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Index

General Average


Page 311

Index

Index

  • Cables, cutting away, 1.12
  • Cargo
    • another ship, loading into another, 2.8, 2.11
    • causation and remoteness, 3.4
    • condition of cargo, fault of claimant and, 6.126.14
    • contribution, 2.4
    • contributory value, place of assessment of, 6.126.14
    • damage whilst discharging, 3.13
    • deck, 2.31
    • discharge of, 2.21, 7.32
    • dry-docking with, 3.66
    • exclusion of liability, 4.17, 4.20, 4.36
    • expenses, liability for, 7.32
    • forwarding, 3.66
    • freight, 2.42.5
    • fuel, used as, 2.52
    • inherent vice, 4.12
    • Institute Cargo Clauses, 7.4, 7.13, 7.36, 7.49
    • insurance contracts, 7.4, 7.7, 7.327.35
    • lightered
    • lighters, putting cargo onto, 1.12
    • non-separation agreements, 7.317.34
    • part of
    • personal effects, 2.4
    • port of refuge expenses, 2.242.25, 3.42, 3.52
    • stranding, 3.42
    • subject-matter, 2.4
    • undeclared or wrongfully declared, 4.36
    • York-Antwerp Rules 2004, 2.4
    • see also Cargo, value of
  • Cargo, value of, 6.496.58
  • Cash deposits, 5.195.23, 5.30
  • Causation and remoteness, 3.23.5
    • average adjusters, costs of employing, 3.3
    • direct consequence of general average act, 3.2
    • expenses, 3.23.3
    • fault, 4.10
    • freight, loss of, 3.3
    • incidental losses, 3.5
    • jettison, loss of freight and, 3.3
    • lightered cargo, loss of, 3.4
    • Marine Insurance Act 1906, 3.2
    • repairs, 3.4
  • Charges see Expenses and charges
  • Charterparties
    • authority to act, 2.46
    • cesser of liability, 4.30
    • contract, 5.29
    • contribution, 5.4
    • freight, 2.5, 7.9
    • governing law and practice, 6.34
    • hire, 7.9
    • insurance contracts, 7.9
    • time charterparties, hire and, 7.9
    • voyage charterparties, freight and, 7.9
  • Civil Jurisdiction and Judgments Act 1982, 6.26
  • Civil Procedure Rules, 6.26
  • Claims procedure, 1.34
  • CMI Guidelines Relating to General Average, 1.321.33
  • Commercial enterprises, benefiting common, 2.25
  • Commission, 6.56
  • Common adventure
    • common law, 1.21
    • common peril, disconnection of vessel and, 2.19
    • common safety and common benefit to the, 1.211.22
    • Continental legal system, 1.21
    • duration of a, 2.212.22
    • existence of a, 2.162.19
    • governing rules, 1.211.22
    • intention, average act and, 2.642.68
    • limitation of actions, 5.42
    • partial loss, 1.101.11
    • place of safety, property brought to a, 1.211.22
    • place of termination, 6.42
    • safe prosecution of the adventure, 1.21, 2.12
    • single interest, division of, 2.17
    • single vessel, interests not at risk on a, 2.18
    • success of act, 2.87
    • two interests, exposure of, 2.17
    • York-Antwerp Rules, 1.22, 2.19
    • see also Danger to a common adventure
  • Compensation
    • reasonableness, 2.702.72
    • salvage, lightening and the environment, 3.36
    • special compensation, 3.36
    • success of act, 2.78
    • see also Damages
  • Conditions of general average, 2.12.88
    • authority to act, 2.362.48
    • burden of proof, 2.12.2
    • danger
    • general average loss must be direct consequence of general average act, 2.93
    • intentionally incurred for the benefit of the common adventure, average act must be, 2.642.68
    • maritime adventure in the nature of a voyage, 2.82.11
    • reasonable, action taken must be, 2.702.73
    • sacrifice or expenditure
    • subject-matter, 2.32.6
    • success of act, 2.742.92
  • Containers, value of, 6.42, 6.62
  • Contract, 5.285.30
    • adjustment, 6.65
    • affreightment, contracts of, 7.20
    • authority to act, 2.46
    • average bonds, 5.285.30
    • construction, 5.29
    • contribution, 5.3
    • exceptions to liability, 4.174.21, 4.294.36
    • fault, 4.11
    • freedom of contract, 1.25
    • general average acts, effect of, 5.285.29
    • governing law and practice, 6.296.36
    • implied contract theory, 1.171.19
    • limitation of actions, 5.35
    • Lloyd’s average bonds, 5.28
    • privity of contract, 1.24

    • Page 314

      qualifying losses, 3.14
    • reasonableness, 3.14
    • Rome Convention 1980, 6.36
    • sacrifice or expenditure of an extraordinary nature, 2.49
    • salvage, lightening and the environment, 3.20
    • statutory rules overridden by, 2.46
    • variation, 1.241.25
    • York-Antwerp Rules, 5.29
    • see also Insurance contracts
  • Contribution
  • Contributory value, 6.38, 6.406.41
  • Crew
    • authority to act, 2.38
    • general average acts, by, 2.38, 2.41
    • see also Masters; Wages and maintenance
  • Currency, 6.67
  • Custom, 3.65, 4.1, 6.30
  • Damage during voyage, 6.3
  • Damages, 5.34, 6.65; see also Compensation
  • Danger see Danger, existence of real; Danger to a common adventure
  • Danger, existence of real
    • common adventure, safe prosecution of the, 2.12
    • conditions of general average, 2.122.15
    • immediate danger, 2.13, 2.15
    • masters
      • ordinary firmness and sound judgment of, 2.12
      • reasonable and bona fide belief of, 2.15
    • potential danger, 2.14
    • precautions, taking, 2.13
    • York-Antwerp Rules, 2.132.15
  • Danger to a common adventure, 2.162.35
    • benefit, loss exceeding, 2.33
    • conditions of general average, 2.162.35
    • contribution necessary, no legally enforceable right to, 2.272.28
    • deck cargo, 2.31
    • duration of the common adventure, 2.212.22
    • existence of a common adventure, 2.162.19
    • expenses, 2.32
    • human lives, preservation of, 2.28
    • intended beneficiaries, 2.34
    • interests
      • danger not threatening all, 2.29
      • different, effect of the danger on, 2.302.32, 2.35
      • same ownership, in, 2.272.28
    • jettison, 2.31
    • joint ownership, 2.272.28
    • necessary to avert or minimise the threat or direct consequence of earlier action, 2.162.35
    • ownership, interests in same, 2.272.28
    • particular average losses, 2.31
    • particular charges, 2.31
    • port of refuge expenses, 2.232.26
    • reduction in award, 2.33

    • Page 315

      repairs, 2.32
    • restitution, 2.34
    • safety of common adventure, action taken for the, 2.16
    • single interests, danger to, 2.28, 2.34
    • total loss, 2.30
    • York-Antwerp Rules, 2.32
  • Dangerous goods, 4.22
  • Deck cargo, 2.31, 4.1
  • Definition of general average, 1.11.5
    • average, meaning of, 1.4
    • average loss, 1.05
    • contributors, liability of, 1.4
    • extraordinary expenditures, 1.4
    • extraordinary sacrifices 1.4
    • general average losses, types of, 1.4
    • Justinian’s Digest, 1.1
    • Marine Insurance Act 1906 s.6, 1.2
    • Rhodian law, 1.1
    • York-Antwerp Rules, 1.3, 1.5
  • Delegation, 2.392.43
  • Delivery, withholding, 5.14
  • Demurrage, 3.7
  • Deposits, 5.195.23, 5.30, App 6
  • Detention, paying money to secure release from, 1.12
  • Deviation, 4.3
  • Diminution in value, 2.86, 5.95.11
  • Direct consequence of general average act, 2.222.23, 2.93, 3.2
  • Disbursements
  • Dry-docking with cargo, 3.66
  • Duration of the common adventure, 2.212.22
  • Early termination of voyage, 3.63, 6.96.10
  • Economic loss, 5.12, 5.34
  • Effects of a general average act, 5.15.48
  • Environment, 3.16, 7.377.38; see also Salvage and the environment
  • Examples of general average, 1.121.13
  • Exceptions to liability to contribute contractual qualification of liability to general average, 4.294.36
  • Excess liabilities, 7.17, App 13
  • Exchange rate losses, 6.64
  • Exclusion of liability, 4.164.26
  • Exemption clauses
    • cargo, undeclared or wrongfully declared, 4.36
    • cesser of liability under charterparties, 4.30
    • construction, 4.30
    • fire, extinguishments of, 4.32
    • insurance contracts, 7.4
    • machinery and boilers during refloating, damage to, 4.32
    • salvage, environmental damage and, 4.34
    • smoke damage, 4.32
    • York-Antwerp Rules, 4.314.36

  • Page 316

    Expenditure see Extraordinary expenditure; Sacrifice or expenditure
  • Expenses and charges
  • Extraordinary expenditure, 2.492.58
  • Extraordinary sacrifices, 2.492.58
    • definition of general average, 1.4
    • reasonableness, 2.70
    • success of act, 2.78
    • termination of voyage value, 2.78
  • General average losses
    • direct consequence of general average act, as, 2.93
    • salvage, expenses in the nature of, 1.8
    • types of, 1.4
  • Governing law and practice
  • Governing rules of general average, 1.211.31
    • common adventure, common safety and common benefit to, 1.211.22
    • necessity, 1.23
    • salvage, necessity and, 1.23
    • unjust enrichment, restitution by, 1.23
    • variation by contract, 1.241.25
    • York-Antwerp Rules, 1.261.31
  • Guarantees, 5.14, 5.175.18, 5.305.31
  • Jason clause, 4.234.26
  • Jettison, 1.121.13
  • Joint ownership, danger and, 2.272.28
  • Joint tortfeasors, 4.13
  • Jurisdiction
    • adjustment, 6.266.29
    • admiralty jurisdiction, 1.23, 2.6, 6.29, App 2
    • Brussels Regulation, 6.266.27
    • Civil Jurisdiction and Judgments Act 1982, 6.26
    • Civil Procedure Rules, 6.26
    • human lives, preservation of, 2.6
    • salvage, 1.23
    • Supreme Court Act 1981, text of, App 2
  • Justification of the general average doctrine, 1.141.20
  • Justinian’s Digest, 1.1
  • Land, goods on, 2.82.9
  • Letters of undertaking, 5.18
  • Liens, 5.125.15, 5.30
  • Lightening the ship
    • causation and remoteness, 3.4
    • environment, 3.183.28
    • expenses of, 3.38
    • hire, 3.12
    • lighters, putting the cargo into, 1.12
    • salvage, 3.183.28
    • value of lightered cargo, 2.90
  • Limitation of actions, 5.355.42
    • average adjusters, appointment of, 5.365.37
    • average bonds, 5.355.42
    • contract, 5.35
    • extension of, 5.42
    • fault, 4.14
    • general average acts, effect of, 5.355.42
    • general average statement, publication of, 5.35
    • Hague Rules, 4.14
    • specific time bars, 5.42
    • success of act, 2.82
    • termination of common maritime adventure, 5.43
    • York-Antwerp Rules, 5.365.42
  • Limitation of liability
    • fault, 4.15
    • general average acts, effect of, 5.43
    • Limitation of Liability Convention 1976, 5.43
  • Lloyd’s
    • general average deposit receipt, copy of, App 6
    • guarantees, App 5
    • Standard Form of Salvage Agreement, 3.20
    • see also Lloyd’s Average Bond
  • Lloyd’s Average Bond
  • Low-value items omitted from adjustment, 4.28
  • Machinery and boilers, damage to, 2.57, 3.11, 4.32
  • Mails and personal effects, 4.28
  • Maintenance see Wages and maintenance
  • Marine and maritime, definition of, 2.9
  • Marine Insurance Act ((1906)
    • causation and remoteness, 3.2
    • definition of general average, 1.2
    • general average expenditure, 7.28
    • general average sacrifice, 7.27
    • indemnity, measure of, 7.39
    • insurers’ liability, 7.11, 7.14, 7.18
    • marine insurance contracts, 2.9
    • non-separation agreements, 7.35
    • partial loss, 1.61.7, 1.91.10
    • particular charges, 1.9
    • ships, value of, 6.426.45
    • text, App 1
  • Masters
    • agents for all parties, as, 2.37
    • authority to act, 2.372.43, 2.452.48
    • danger, existence of real, 2.12, 2.15
    • delegation, by, 2.392.43
    • exercisable, whether the authority, 2.45, 2.48
    • inability to act, 2.38
    • liens, 5.12
    • ordinary firmness and sound judgment, 2.12
    • overriding, 2.36
    • public policy, 2.46
    • ratification of acts by, 2.422.43
    • reasonableness, 2.15, 2.70
    • see also Wages and maintenance
  • Masts, cutting away, 1.12
  • Mitigation of loss, 3.77
  • P&I Clubs, 7.52
  • Partial losses, 1.061.11
    • common adventure, 1.101.11
    • contributory values, 1.11
    • general average losses, types of, 1.8
    • Marine Insurance Act 1906, 1.61.7, 1.91.10
    • marine insurance contracts, 1.6, 1.11
    • particular average loss, 1.7
    • particular charges, 1.9
    • salvage charges, 1.7, 1.10
    • services in the nature of salvage, 1.10
    • sue and labour charges, 1.11
    • York-Antwerp Rules, 1.11
  • Particular average
    • contributory value, 6.18, 7.44
    • danger to a common adventure, 2.31
    • definition of, 1.4
    • insurance contracts, 7.44
    • partial loss, 1.7
    • port of refuge expenses, 3.42
    • single interests, 2.17
    • success of act, 2.92
  • Particular charges
    • assured’s own interests, 1.9
    • danger to a common adventure, 2.31
    • indemnities, 1.9
    • Marine Insurance Act 1906, 1.9
    • meaning, 1.9
    • partial loss, 1.9
    • salvage, expenses in the nature of, 1.9
    • sue and labour clause, 1.9
  • Payee of general average contribution, 5.65.7
  • Personal effects, 2.4
  • Pilotage charges, 2.242.25
  • Piracy, 3.673.68
  • Place of assessment of contributory values
  • Place of safety
    • duration of common adventure, 2.22
    • port of refuge expenses, 2.23, 3.43
    • success of act, 2.82
  • Port, voyages within the confines of a, 2.11
  • Port charges, 3.543.60
  • Port of refuge expenses, 2.232.26
    • abandonment or condemnation of voyage, 3.63
    • commercial enterprises, benefiting common, 2.25
    • common law, 2.26, 3.403.44
    • continuous operation, as part of, 3.42
    • contributory value, place of assessment of, 6.10
    • current practice, 3.443.63
    • danger to a common adventure, 2.232.26
    • direct consequence of general average act, 2.23
    • early termination of voyage, 3.63

    • Page 321

      entry, removal and departure, 3.47
    • fuel and stores, 3.53
    • handling or discharging, 3.52
    • meaning, 3.40
    • particular average loss, 3.42
    • perils of the sea, 3.43
    • pilotage charges, 2.242.25
    • place of safety, property brought to a, 2.23, 3.43
    • port charges, 3.543.60
    • qualifying losses, 3.403.63
    • recommencing the voyage, expenses of, 3.43
    • repairs, 2.242.26
    • storage, reloading and stowage expenses, 3.62
    • stranded vessels, unloading cargo from, 3.42
    • termination of voyage value, 2.76
    • unloading and reloading expenses, 2.242.25
    • voyage, damage outside the, 3.61
    • wages and maintenance of master and crew, 3.433.46, 3.483.51
    • warehouse charges, 2.242.25
    • York-Antwerp Rules, 2.26, 3.443.50
  • Precautions, 2.13, 2.53
  • Preservation of ship, 2.892.90
  • Privity of contract, 1.24
  • Propellers, repairs to, 1.12
  • Proper law, identification of, 6.35
  • Proper person, acts sanctioned by the, 2.362.37
  • Protection and Indemnity Association cover, 7.52
  • Railway, goods transferred to a, 2.8
  • Ransom, 2.71, 3.673.68
  • Ratification of acts, 2.422.43
  • Real danger see Danger, existence of real
  • Reasonableness, 2.702.73
    • Bigham Clause, 2.70
    • compensation for unreasonable loss, 2.702.72
    • conditions of general average, 2.702.73
    • contract, 3.14
    • extraordinary sacrifice and expenditure, 2.70
    • fuel, supply of, 2.502.52
    • liens, 5.14
    • masters, 2.70
    • mitigation, 3.77
    • place of refuge, selecting a, 2.70
    • Rule Paramount in York-Antwerp Rules, 2.72
    • substituted expenses, 3.64
    • UK Standard Conditions for Towage, 2.70
    • York-Antwerp Rules, 1.30
  • Recommencement of voyage, expenses of, 2.242.26
  • Refloating, damage during, 4.32
  • Refuge see Port of refuge expenses
  • Remoteness see Causation and remoteness
  • Repairs
  • Respondentia bonds, 6.63
  • Restitution
    • danger to a common adventure, 2.34
    • governing rules, 1.23
    • human lives, preservation of, 2.6
    • salvage, 2.34
    • termination of voyage value, 2.77
    • unjust enrichment, 1.19, 1.23
  • Rhodian law, 1.1, 5.12
  • Rule Paramount, 1.30, 2.72, 3.77
  • Sacrifice or expenditure
  • Sacrificed property, 3.30
  • Safety of common adventure, 1.211.22, 2.16
  • Salvage
    • absorption clauses, 7.207.21
    • Admiralty law and jurisdiction, 1.23
    • charges, 1.7, 1.91.10, 7.4, 7.197.20
    • complex operations, 2.21
    • duration of the common adventure, 2.21
    • engaging salvage services, 1.12
    • expenses in the nature of, 1.8
    • extraordinary expenditure, 2.09
    • governing rules, 1.23
    • human lives, preservation of, 2.6
    • insurance contracts, 7.4
    • Marine Insurance Act 1906, 1.7, 1.10
    • necessity, 1.23
    • partial loss, 1.7, 1.10
    • particular charges, 1.9
    • restitution, 2.34
    • self-interest, 2.35
    • services, 1.10, 1.12
    • termination of voyage value, 2.77
    • Salvage: York-Antwerp Rules, 3.17
    • see also Salvage and the environment; Salvage liability
  • Salvage and the environment, 3.183.28
  • Salvage liability, 3.21, 3.253.34
  • Scuttling, 1.12
  • Seaworthiness
  • Security
    • cash deposits, 5.195.23, 5.30
    • general average acts, effect of, 5.125.26
    • see also Average bonds; Guarantees; Liens
  • Settlement of claims abroad, App 5
  • Ships, value of, 6.446.48
    • bunkers, 6.42
    • common law, 6.42, 6.48
    • containers, 6.42
    • contributory value, 6.42
    • indemnities, 6.45
    • Marine Insurance Act 1906, 6.426.45
    • place of termination of common adventure, 6.42
    • repairs, cost of, 6.466.48
    • sale of ships, 6.42
    • temporary repairs, 6.47
    • total loss, 6.45
    • wireless and navigational equipment, 6.42
    • York-Antwerp Rules, 6.456.48
  • Single interests
  • Single vessel, interests not at risk on a, 2.18
  • slavery, 2.7
  • Small losses, recovery of, 7.207.21
  • Smoke damage, 4.32
  • Spare parts, air freighting, 3.66
  • Specific time-bar, 5.42
  • Storage, reloading and stowage expenses, 3.50
  • Stores, 1.12, 3.53
  • Stranding, 1.6, 1.12, 2.89, 3.42
  • Subject-matter, 2.32.6
    • cargo, 2.4
    • conditions of general average, 2.32.6
    • destination, brought safely to, 2.822.86
    • freight, 2.5
    • human lives, 2.6
    • insurers’ liability, 7.107.14

  • Page 323

    Subrogation, 7.21, 7.23, 7.25
  • Subsequent expenses, 5.16
  • Substitute vessels, use of, 6.11
  • Substituted expenses
    • Association of Average Adjusters, 3.66
    • common law, 3.643.65
    • custom, 3.65
    • drydocking with cargo on board, 3.66
    • forwarding cargo, 3.66
    • fuel, additional, 3.64
    • losses, 3.70
    • marine insurance, avoidance or minimisation of insured loss and, 3.64
    • reasonableness, 3.64
    • spare parts, air freighting of, 3.66
    • temporary repairs, 3.64, 3.66, 3.71, 3.733.76
    • towage services, 3.66
    • York-Antwerp Rules, 3.653.70
  • Success of act, 2.742.92
    • common adventure, acts for the purpose of the, 2.87
    • compensation, 2.78
    • conditions of general average, 2.632.92
    • destination, SUB:ject-matter brought safely to the, 2.822.86
    • excluding the requirement of success, 2.91
    • expenditure, 2.792.81
    • extinguishment of requirement, 2.91
    • extraordinary sacrifice, 2.78
    • failure, 2.92
    • general average act, success not resulting from, 2.872.88
    • jettison, 2.88
    • liens, 2.812.82, 2.85
    • limitation period, 2.82
    • particular average, 2.92
    • period of liability, 2.822.86
    • place of safety, arrival at a, 2.82
    • preservation of ship, 2.892.90
    • sacrifice, 2.78, 2.81
    • terminal value, 2.752.78, 2.812.88
    • unjust enrichment, 2.87
    • York-Antwerp Rules, 2.81, 2.86
  • Sue and labour, 1.9, 1.11, 7.4
  • Superior orders, loss as result of, 2.44
  • Supreme Court Act 1981, text of, App 2
  • UK Standard Conditions for Towage, 2.70
  • Under-insurance, 7.167.17, 7.31, 7.44
  • Uniformity, 1.251.27
  • Unjust enrichment
  • Unseaworthiness see Seaworthiness
  • Wages and maintenance
  • Warehouses, 2.8, 2.11, 2.242.25
  • Wireless and navigational equipment, value of, 6.42, 6.62
  • Wreck, part of superstructure in state of, 2.60

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