 Livestock, carriage of, 6.105 – 6.106 Lloyd’s Goods in Transit (C.M.R) policy cash on delivery charges, 7.40 policy document, Appendix D Loading and stowage burden of proof, 6.85 – 6.103 check by carrier, 4.31 , 6.81 – 6.84 reservations in consignment note, 4.31 , 6.79 special risks, 6.72 – 6.103 Long-term contract scope of application of CMR Convention, 1.7 – 1.9 Page 437 Loss of goods, 5.12 – 5.17 , 7.12 – 7.15 compensation, 7.18 – 7.21 defences, 7.16 – 7.17 national law, 7.26 – 7.29 period of limitation of actions for partial loss, 10.59 – 10.62 reservations, 10.2 – 10.20 total, 10.20 , 10.63 – 10.72 Marking of packages, 6.104 Misconduct. See Wilful misconduct Multimodal transport. See Combined (multimodal) transport National law CMR Convention, 0.24 – 0.37 , 1.64 loss of goods, 7.26 – 7.29 suspension of period of limitation, 10.113 – 10.118 Nationality of parties scope of application of CMR Convention, 1.10 Nature of goods, 6.25 – 6.27 , 6.95 – 6.103 apportionment of liability, 6.107 – 6.110 Negligence carrier’s liability, 6.5 . See also Wilful misconduct New York Convention on the Recognition and Enforcement of Foreign Arbitral Awards, 10.127 , 10.129 Non-delivery of goods, 7.11 – 7.29 claimant’s right of election, 7.18 – 7.25 compensation, 7.18 – 7.21 defences, 7.16 – 7.17 national law, 7.26 – 7.29 treated as lost, 7.12 – 7.17 Packing dangerous goods, 8.8 – 8.9 defective, 4.32 – 4.36 , 6.64 – 6.71 repacking of goods by carrier, 6.71 reservations in consignment note, 4.26 , 4.35 , 6.69 – 6.70 , 6.79 Parties to the contract burden of proof, 1.44 – 1.45 Continental case law, 1.46 – 1.53 English case law, 1.16 – 1.43 status, 1.11 – 1.54 Performance of carriage, 5.1 – 5.47 Perishable goods, 6.55 , 6.100 apportionment of liability, 6.110 Privity of contract, 1.63 , 9.67 Quantity of goods check by carrier, 4.30 Refrigerated goods carrier’s liability, 6.27 , 6.96 , 6.100 – 6.101 check by carrier, 4.27 , 6.100 special risk, 6.96 Reservations claims, 10.2 – 10.20 damage, 10.2 – 10.20 delay, 7.9 – 7.10 , 10.2 – 10.20 facilities for checking, 10.16 – 10.17 form, 10.9 – 10.12 loss, 10.2 – 10.20 of carrier in consignment note, 4.24 – 4.31 , 6.79 , 6.104 successive carrier, 11.57 – 11.60 time for, 10.13 – 10.15 Residence of parties scope of application of CMR Convention, 1.10 Sale of goods by carrier, 5.43 – 5.47 Security for costs jurisdiction, 10.50 Seller, 1.12 Sender carrier’s liability for defective packing by, 6.78 – 6.80 customs and other formalities, 4.37 – 4.41 definition, 1.12 liability for defective packing, 4.32 – 4.36 right of disposal, 5.2 – 5.6 status as, 1.11 – 1.54 Servants carrier’s liability, 3.5 – 3.14 Set-off, rights of, 10.119 successive carrier, 11.74 Special risks, 6.60 – 6.106 defective or inadequate packing, 6.64 – 6.71 handling, loading, stowage or unloading of goods by the sender, 6.72 – 6.103 inadequate marks or numbers, 6.104 livestock, carriage of, 6.105 – 6.106 nature of goods, 6.95 – 6.103 open unsheeted vehicles, 6.61 – 6.63 Storage, 5.37 – 5.42 , 6.8 Stowage. See Loading and stowage Strikes, 6.51 Successive carriage, 11.1 – 11.135 alternative arrangements between carriers, 11.134 – 11.135 carrier responsible for the loss, damage or delay, 11.66 concurrent actions and jurisdiction, 11.67 – 11.69 Page 438 consignment note, 11.21 – 11.48 contribution between carriers, 11.75 – 11.100 apportionment, 11.87 – 11.92 , 11.105 – 11.112 calculation, 11.105 – 11.112 shared responsibility, 11.93 – 11.95 unascertained responsibility, 11.96 – 11.100 documentation, 11.55 – 11.61 effect of Article 34, 11.53 – 11.54 effect of judgment against claimant carrier, 11.114 – 11.118 groupage shipments, 11.8 – 11.10 insolvency of a carrier, 11.101 – 11.112 jurisdiction, 10.34 – 10.36 , 11.67 , 11.119 – 11.123 last carrier, 11.63 – 11.65 liability of carriers, 3.11 limitation of actions, 11.127 – 11.133 nature and scope of liability, 11.70 – 11.73 period of limitation for total loss, 10.69 procedural aspects of claims between carriers, 11.113 – 11.133 rights of action against carriers, 11.62 – 11.74 Successive carriage— cont . single contract, 11.5 – 11.7 trailer operators, 11.49 – 11.52 The Ulster-Swift case, 11.11 – 11.20 , 11.80 Theft, 6.43 – 6.51 Third parties carrier’s liability, 3.1 – 3.14 agents and servants, 3.5 nature of liability, 3.12 other persons, 3.6 – 3.11 scope of employment, 3.13 – 3.14 Time limit claims, 10.58 – 10.80 partial loss, damage or delay, 10.59 – 10.62 successive carrier, 11.54 , 11.127 – 11.133 suspension of period of limitation, 10.81 – 10.119 total loss, 10.63 – 10.72 wilful misconduct, 10.58 delivery, 7.2 – 7.6 reservations, 10.13 – 10.15 . See also Limitation of actions Traffic conditions, 6.40 – 6.41 Trailer operators, 11.49 – 11.52 Umbrella contract consignment note, 4.3 scope of application of CMR Convention, 1.7 – 1.9 , 4.3 Unfair Contract Terms Act 1977, 1.62 United Nations Convention on International Multimodal Transport of Goods, 0.3 , 2.1 Unloading cessation of carrier’s liability, 6.10 combined transport, 2.11 a– 2.16 impossibility, 5.37 – 5.42 special risks, 6.72 – 6.103 Vehicle burst tyre, 6.36 – 6.39 condition of, 6.36 – 6.39 defective condition, 6.53 – 6.59 definition, 1.56 , 2.7 open unsheeted, 6.61 – 6.63 Warehousing, 5.37 – 5.42 , 6.8 Warsaw Convention, 2.30 Weight of goods check by carrier, 4.30 Wilful misconduct, 9.72 – 9.106 equivalent default, 9.105 or equivalent default, 9.78 – 9.104 period of limitation, 10.58 remoteness of damage, 9.106 successive carrier, 11.54 Written notice delay, 7.9 – 7.10 reservations, 10.11 , 10.15

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