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Index

Charterparties: Law, Practice and Emerging Legal Issues

Page 371 Index Index advance freight 145 – 7 allocation of commercial risk: maritime security, and 54 – 8 application of Hague-Visby Rules to bills of lading and clause paramount 253 – 66 ; ‘bill of lading or any similar document of title’ 254 – 6 ; cargoes excluded 256 – 7 ; construction of clause paramount 258 – 66 ; period of coverage 257 – 8 ; types of voyage 256 arbitration: SYNACOMEX 170 – 1 arbitrators: interpretation of voyage charterparties by 169 – 78 ASBATANKVOY: demurrage under 185 – 8 ; running of laytime under 180 – 5 ASDEM spreadsheet 209 bareboat charters: penalties 296 – 8 bills of lading: application of Hague Rules to 252 ; application of Hague-Visby Rules 253 – 66 ; international conventions applying to 250 – 1 BIMCO bunkering clause 64 BIMCO non lien clause for time charterparties 365 – 8 BIMCO suite of bunkering clauses 369 – 72 blending: meaning 158 blending and commingling cargoes 157 – 67 ; carriage documentary difficulties 164 – 6 ; carrier entitled to limit liability, whether 163 – 4 ; liability insurance 166 – 7 ; potential carriers liability for physical problems 159 – 64 breach of charter, damages for: cancellation clauses, and 98 – 102 ; period for which quantified 95 – 8 ; place of ‘available market’ 92 – 3 breakdown of machinery or equipment 185 – 8 bunkers 59 – 65 ; fraud, and 64 – 5 ; supply of 59 bunkers and time charters 60 – 4 ; BIMCO bunkering clause 64 ; bunker quality 63 – 4 ; example of clause 61 ; NYPE 1946 60 – 1 ; property in bunkers 62 – 3 ; quantity 61 – 2 cancellation clauses: damages for breach of charter, and 98 – 102 cargo liabilities: ‘and responsibility’ 105 – 7 ; causation 113 – 16 ; Inter-Club Agreement see Inter-Club Agreement; Inter-Club Agreement, under 103 – 31 ; NYPE, under 103 – 31 ; supervision and unseaworthiness 107 – 8 ; unseaworthiness arising from bad stowage 109 – 12 Cargo Retention Clauses 148 – 9 causation: cargo liabilities, and 113 – 16 Charterer’s obligations to nominate safe place or wharf reachable on vessel’s arrival 188 – 94 ; ‘always accessible’ 192 ; breach of ‘reachable on arrival’ clause and laytime exceptions 192 – 4 ; delay prior to start of laytime 188 – 92 clauses paramount 249 – 83 ; application of Hague Rules to 252 ; application of Hague-Visby Rules 253 – 66 ; charterparties, and 266 – 82 ; construction 258 – 66 ; ‘corresponding legislation’ 265 – 6 ; exceptions 276 – 9 ; impact of rules 272 – 82 ; protective clauses 269 ; purpose 249 ; rule incorporated into charterparty, whether 267 – 8 ; seaworthiness obligation 272 – 6 ; Page 372 time bar 279 – 82 ; which set of rules applying to charterparty 268 – 72 commingling: meaning 158 damages: off-hire, and 35 damages for reputations of voyage charters see The MTM Hong Kong damages for underlap in time charters 91 – 102 delay and demurrage in tanker charters 179 – 207 demurrage: ASBATANKVOY, under 185 – 8 ; claims for damages for detention, and 152 – 7 ; time bars 200 – 6 demurrage; consecutive voyage charter 200 ; date from which interest starts to run 206 ; increase in claim after expiry of time limit 204 – 6 ; presentation 204 ; supporting documents 200 – 4 detention damages 152 – 7 ; advantageous to owners 154 – 5 ; ‘always accessible’ 156 – 7 ; demurrage more advantageous 153 – 4 ; ‘reachable on arrival’ 155 – 6 EEMS Solar 241 – 4 ; background 241 – 2 ; decision 243 ; facts 242 – 3 ; responsibility for loading and stowage 244 force majeure : contracts of affreightment 301 course of laytime, and 177 – 8 ; definition 173 – 4 force majeure clauses foul weather 47 – 58 fraud: bunkers, and 64 – 5 Hague-Visby Rules, application to bills of lading and clause paramount 253 – 66 ; ‘bill of lading or any similar document of title’ 254 – 6 ; cargoes excluded 256 – 7 ; construction of clause paramount 258 – 66 ; period of coverage 257 – 8 ; types of voyage 256 hire 3 – 32 ; importance of 4 – 5 ; nature of 4 – 5 ; obligation to pay 3 – 4 ; ‘temporary’ remedies for non-payment 6 – 7 ; treating obligation as condition of charterparty 17 – 30 hull fouling 84 – 8 Inter-Club Agreement (ICA); aim 116 ; appointment issue 177 – 8 , 131 ; causation issue 127 – 8 ; conditions precedent for application 116 – 17 ; revision 1996 117 – 19 ; revision 2011 119 – 20 ; threshold issue: clause 4 124 – 7 ICA 1996 (as amended 2011); apportionment 135 – 6 ; governing law 136 ; scope of application 133 – 4 ; security 136 ; text 133 – 6 ; time bar 134 – 5 interpretation; voyage charters, of; by arbitrators 169 – 78 ; berthing and commencement of laytime 176 – 7 ; cargo disputes 174 – 6 ; cargo wetting and unseaworthiness 174 – 5 ; course of laytime and weather 178 ; disputes over laytime and demurrage 176 – 8 ; force majeure 173 – 4 ; force majeure and course of laytime 177 – 8 ; quantity and short delivery 176 ; rules for interpretation 171 – 4 ; rules under French Civil Code 171 – 2 ; standard terms and negotiation 172 – 3 ; stowage of cargo 175 loading, stowage and discharging 239 – 48 ; background 239 – 41 ; EEMS Solar see EEMS Solar ; responsibility for 239 – 48 ; risk, and 239 – 48 ; the Sea Miror see the Sea Miror maritime security; allocation of commercial risk, and 54 – 8 ; special clauses within charter 55 – 8 ; unsafe ports 54 – 5 navigation and management risk 49 – 54 non-payment of hire; owner’s remedies for 3 – 32 NYPE 1946 103 – 7 NYPE 1993 305 – 17 NYPE 2015 319 – 51 off-hire clauses 33 – 46 ; basic principles 34 – 6 ; damages, and 35 ; general principles 34 – 5 ; ‘Net Loss of Time’ clauses 35 – 6 ; payment 34 ; ‘Period’ clauses 35 ; recent developments 33 – 46 ; The Athena see The Athena ; The Global Santosh see The Global Santosh ; types 35 – 6 Page 373 payment of freight 144 – 9 ; advance freight 145 – 7 ; Cargo Retention (or ROB) Clauses 148 – 9 ; rules against set-off 147 ; voyage charter 144 – 9 ; when earned 145 ; retreat from Dunlop 287 – 8 ; time charters 293 – 6 ; traditional law 285 – 7 ; voyage charters 291 – 3 penalties 285 – 98 ; bareboat charters 296 – 8 ; charterparties, and 285 – 98 ; modern law 285 – 98 ; modern restatement of rule 288 – 91 piracy 47 – 58 place of available market: damages for breach of charter 92 – 3 pumping warranties 194 – 9 ; BPVOY5 195 ; BPVOY479 197 ; EXXONMOBILVOY 2012 196 ; SHELLVOY5 197 – 8 ; SHELLVOY6 196 ; two-part 197 ‘reachable on arrival’ 155 – 6 reallocation of risk 81 – 8 ; absence of interpellation clause 83 – 4 ; hull fouling 84 – 8 ; off-hire clause 81 – 3 regulating speed of vessel 149 – 51 renunciation 9 – 10 ; application of principles to non-payment of hire 10 – 12 ; foreshadowed level of future non or mis performance 14 ; intended benefit 13 – 14 ; prospective non- or mis-performance going to root of contract 14 – 15 ; three-stage analysis for testing 12 – 15 reputation 7 – 9 ; application of principles to non-payment of hire 10 – 12 right to re-nominate ports or berths: voyage charter 140 – 4 risk division 49 – 54 ROB Clauses 148 – 9 running of laytime under ASBATANKVOY 180 – 5 ; giving of NOR 181 – 2 ; laytime exceptions 182 – 5 set-off, rule against 147 standard charterparty contracts 67 – 89 ; enhancing standardisation and legal certainty through 67 – 89 ; NYPE 2015 67 – 89 ; reallocation of risk 81 – 8 ; reclassifying and redrawing parties’ obligations 68 – 81 SYNACOMEX charter 169 – 78 ; arbitration 170 – 1 ; light and gears 169 – 70 ; loading and discharging 170 ; responsibilities and immunities 170 SYNACOMEX 90 353 – 8 SYNACOMEX 2000 359 – 64 temporary remedies for non-payment of hire 6 – 7 ; attaching Charterer’s receivables 7 ; suspending charter service 7 termination for reputation/renunciation 7 – 17 terrorism 47 – 58 time charter: allocation of commercial risk, and 48 – 54 ; damages for underlap 91 – 102 ; meaning 47 – 8 ; penalties 293 – 6 trading or employment risk 49 – 54 unseaworthiness: cargo liabilities, and 107 – 12 voyage charters: blending and commingling cargoes 157 – 67 see also blending and commingling cargoes; claims for damages for detention see claims or damages for detention; delaying commencement of loading 151 – 2 ; flexibility 139 – 67 ; nature of 139 ; parties’ see also obligations 179; payment of freight 144 – 9 see also payment of freight; penalties 291 – 3 ; regulating speed of vessel 149 – 51 ; right to re-nominate ports or berths 140 – 4 ; rigidity 139 Page 374

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