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Index

Marine Pollution Control

Page 335 Index Index accidental spillage: meaning 32 air pollution 179 – 204 ; bioenergy/ biofuels 203 ; contribution of shipping to 181 – 3 ; EU emission trading scheme 191 – 2 ; EU level regulatory framework 188 – 92 ; glossary 182 – 3 ; IAPPC 193 ; IEEC 193 – 4 ; IMO’s fuel consumption data 202 ; inspections 192 – 3 ; key management issues streaming from EU regime 199 – 200 ; liquefied natural gas 202 ; market–based approaches 201 ; MARPOL 73/78 Annex VI 80 – 1 see also MARPOL Annex VI; Monitoring, Reporting and Verification Regulation 190 – 1 , 199 – 200 ; nature of problem 180 ; post state control 200 – 1 ; recent European Union developments 202 ; regulatory and non–regulatory approaches 184 ; regulatory framework 183 – 92 ; SEEMP 194 – 9 ; surveys 192 – 3 ; who is working on agenda 184 Amoco Cadiz 35 – 6 Antarctic, protection of: limitation of liability, and 332 – 3 anti–fouling systems 206 – 32 ; AFS convention 217 – 18 ; best management practices 218 – 20 ; certification 218 ; key terms/definitions 207 ; nature of problem 216 – 20 ; surveys 218 AQUAPOL 239 Arctic: EU policy for 25 atmospheric pollution: offshore oil and gas industry 67 ballast water 206 – 32 ; BWM convention 213 ; documentation 213 – 5 ; international regulations 209 – 13 ; interphase with marine environment 208 ; key management issues 213 – 5 ; key terms/definitions 207 ; MEPC. 279 (70) 210 – 3 ; post state control 215 – 6 ; Baltic Sea: sewage 116 – 7 Basel Convention: wastes 138 – 40 best industry practices: marine pollution from oil, and 49 – 50 bio energy 203 biofuels 203 Bunker Pollution Convention 2001 326 – 7 cargo record book 174 cargo residues: definition 131 carriage of chemicals by sea 156 – 78 ; European Union Regulation 1272/2008 164 – 5 ; GESAMP hazard profiles 163 – 4 ; glossary 160 – 1 ; MARPOL Annex II see MARPOL Annex II; MARPOLAnnex III 171 – 2 see also MARPOL Annex III; selected systems of classification 161 – 5 ; Standard European Behaviour Classification 163 ; UN GHS 161 – 2 challenges for preparedness and response 247 – 8 chemicals: nature of 156 ; offshore oil and gas industry, and 66 civil liability 305 – 6 classification societies 20 – 1 ; history of 20 ; nature of 20 CLC 315 – 25 CLEE 1977 85 Clean Water Act: civil liability 96 – 8 ; financial responsibility 98 – 9 ; USA 95 – 9 climate change: contribution of shipping to 181 – 3 ; who is working on agenda 184 coastal states: role 11 – 19 ; UNCLOS III, and 13 – 19 compensation 296 – 7 coordinated framework 234 – 59 ; glossary 239 – 41 ; UNCLOS III 235 – 7 criminal law 296 Page 336 criminal liability 306 – 10 criminalisation of seafarers 286 – 90 customary international law: offshore oil and gas industry 69 damages loss and claims 297 – 305 ; damage–related costs 298 ; involvement of IOPC funds 198 – 300 ; P&I clubs 300 – 1 ; salvors, involvement of 301 – 2 dangerous goods: meaning 157 discharge: MARPOL 73/78 definition 76 drill cuttings: offshore oil and gas industry, and 65 drilling fluid: offshore oil and gas industry, and 64 – 65 dumping: definition 130 – 1 ; London Convention 1972 82 – 3 ; offshore oil and gas industry, and 67 emission control areas 185 – 6 EMSA 238 – 9 energy efficiency design index 187 environmental regulations: current position 26 ; future of 26 – 8 Erika 37 Espoo Convention 88 – 9 European Union 21 – 5 ; agenda on marine pollution, future of 24 – 5 ; Arctic, policy for 25 ; CFP 22 ; contribution of 21 – 5 ; IMP 22 ; Marine Directive 21 – 2 ; maritime safety policy 22 – 3 ; maritime transport policy 22 ; monitoring, reporting and verification system 24 ; private operators, and 23 – 4 ; regulatory framework 21 – 5 ; sewage 117 – 8 ; WFD 22 EU Directive 2005/35 as amended 309 – 10 EU Directive 2009/20/EC 313 – 4 European Union regulation 1272/2008 164 – 5 fatigue 285 – 6 flag states: role 11 – 19 ; UNCLOS III, and 13 Formal Safety Assessment: approach 4 Four Pillars of shipping legislation 5 , 6 FPSO & FSU Guidelines 79 fuel oil tankers: protection 44 – 5 Fund Convention 1992 315 – 25 garbage: definition 129 ; options for shipboard handling and discharge 142 ; wastes, and 128 garbage management: definition 129 garbage management and disposal: MARPOL 73/78 Annex V 79 – 80 Garbage Management Plans 145 garbage record book 146 – 7 Geneva Conventions 1958: offshore oil and gas industry 69 – 70 GESAMP: offshore oil and gas industry, and 60 GESAMP hazard profiles 163 – 4 GHS 161 – 2 grey water: definition 129 harmful substances: MARPOL 73/78 definitions 78 ; meaning 157 – 8 Hazardous and Noxious Substances (HNS) 158 – 9 hazardous chemicals: nature of 156 – 7 Hebei Spirit 37 hot pursuit: right of 16 human element 261 – 9 ; identifying 262 – 6 ; ILO MLC 2006 268 – 74 ; ISM Code 279 – 85 ; key management issues 290 – 3 ; key terms/definitions 266 – 8 ; regulatory framework 268 – 90 ; STCW 2010 274 – 9 IAPPC 193 IEEC 193 – 4 ILO MLC 2006 268 – 74 IMSAS: sewage 121 – 2 industry best practice 26 international law 296 International Maritime Organisation 5 – 10 , 237 – 8 ; adoption of conventions 7 – 9 ; amending existing instruments 8 ; circulars 9 ; codes 9 ; conventions 9 ; description 5 – 7 ; draft instruments 8 ; fuel consumption data 202 ; protocols 9 ; resolutions 9 ; role 5 – 10 ; ship certification 9 ; structure 5 – 7 ; typology of acts 9 IMO Guide to Good Practice for Port Reception Facility Providers and Users: sewage 115 – 9 international oil pollution prevention certificate 48 International Organisation for Standardisation 26 International Safety Management Code: marine pollution from oil, and 48 – 9 international sewage pollution prevention certificate 120 – 1 Page 337 INTERPOL 239 intervention rights on high seas 234 – 59 ; glossary 239 – 41 ; UNCLOS III 235 – 7 IOPC Funds 298 – 300 IOPPC 48 ISM Code 279 – 85 ; marine pollution from oil, and 48 – 9 ISO 21070; definition 130 Kiev Agreement 87 landmark accidents: impact on legal framework 234 legal aspects of marine pollution from ships 295 – 334 liability, types of 305 – 10 limitation of liability 310 – 333 ; Antarctic, protection of 332 – 3 ; Bunker Pollution Convention 2001 326 – 7 ; CLC 315 – 25 ; concept 310 – 1 ; EU Directive 2009/20/EC 313 – 4 ; Fund Convention 1992 315 – 25 ; HNS Convention 2010 327 – 9 ; LLMC 311 – 3 ; maximum limits of compensation 317 ; Nairobi Convention 2007 329 – 30 ; radioactive substances, carriage of 330 – 1 ; STUPIA 2006 325 ; Supplementary Fund Protocol 2003 315 – 25 ; TOPIA 2006 325 liquefied natural gas 202 London Convention 1972 81 – 3 ; dumping 82 – 3 ; limitations 91 ; offshore oil and gas industry 81 – 3 ; wastes 133 – 5 London Protocol 1996; wastes 135 – 7 managerial aspects of response 251 – 8 ; challenges 254 – 8 marine debris: key land and ocean–based sources 127 marine mammals: ship strikes with 226 – 7 marine pollutant: meaning 158 marine pollution: accidental spillage 32 ; Amoco Cadiz 35 ; best industry practices 49 – 50 ; causes of large oil spills 34 ; certification 46 – 8 ; challenges 32 – 41 ; definitions 39 – 41 ; documentation 46 – 50 ; effects 33 ; enforcement 52 – 5 ; Erika 37 ; Hebei Spirit 37 ; international oil pollution prevention certificate 48 ; implementation 52 – 5 ; International Safety Management Code 48 – 9 ; key management issues 46 – 50 ; key terms 39 – 41 ; MARPOLAnnex I 38 – 9 , 41 – 6 see also MARPOL Annex I; Nakhodka 36 ; national jurisdiction 52 – 5 ; oil record book 47 – 8 ; operation at time of incident for large oil spills 34 ; port state control 38 – 9 ; Prestige 37 ; Polar Code 51 – 2 ; reduction 33 ; selected cases 52 – 5 ; ship–to–ship transfer of crude oil and petroleum products 50 – 1 ; shipboard oil pollution contingency plan 47 ; surveys 46 – 8 ; Torrey Canyon 35 marine pollution control regulatory framework overview 10 marine pollution from oil 31 – 56 marine pollution outside scope of MARPOL 206 – 32 MARPOL 73/78 75 – 81 ; Annex I: regulations for preparation of pollution by oil 76 – 9 ; application 76 – 7 ; compliance 77 ; harmful substances 78 ; oil filtering equipment 77 – 8 see also MARPOL Annex I; Annex V: garbage management and disposal 79 – 80 see also MARPOL Annex V; Annex VI: air pollution 80 – 1 ; discharge, definition 76 see also MARPOL Annex VI; FPSO & FSU Guidelines 79 ; limitations 91 ; offshore oil and gas industry, and 75 – 81 ; ships, definition 75 MARPOLAnnex I 38 – 9 , 41 – 6 ; construction requirements 44 ; control of operational discharge of oil from machinery spaces 45 ; discharges from cargo area of oil tankers 46 ; key resolutions 42 – 4 ; overview of legal basis 41 – 2 ; protection of fuel oil tanks 44 – 5 ; structure 42 MARPOLAnnex II 166 – 71 ; IBC Code, and 166 – 7 ; cargo record book 174 ; categorisation of noxious liquid substances 167 – 8 ; certificates 172 – 4 ; design and construction 168 – 9 ; discharge prohibitions 169 – 70 ; material scope of application 167 ; Polar Code 170 – 1 ; port reception facilities 175 – 6 ; port state control on operational requirements 174 – 5 ; procedures and arrangements manual 174 ; shipboard marine pollution emergency plan for noxious liquid substances 174 ; surveys 172 – 4 ; verification of compliance 170 MARPOLAnnex III 171 – 2 ; documentation 176 – 7 ; exceptions Page 338 172 ; labelling 172 ; marking 172 ; material scope of application 171 – 2 ; NLS certificate 173 – 4 ; packing 172 ; port state control on operational requirements 177 ; quantity limitations 172 ; stowage 172 ; substantial requirements 172 MARPOLAnnex V 140 – 53 ; areas of special interest 151 – 3 ; communication and advance notice of wastes 149 – 50 ; considerations during MARPOL residues/wastes delivery 150 ; considerations prior to delivery of residues/wastes onshore 147 ; documentation 144 – 50 ; garbage record book 146 – 7 ; Garbage Management Plans 144 – 5 ; general prohibition 141 ; good practices for shipmasters, shipowners and operators 147 – 50 ; logistical and commercial arrangements 147 – 8 ; key management issues 144 – 50 ; key regulations 141 ; minimization and management of ship–generated residue/waste 148 – 9 ; overview 140 – 4 ; placards 145 – 6 ; port reception facilities, adequacy of 151 ; port state control findings 152 ; summary of restrictions to discharge of garbage 143 MARPOLAnnex VI 184 – 8 ; control of emissions of nitrogen oxide 186 ; emission control areas 185 – 6 ; identifying challenges 187 – 8 ; measures involving ship energy efficiency 186 – 7 ; regulation of ozone–depleting substances 186 ; setting sulphur caps on content of marine fuels 185 ; sewage 109 , 110 – 9 , 120 – 1 Monitoring, Reporting and Verification Regulation 190 – 1 MRV Regulation 199 – 200 Nairobi Convention 2007 329 – 30 Nakhodka 36 National Contingency Plan: USA 102 – 3 national jurisdictions: marine pollution from oil, and 52 – 5 nitrogen oxides: control of emissions 186 NLS certificate 173 – 4 non–governmental organisations 25 – 6 ; contribution 25 – 6 offshore oil and gas industry 57 – 94 ; atmospheric pollution 67 ; chemicals 66 ; CLEE 1977 85 ; customary international law 69 ; deleterious ecological effects 63 ; domestic legal sources 68 ; drill cuttings 65 ; drilling fluid 64 – 5 ; dumping 67 ; Espoo Convention 88 – 9 ; future directions 92 – 3 ; Geneva Conventions 1958 69 – 70 ; GESAMP, and 60 ; international instruments addressing liability, clean up and compensation 83 – 6 ; international instruments addressing specific pollution sources 75 – 83 ; international law and policy 68 – 90 ; international legal framework 61 – 2 , 68 – 75 ; international policy statements 86 – 9 ; Kiev Agreement 87 ; limits of international legal framework 90 – 2 ; London Convention 1972 81 – 3 see also London Convention 1972; maritime zones under coastal state jurisdiction 68 ; MARPOL 73/78 see MARPOL 73/78; Offshore Pollution Liability Agreement 1974 84 – 5 ; oil 64 ; OPRC 1990 85 – 6 ; OSPAR Convention 89 – 90 ; pollution created by 57 – 94 ; pollution from seabed activities 64 – 67 ; produced water 65 – 6 ; sound production 66 ; regional agreements 89 – 90 ; regulating pollution from 60 – 2 ; relative contribution to pollution 60 ; Rio Draft 60 ; source of pollution, as 58 – 9 ; specific sources of pollution 61 , 63 – 7 ; Stockholm Declaration 1972 69 ; UNCED 86 – 7 ; UNCLOS III 70 – 75 , 83 – 4 see also UNCLOS III; UNEP 87 – 8 ; vessels, pollution from 67 Offshore Pollution Liability Agreement 1974 84 – 5 oil: definition 32 ; offshore oil and gas industry, and 64 Oil Pollution Act 1990: civil liability 96 – 8 ; financial responsibility 98 – 9 ; USA 95 – 9 oil record book 47 – 8 oil spill management 251 – 4 oil tankers, cargo area of: discharges from 46 operational discharge of oil: machinery spaces, from 45 operational wastes: definition 130 OPOL 1974: limitations 91 OPRC 1990 85 – 6 ; limitations 91 – 2 OPRC Convention 242 – 4 Page 339 OPRC–HNS Protocol 244 – 6 ozone–depleting substances: regulation 186 P&I Clubs 300 – 1 placards: MARPOLAnnex V 145 – 6 Polar Code: marine pollution from oil, and 51 – 2 ; MARPOLAnnex II, and 170 – 1 ; sewage 119 ; wastes, and 152 – 3 pollution of the marine environment: meaning 2 ; UNCLOS III definition 63 port reception facility: definition 131 port state control: air pollution 200 – 1 ; ballast water 215 – 6 ; marine pollution by oil, and 38 – 9 ; USA 101 – 2 port states: role 11 – 9 ; UNCLOS III, and 13 – 9 Prestige 37 private operators: EU, and 23 – 4 ; UNCLOS III, and 19 produced water: offshore oil and gas industry, and 65 – 6 protection of marine environment: legal instruments 3 ; priority, as 3 radioactive substances, carriage of: limitations of liability 330 – 1 regional framework 248 – 9 REMPEC 249 – 51 Rio Draft 60 salvors: damages loss and claims, and 301 – 2 SEEMP 194 – 9 self–regulation: concept 4 – 5 sewage 107 – 23 ; areas of special interest in relation to legal framework 121 – 2 ; Baltic Sea 116 – 7 ; best practice 121 ; certification 120 – 1 ; challenges for marine environment 107 – 10 ; control of discharges into sea 113 – 5 ; definition 129 ; discharge of 111 – 2 ; documentation 120 – 1 ; European Union 117 – 8 ; IMO guide to Good Practice for Port Reception Facility, Providers and Users 115 – 9 ; IMSAS 121 – 2 ; international sewage pollution prevention certificate 120 – 1 ; key management issues 120 – 1 ; key terms and definitions 109 – 10 ; legal basis, overview 110 – 9 ; MARPOLAnnex IV 109 , 110 – 9 , 120 – 1 ; meaning 107 – 10 ; operational requirements 119 ; Polar waters 119 ; reception facilities 115 – 9 ; statistics 108 ; summarised framework of prohibitions of discharge 114 ; surveys 120 – 1 ; USA 118 – 9 ship certification: IMO, and 9 ship energy efficiency: measures involving 186 – 7 ship recycling 206 – 32 ; EU action 224 – 6 ; Hong Kong Convention 2009 220 – 4 ; key terms/definitions 207 ; nature of problem 220 ship–to–ship transfer of crude oil and petroleum products 50 – 1 shipboard oil pollution contingency plan 47 shipping legislation: four pillars 5 , 6 ships: MARPOL 73/78 definition 75 sound production: offshore oil and gas industry, and 66 special area: definition 131 spill notification requirements: USA 103 spill response contracts 246 – 7 Standard European Behaviour Classification: chemicals 163 standard–setting process 3 – 5 ; Formal Safety Assessment approach 4 ; nature of 3 – 5 ; prescriptive approach 3 – 4 ; self–regulation 4 state obligations to protect and preserve marine environment: UNCLOS III 71 state obligations to regulate dumping: UNCLOS III 72 – 4 state obligations to regulate pollution from activities carried out in area: UNCLOS III 75 state obligations to regulate pollution from or through atmosphere: UNCLOS II 74 state obligations to regulate pollution from seabed activities: UNCLOS III 72 STCW 2010 274 – 9 Stockholm Declaration 1972: offshore oil and gas industry 69 STOPIA 2006 325 sulphur caps: setting on content of marine fuels 185 TOPIA 2006 325 Torrey Canyon 35 transboundary movement: definition 131 UNCED 86 – 7 UNCLOS III 11 – 26 , 70 – 5 , 235 – 7 ; coastal states, and 13 – 19 ; Page 340 compensation 83 – 4 ; contents 11 ; flag states, and 13 – 19 ; limitations 90 ; marine pollution enforcement powers 14 ; offshore oil and gas industry 70 – 5 ; part XII 12 – 13 ; pollution of the marine environment, definition 63 ; port states, and 13 – 19 ; private operators, and 19 ; state obligations to protect and preserve marine environment 71 ; state obligations to regulate dumping 72 – 4 ; state obligations to regulate pollution from activities carried out in area 75 ; sate obligations to regulate pollution from or through atmosphere 74 ; state obligations to regulate pollution from seabed activities 72 ; waste 133 underwater energy, monitoring of: EU action 229 – 31 underwater noise emissions 227 – 9 UNEP 87 – 8 , 238 UN Recommendations on the Transport of Dangerous Goods 165 – 6 United States of America 95 – 106 ; Clean Water Act 95 – 9 ; civil and criminal penalties 104 – 5 ; framework for prevention and response to marine oil pollution incidents 95 – 106 ; marine oil pollution 95 – 106 ; National Contingency Plan 102 – 3 ; Oil Pollution Act 1990 95 – 9 ; penalities for failure to comply with response plan requirements 102 ; port state control 101 – 2 ; prevention of pollution 99 – 102 ; response 102 – 5 ; sewage 118 – 9 ; spill notification requirements 103 ; vessel response plans 99 – 101 vessels: offshore oil and gas industry 67 vessel response plans: USA 99 – 101 wastes 125 – 54 ; Basel Convention 138 – 40 ; definition 127 – 8 , 130 ; garbage, and 128 ; general regulatory framework 131 – 40 ; identifying problem 125 – 8 ; Jeddah Convention 131 , 133 ; key land and ocean–based sources 127 ; key terms and definitions 128 – 31 ; legislative background 131 – 40 ; London Convention 1972 133 – 5 ; London Protocol 1996 135 – 7 ; management hierarchy showing priority and less preferred options 127 ; MARPOL Annex V see MARPOL Annex V; Polar Code 152 – 3 ; regulation of discharges of dumping (non exhaustive list of related instruments) 132 ; statistics 126 ; UNCLOS III 133

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