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Index

Shipping Law Handbook


Page 1121

Index

Index

  • Admiralty jurisdiction
  • Advance freight
    • insurance, 406
  • Anchored vessels
    • lights and shapes, 384
  • Applicable law
    • absence of choice
    • burden of proof
      • Rome Convention, 110
      • Rome I Regulation, 125
    • consent, 123
    • consumer contracts
      • Rome Convention, 108
      • Rome I Regulation, 121122
    • Contracts (Applicable Law) Act 1990
      • Conventions to have force of law, 104105
      • Crown application, 106
      • disapplication where rules of Rome I Regulation apply, 105106
      • interpretation of Conventions, 105
      • revision of Conventions, 105
      • Rome Convention, 106113
      • text, 104113
    • contracts of carriage, 121
    • employment contracts
      • Rome Convention, 108109
      • Rome I Regulation, 123
    • formal validity
      • Rome Convention, 109
      • Rome I Regulation, 124
    • freedom of choice
      • Rome Convention, 107
      • Rome I Regulation, 120
    • habitual residence, 125
    • incapacity
      • Rome Convention, 110
      • Rome I Regulation, 124
    • insurance contracts, 122123
    • introduction, 1, 34
    • mandatory rules of law
      • Rome Convention, 109
      • Rome I Regulation, 123
    • material validity
      • Rome Convention, 109
      • Rome I Regulation, 123
    • multiple liability, 125
    • ordre public
      • Rome Convention, 110
      • Rome I Regulation, 126
    • public policy
      • Rome Convention, 110
      • Rome I Regulation, 126
    • renvoi, exclusion of
      • Rome Convention, 110
      • Rome I Regulation, 126
    • Rome Convention
    • Rome I Regulation
    • scope of applicable law
      • Rome Convention, 109
      • Rome I Regulation, 125
    • set-off, 125
    • subrogation
      • Rome Convention, 110
      • Rome I Regulation, 124125
    • voluntary assignment
      • Rome Convention, 110
      • Rome I Regulation, 124125
  • Apportionment
  • Arbitration
    • appointment of arbitrators
      • failure of appointment procedure, 142
      • number of arbitrators, 141
      • power to appoint sole arbitrator in case of default, 142
      • procedure, 141142

    • Page 1122

      arbitral proceedings
      • concurrent hearings, 147
      • consolidation of proceedings, 147
      • general duty of parties, 132, 148
      • general duty of tribunal, 132, 146
      • general powers exercisable by tribunal, 147148
      • legal or other representation, 147
      • overview of tribunal’s powers, 132
      • power to appoint experts, legal advisers or assessors, 147
      • powers of tribunal in case of party’s default, 148
      • procedural and evidential matters, 146147
      • provisional awards, 148
    • Arbitration Act 1996
    • arbitration agreements
      • definition, 139
      • discharge by death of party, 139
      • separability, 139
      • writing, 138139
    • arbitrators
      • appointment, 141142
      • chairman, 142143
      • court to have regard to agreed qualifications, 142
      • death of arbitrator or appointing party, 144
      • decision-making where no chairman or umpire, 143
      • filling of vacancies, 144
      • immunity, 145
      • introduction, 131
      • liability of parties for arbitrators’ fees and expenses, 145
      • number, 141
      • removal by court, 143144
      • resignation, 144
      • revocation of authority, 143
      • umpire, 143
    • assessors, 147
    • awards
      • additional awards, 153
      • appeal on point of law, 133, 156
      • challenges, 155156
      • correction, 153
      • date, 152
      • different issues, 150151
      • effect, 153
      • enforcement, 133134, 154155
      • extension of time for making award, 151
      • form, 152
      • interest, 151
      • notification, 152
      • place where award treated as made, 152
      • provisional awards, 148
      • remedies, 151
      • rules applicable to substance of dispute, 150
      • settlement, 151152
      • withholding in case of non-payment, 152153
    • chairman, 142143
    • challenges to awards
      • appeal on point of law, 133, 156
      • serious irregularity, 155156
      • substantive jurisdiction, 155
    • charge to secure payment of solicitors’ costs, 158
    • commencement
      • application of Limitation Acts, 140
      • court’s power to extend time limit, 140
      • generally, 141
    • common law, matters governed by, 160
    • concurrent hearings, 147
    • consolidation of proceedings, 147
    • consumer arbitration agreements, 163
    • costs
      • agreement to pay costs in any event, 153
      • awards of costs, 153
      • effect of agreement or award about costs, 154
      • generally, 153
      • limitation of recoverable costs, 154
      • overview, 133
      • recoverable costs, 154
      • recoverable fees and expenses of arbitrators, 154
    • County Court
      • jurisdiction, 166167
      • small claims arbitration, 163
    • court’s powers (arbitral proceedings)
      • determination of preliminary points of law, 150
      • enforcement of peremptory orders of tribunal, 149
      • extension of time limits, 159
      • overview, 133
      • powers exercisable in support of arbitral proceedings, 149150
      • removal of arbitrators, 143144
      • securing attendance of witnesses, 149
      • service of documents, 158159
    • court’s powers (awards)
      • appeal on point of law, 133, 156
      • challenges to awards, 155156
      • effect of order of court, 157
      • enforcement of awards, 133134, 154155
      • supplementary provisions, 156157
    • death of arbitrator or appointing party, 144
    • domestic arbitration agreements
      • exclusion of court’s jurisdiction, 162
      • modification of Part I, 161162
      • power to repeal or amend ss. 8587, 162
      • stay of legal proceedings, 162
    • enforcement of awards
      • court’s powers, 154155
      • Geneva Convention awards, 165
      • introduction, 133134
      • New York Convention awards, 165166
    • evidential matters, 146147
    • experts, 147
    • general duty of tribunal, 132, 146
    • general principles, 137
    • Geneva Convention awards, 133134, 165
    • High Court jurisdiction, 166167
    • immunity of arbitral institutions, 158
    • interest on awards, 151
    • introduction, 129
    • judge-arbitrators, 163164, 168170

    • Page 1123

      jurisdiction of courts, 166167
    • jurisdiction of tribunal
      • competence to rule on own jurisdiction, 145
      • determination of preliminary point, 146
      • objections to substantive jurisdiction, 145146
    • legal advisers, 147
    • legal or other representation, 147
    • LMAA arbitration
      • generally, 129130
      • LMAA Fast and Low Cost Arbitration (FALCA) Rules 1996, 253257
      • LMAA Intermediate Claims Procedure 2012, 200207
      • LMAA Intermediate Claims Procedure 2017, 237245
      • LMAA Mediation Terms 2002, 246249
      • LMAA Small Claims Procedure 2012, 196199
      • LMAA Small Claims Procedure 2017, 232236
      • LMAA Terms 2012, 176195
      • LMAA Terms 2017, 208231
      • LMAA/Baltic Exchange Mediation Terms 2009, 249252
    • loss of right to object, 157158
    • mandatory provisions, 131, 138, 168
    • New York Convention 1958
    • New York Convention awards
      • evidence, 165166
      • generally, 133134, 165
      • refusal of recognition/enforcement, 166
      • saving for other bases of recognition/enforcement, 166
    • non-mandatory provisions, 138
    • notice in connection with legal proceedings, 159160
    • number of arbitrators, 141
    • object, 137
    • parties’ general duty, 132, 148
    • procedural matters, 146147
    • provisional awards, 148
    • removal of arbitrators, 143144
    • requirements in connection with legal proceedings, 159160
    • resignation of arbitrators, 144
    • rights of persons taking no part in proceedings, 157
    • salvage
      • introduction, 662
      • Lloyd’s Standard Salvage and Arbitration Clauses, 693697
      • publication of awards, 678
    • seat of arbitration, 138
    • service of documents
    • small claims
      • County Court arbitration, 163
      • LMAA Small Claims Procedure 2012, 196199
      • LMAA Small Claims Procedure 2017, 232236
    • statutory arbitrations, 164165
    • stay of legal proceedings
      • domestic arbitration agreements, 162
      • generally, 139
      • reference of interpleader issue to arbitration, 140
      • retention of security where Admiralty proceedings stayed, 140
    • time limits
      • commencement of arbitration, 140141
      • court’s power to extend, 159
      • reckoning periods of time, 159
    • tribunal’s powers
      • appointment of experts, legal advisers or assessors, 147
      • default of party, 148
      • general powers, 147148
      • overview, 132
      • procedural and evidential matters, 146147
    • umpire, 143
  • Arrest
    • Arrest Convention 1952
      • parties, 89
      • text, 48
    • exercise of right of arrest, 11
    • International Convention on Arrest of Ships 1999
      • generally, 2
      • parties, 15
      • text, 1015
    • introduction, 12
    • jurisdiction on merits of the case, 13
    • maritime liens, 13
    • multiple arrest, 12
    • powers of arrest, 11
    • protection of owners and demise charterers, 12
    • rearrest, 12
    • release from arrest, 1112
    • security for claims, 3, 29
  • Asbatankvoy Charterparty
  • Athens Convention 1974
    • annexes, 309316
    • application within British Islands, 293
    • Convention to have force of law, 270, 275
    • Domestic Carriage Order 1987, 288
    • generally, 262
    • IMO reservation and guidelines, 310316
    • parties, 284286
    • Protocol 2002, 293
    • provisions having effect in connection with Convention, 275277
    • text, 299316
    • United Kingdom Carriers Order 1998, 288289
  • Baltime 1939 Charterparty
  • Barecon 2017 Charterparty
  • Bills of lading
    • cargo claims
      • contents of bill, 339340
      • evidentiary effect of bill, 321, 340
      • issue of bill, 339
      • reservations, 340
    • forms
    • United States
      • bill as prima facie evidence, 355
      • contents of bill, 354355
      • generally, 354
      • “shipped” bill of lading, 355
  • Booking notes
    • Conlinebooking 2000, 843844
    • Conlinebooking 2016, 845846
    • introduction, 832
  • Bottomry
    • insurance, 406
  • Boxtime 2004 Charterparty
  • BPTIME 3 Charterparty
  • BPVOY 5 Charterparty
  • Brussels Limitation Convention 1957
  • Brussels Regulation (Recast)
    • enforcement of judgments
      • generally, 8586, 88
      • refusal of enforcement, 87
    • generally, 23
    • jurisdiction
      • consumer contracts, 8081
      • employment contracts, 81
      • examination as to jurisdiction and admissibility, 8283
      • exclusive jurisdiction, 8182
      • general provisions, 78
      • insurance-related matters, 7980
      • lis pendens, 8384
      • prorogation of jurisdiction, 82
      • provisional/protective measures, 84
      • related actions, 8384
      • special jurisdiction, 7879
    • recognition of judgments
      • generally, 85, 88
      • refusal of recognition, 8687
    • text, 72103
  • Bunker Pollution Convention 2001
  • Canal authorities
    • limitation of liability, 263, 272
  • Cargo claims
    • absolute warranty of seaworthiness not to be implied, 328
    • bills of lading
    • British possessions, 328329
    • Carriage of Goods by Sea Act 1971
    • Carriage of Goods by Sea Act 1992
    • carrier’s liability
      • actual carrier, 338
      • basis of liability, 336337
      • deck cargo, 337338
      • limits of liability, 337
      • loss of right to limit responsibility, 337
      • non-contractual claims, 337
      • period of responsibility, 336
      • through carriage, 338
    • carriers’ obligations, 317320
    • claims and actions
      • arbitration, 342343
      • jurisdiction, 342
      • limitation of actions, 341342
      • notice of loss, damage or delay, 341
    • contractual stipulations, 343
    • conversion of SDRs into sterling, 328
    • dangerous goods, 339
    • evidential value of bills of lading, 321
    • general average, 343
    • guarantees by shipper, 340341
    • Hague Rules
    • Hague-Visby Rules
      • generally, 317318
      • parties, 348350
      • Parties to Convention Order 1985, 346
      • SDR Protocol, 318
    • Hamburg Rules
    • introduction, 317
    • jurisdiction, 342
    • limitation of actions, 341342
    • notice of loss, damage or delay, 341
    • Rotterdam Rules, 320
    • shipper’s liability
      • dangerous goods, 339
      • general rule, 338339
    • shipping documents
    • title to sue, 320321
    • transport documents
      • bills of lading, 339340
      • documents other than bill of lading, 341
      • guarantees by shipper, 340341
    • unit of account
    • United States
      • Carriage of Goods by Sea Act 1936, 354359
      • generally, 321322
  • Carriage of Goods by Sea Act 1971
  • Carriage of Goods by Sea Act 1992
  • Change of voyage
    • insurance, 411
  • Charterparties
  • Civil Jurisdiction and Judgments Act 1982
    • bar on further proceedings on same cause of action, 31
    • Channels Islands, Isle of Man and colonies, 31
    • domicile
    • general provisions, 3637
    • implementation of Conventions, 2428
    • interim relief and protective measures, 2829
    • overseas judgments given in breach of settlement agreement, 30
    • savings for powers to stay, assist, strike out or dismiss proceedings, 36
    • seat of corporations and associations, 3234
    • security in case of stay, 29
    • steps not amounting to submission to jurisdiction of overseas court, 30
    • transitional provisions, 39
  • Civil Liability Convention 1969
  • Collision
    • apportionment of liability, 363364
    • civil liability, 362
    • Collision Convention 1910
    • Collision Convention 1952
      • generally, 2
      • parties, 1819
      • text, 1518
    • Collision Convention 1972
    • Collision Regulations 1972
    • conduct of vessels in any condition of visibility
      • action to avoid collision, 376
      • look-out, 375
      • narrow channels, 376377
      • risk of collision, 376
      • safe speed, 375376
      • traffic separation schemes, 377
    • conduct of vessels in restricted visibility, 379380
    • conduct of vessels in sight of one another
      • action by give-way vessel, 378
      • action by stand-on vessel, 379
      • crossing situation, 378
      • head-on situation, 378
      • overtaking, 378
      • responsibilities between vessels, 379
      • sailing vessels, 378
    • contribution, 364
    • criminal liability, 361
    • death, 364
    • detention of ships, 367
    • distress signals, 366367, 386, 394
    • exemptions, 367, 387
    • in personam actions, restrictions on, 2223
    • introduction, 361
    • joint and several liability, 364
    • lights and shapes
      • anchored vessels, 384
      • application, 380
      • definitions, 380
      • exemptions, 387
      • fishing vessels, 382383, 392
      • pilot vessels, 384
      • positioning, 388391
      • power-driven vessels underway, 381
      • restricted manoeuvrability vessels, 383384
      • sailing vessels underway, 382
      • seaplanes, 384
      • technical details, 388391

      • Page 1126

        towing and pushing, 381382
      • vessels aground, 384
      • vessels constrained by draught, 384
      • vessels not under command, 383384
      • vessels underoars, 382
      • visibility of lights, 380381
    • Merchant Shipping Act 1995
    • Merchant Shipping (Distress Signals and Prevention of Collisions) Regulations 1996
    • Merchant Shipping Notice, 361, 368371
    • penalties, 367
    • personal injury, 364
    • responsibility, 374
    • restricted visibility
      • conduct of vessels, 379380
      • sound signals, 386
    • sound and light signals
      • definitions, 384385
      • distress signals, 386
      • equipment for sound signals, 385
      • exemptions, 387
      • manoeuvring and warning signals, 385
      • signals to attract attention, 386
      • sound signals in restricted visibility, 386
      • technical details, 392394
    • steering and sailing rules
      • conduct of vessels in any condition of visibility, 375377
      • conduct of vessels in restricted visibility, 379380
      • conduct of vessels in sight of one another, 378379
    • time limit for proceedings, 364365
    • verification of compliance with Convention provisions, 387388
  • Combiconbill
  • Combined transport documents
  • Congenbill
  • Conlinebooking
    • Conlinebooking 2000, 843844
    • Conlinebooking 2016, 845846
  • Conservancy authorities
    • limitation of liability, 263, 272
  • Constructive total loss
    • insurance, 414
  • Consumer contracts
    • applicable law
      • Rome Convention, 108
      • Rome I Regulation, 121122
    • jurisdiction
      • Brussels Regulation (Recast), 8081
      • Lugano Convention, 4748
  • Contingent interests
    • insurance, 406
  • Contracts (Applicable Law) Act 1990
    • Conventions to have force of law, 104105
    • Crown application, 106
    • disapplication where rules of Rome I Regulation apply, 105106
    • interpretation of Conventions, 105
    • revision of Conventions, 105
    • Rome Convention, 106113
    • text, 104113
  • Contribution
    • collision, 364
    • insurance, 418
  • Criminal offences
    • collision, 361, 367
    • oil pollution
      • prosecution and enforcement of fines, 608609
      • shipping casualties, 606
    • waste reception facilities at harbours, 602
  • CRISTAL
    • oil pollution, 537
  • Crossing situation
    • avoidance of collision, 378
  • Death
    • arbitrator or appointing party, 144
    • collision, 364
    • limitation of liability, 304
  • Defeasible interests
    • insurance, 406
  • Delay in voyage
    • insurance, 412
  • Detention of ships
    • see also Arrest
    • collision, 367
    • oil pollution, 609611
    • uninsured ships
      • arbitration on questions of detention, 292
      • compensation for unjustified detention, 292
      • generally, 291292
  • Deviation from voyage
  • Discharge of oil
    • acts done in exercise of harbour authorities’ powers, 603604
    • authorisation under other enactments, 604
    • defences, 603
    • duty to report discharge, 604
    • generally, 602603
    • restrictions on transfer of oil at night, 604
  • Distress signals
  • Dock authorities
    • limitation of liability, 263, 272
  • Domestic carriage
    • limitation of liability, 288, 293

  • Page 1127

    Domicile
  • Drilling units
  • Duty of fair presentation
    • see Marine insurance
  • Employment contracts
    • applicable law
      • Rome Convention, 108109
      • Rome I Regulation, 123
    • jurisdiction
      • Brussels Regulation (Recast), 81
      • Lugano Convention, 4849
  • Enforcement of judgments
    • see Recognition and enforcement of judgments
  • Exclusive jurisdiction
    • Brussels Regulation (Recast), 8182
    • Lugano Convention, 49
  • FALCA Rules
  • Fire
    • damage to valuables on British ships, 263
  • Fishing vessels
  • Floating policies
  • Formal validity of contract
    • Rome Convention, 109
    • Rome I Regulation, 124
  • Forms
    • see Standard forms and under specific subjects
  • Forum non conveniens
    • jurisdiction, 23
  • Fraudulent insurance claims
  • Fund Convention 1971
    • oil pollution, 538
  • Fund Convention 1992
  • Gencon Charterparty
  • General average
    • cargo claims, 343
    • generally, 664
    • insurance
      • general average contributions, 417
      • general average loss, 415
    • United States, 357
    • York-Antwerp Rules
  • Give-way vessel
    • avoidance of collision, 378
  • Government ships
  • Guarantees
    • cargo claims, 340341
    • salvage
      • generally, 661662, 677
      • Salvage Guarantee Form ISU 1, 710711
      • Salvage Guarantee Form ISU 2, 712714
      • Salvage Guarantee Form ISU 4, 715716
      • Salvage Guarantee Form ISU 5, 717719
  • Habitual residence
    • applicable law, 125
  • Hague Rules
  • Hague-Visby Rules
    • generally, 317318
    • parties, 348350
    • Parties to Convention Order 1985, 346
    • SDR Protocol, 318
  • Hamburg Rules
  • Harbour authorities
    • limitation of liability, 263, 272
  • Head-on situation
    • avoidance of collision, 378
  • High Court jurisdiction
    • Admiralty jurisdiction, 1824
    • Channel Islands, Isle of Man and colonies, 2122
    • general jurisdiction, 18
    • mode of exercise of Admiralty jurisdiction, 2122
    • prize jurisdiction, 23
    • restrictions on actions in personam, 2223
    • supplementary provisions as to Admiralty jurisdiction, 23
  • Hull clauses
    • see Marine insurance
  • Humanitarian cargoes
  • Institute Clauses
    • see Marine insurance

  • Page 1128

    Insurance
    • see Marine insurance
  • Inter-Club New York Produce Exchange Agreement 1996
  • Inter-Club New York Produce Exchange Agreement 1996 (amended 2011)
  • Interest
    • arbitration awards, 151
    • judgments, 41
    • salvage, 678
  • Interim relief
    • absence of substantive proceedings, 2829
    • Brussels Regulation (Recast), 84
    • cases of doubtful jurisdiction, 28
    • Civil Jurisdiction and Judgments Act 1982 (Interim Relief) Order 1997, 38
    • English law, 2829, 38
    • introduction, 3
    • Lugano Convention, 51
  • International Convention on Arrest of Ships 1999
    • generally, 2
    • parties, 15
    • text, 1015
  • International Oil Pollution Compensation Fund
    • see Oil pollution
  • ISU forms
    • see Salvage
  • Jurisdiction
    • Admiralty jurisdiction of High Court
      • Channel Islands, Isle of Man and colonies, 2122
      • generally, 1821
      • introduction, 2
      • mode of exercise, 2122
      • restrictions on actions in personam, 2223
      • supplementary provisions, 23
    • Brussels Regulation (Recast)
      • consumer contracts, 8081
      • employment contracts, 81
      • examination as to jurisdiction and admissibility, 8283
      • exclusive jurisdiction, 8182
      • general provisions, 78
      • insurance-related matters, 7980
      • introduction, 23
      • lis pendens, 8384
      • prorogation of jurisdiction, 82
      • provisional/protective measures, 84
      • related actions, 8384
      • special jurisdiction, 7879
      • text, 72103
    • Channel Islands, 2122
    • Collision Convention 1952
      • introduction, 2
      • parties, 1819
      • text, 1518
    • colonies, 2122
    • consumer contracts
      • Brussels Regulation (Recast), 8081
      • Lugano Convention, 4748
    • employment contracts
      • Brussels Regulation (Recast), 81
      • Lugano Convention, 4849
    • examination as to jurisdiction and admissibility
      • Brussels Regulation (Recast), 8283
      • Lugano Convention, 50
    • exclusive jurisdiction
      • Brussels Regulation (Recast), 8182
      • Lugano Convention, 49
    • forum non conveniens, 23
    • general jurisdiction of High Court, 18
    • generally, 12
    • High Court
      • Admiralty jurisdiction, 1824
      • Channel Islands, Isle of Man and colonies, 2122
      • general jurisdiction, 18
      • mode of exercise of Admiralty jurisdiction, 2122
      • prize jurisdiction, 23
      • restrictions on actions in personam, 2223
      • supplementary provisions as to Admiralty jurisdiction, 23
    • in personam actions, restrictions on, 2223
    • insurance-related matters
      • Brussels Regulation (Recast), 7980
      • Lugano Convention, 4647
    • Isle of Man, 2122
    • lis pendens
      • Brussels Regulation (Recast), 8384
      • Lugano Convention, 5051
    • Lugano Convention 2007
      • annexes, 6571
      • consumer contracts, 4748
      • employment contracts, 4849
      • examination as to jurisdiction and admissibility, 50
      • exclusive jurisdiction, 49
      • general provisions as to jurisdiction, 4445
      • insurance-related matters, 4647
      • introduction, 23
      • lis pendens, 5051
      • parties, 71
      • prorogation of jurisdiction, 4950
      • Protocols, 6165
      • provisional/protective measures, 51
      • related actions, 5051
      • relationship with Brussels I Regulation, 5658
      • special jurisdiction, 4546
      • text, 4471
    • prize jurisdiction of High Court, 23
    • prorogation of jurisdiction
      • Brussels Regulation (Recast), 82
      • Lugano Convention, 4950
    • provisional/protective measures
      • Brussels Regulation (Recast), 84
      • Lugano Convention, 51
    • related actions
      • Brussels Regulation (Recast), 8384
      • Lugano Convention, 5051
    • Senior Courts Act 1981, 1824
    • special jurisdiction
      • Brussels Regulation (Recast), 7879
      • Lugano Convention, 4546

  • Page 1129

    Liability Convention 1992
  • Liens
    • see Maritime liens
  • Lights and shapes
    • anchored vessels, 384
    • application, 380
    • definitions, 380
    • exemptions, 387
    • fishing vessels, 382383, 392
    • pilot vessels, 384
    • positioning, 388391
    • power-driven vessels underway, 381
    • restricted manoeuvrability vessels, 383384
    • sailing vessels underway, 382
    • seaplanes, 384
    • technical details, 388391
    • towing and pushing, 381382
    • vessels aground, 384
    • vessels constrained by draught, 384
    • vessels not under command, 383384
    • vessels underoars, 382
    • visibility of lights, 380381
  • Limitation Convention 1976
    • Convention to have force of law, 271
    • generally, 260
    • parties, 284286
    • Protocol, 260
    • provisions having effect in connection with Convention, 282284
    • provisions omitted from 1995 Act, 260261
    • text, 277281
  • Limitation of liability (cargo claims)
  • Limitation of liability (maritime claims)
    • Brussels Convention 1957
    • canal authorities, 263, 272
    • carriage of passengers and luggage by sea, 270271
    • conservancy authorities, 263, 272
    • Crown application, 273
    • dock authorities, 263, 272
    • domestic carriage, 288, 293
    • fire damage to valuables on British ships, 263
    • harbour authorities, 263, 272
    • insurance
      • arbitration on questions of detention, 292
      • certificates, 290
      • compensation for unjustified detention, 292
      • detention of ship, 291292
      • fees, 292
      • issue of certificates, 290291
      • penalties, 291
      • provision of information to passengers, 292
      • requirement to have insurance, 290
      • review of regulations, 293
    • introduction, 259260
    • Limitation Convention 1976
      • Convention to have force of law, 271
      • generally, 260
      • parties, 284286
      • Protocol, 260
      • provisions having effect in connection with Convention, 282284
      • provisions omitted from 1995 Act, 260261
      • text, 277281
    • limitation fund, 280281
    • limits of liability, 278280
    • Merchant Shipping Act 1995
    • Merchant Shipping (Carriage of Passengers by Sea) Regulations 2012, 289293
    • pilotage, 263, 287
    • right of limitation, 277278
    • salvors, 271272
    • SDR Protocol 1979
    • shipowners, 271272
    • UK carriers, 288289
  • Limitation of liability (oil pollution claims)
    • concurrent liabilities of owners and others, 620
    • establishment of limitation fund outside UK, 620
    • generally, 262263, 618
    • introduction, 540
    • limitation actions, 618619
    • restrictions on enforcement after establishment of limitation fund, 619620
    • specified damage to property, 625
  • Limitation of liability (passenger claims)
    • advance payment, 296
    • aggregation of claims, 305
    • amendment of limits, 307308
    • Athens Convention 1974
      • annexes, 309316
      • application within British Islands, 293
      • Convention to have force of law, 270, 275
      • Domestic Carriage Order 1987, 288
      • generally, 262
      • IMO reservation and guidelines, 310316
      • parties, 284286

      • Page 1130

        Protocol 2002, 293
      • provisions having effect in connection with Convention, 275277
      • text, 299316
      • United Kingdom Carriers Order 1998, 288289
    • basis for claims, 305
    • carriers’ servants, 305
    • commercial carriage by public authorities, 307
    • compensation in respect of mobility or other specific equipment, 296
    • contributory fault, 303
    • conversion, 304
    • death, 304
    • EU Regulation 2009
      • introduction, 262
      • relevant provisions of Athens Convention, 299316
      • text, 294316
    • global limitation on liability, 296
    • IMO reservation and guidelines, 310316
    • information to passengers, 296297
    • insurance
    • introduction, 262
    • invalidity of contractual provisions, 306
    • liability of carrier, 300301
    • limit of liability
      • amendment of limits, 307308
      • death and personal injury, 304
      • loss or damage to luggage and vehicles, 304
      • supplementary provisions, 305
    • loss of right to limit liability, 305
    • loss or damage to luggage and vehicles, 304
    • Merchant Shipping Act 1995
    • notice of loss or damage to luggage, 305306
    • nuclear damage, 307
    • performing carrier, 301
    • personal injury, 304
    • time-bar for actions, 306
    • unit of account, 304
    • valuables, 303
  • Lis pendens
    • Brussels Regulation (Recast), 8384
    • Lugano Convention, 5051
  • Lloyd’s forms
    • Lloyd’s Marine Policy (MAR 91), 404, 446449
    • salvage
      • Lloyd’s Open Form 2000, 690
      • Lloyd’s Open Form 2011, 691692
      • Lloyd’s Procedural Rules, 698699
      • Lloyd’s Standard Salvage and Arbitration Clauses, 662, 693697
  • LMAA arbitration
    • generally, 129130
    • LMAA Fast and Low Cost Arbitration (FALCA) Rules 1996, 253257
    • LMAA Intermediate Claims Procedure 2012, 200207
    • LMAA Intermediate Claims Procedure 2017, 237245
    • LMAA Mediation Terms 2002, 246249
    • LMAA Small Claims Procedure 2012, 196199
    • LMAA Small Claims Procedure 2017, 232236
    • LMAA Terms 2012, 176195
    • LMAA Terms 2017, 208231
    • LMAA/Baltic Exchange Mediation Terms 2009, 249252
  • LNGVOY Charterparty
  • London Maritime Arbitrators Association
    • see LMAA arbitration
  • Look-outs
    • avoidance of collision, 375
  • Lugano Convention 2007
    • annexes, 6571
    • enforcement of judgments, 5255
    • generally, 23
    • jurisdiction
      • consumer contracts, 4748
      • employment contracts, 4849
      • examination as to jurisdiction and admissibility, 50
      • exclusive jurisdiction, 49
      • general provisions as to jurisdiction, 4445
      • insurance-related matters, 4647
      • lis pendens, 5051
      • prorogation of jurisdiction, 4950
      • provisional/protective measures, 51
      • related actions, 5051
      • special jurisdiction, 4546
    • parties, 71
    • Protocols, 6165
    • recognition of judgments, 5152, 5455
    • relationship with Brussels I Regulation, 5658
    • text, 4471
  • Luggage
    • carriage of passengers and luggage by sea, 270271
    • loss or damage, 304
    • notice of loss or damage, 305306
  • Mandatory rules of law
    • Rome Convention, 109
    • Rome I Regulation, 123
  • Manoeuvring signals
    • avoidance of collision, 385
  • Marine insurance
    • abandonment, notice of, 414415
    • actual total loss, 413
    • advance freight, 406
    • alteration of port of departure, 411
    • applicable law, 122123
    • apportionment of valuation, 416417
    • assignment of interest, 407
    • assignment of policy, 403, 412
    • bottomry, 406
    • cargo clauses
      • Institute Cargo Clauses (A), 454458
      • Institute Cargo Clauses (B), 459463
      • Institute Cargo Clauses (C), 464468
    • change of voyage, 411
    • charges of insurance, 406
    • commencement of risk, 411

    • Page 1131

      conclusion of contract, 407
    • constructive total loss, 414
    • contingent interests, 406
    • contracting out, 428429
    • contribution, 418
    • defeasible interests, 406
    • definition, 405
    • delay in voyage, 412
    • deviation from voyage, 411, 412
    • different destination, sailing for, 411
    • discharge from liability, 403
    • disclosure, 407
    • double insurance, 409
    • duty of fair presentation
      • application and interpretation, 423
      • generally, 423424
      • knowledge (general), 425
      • knowledge of insured, 424
      • knowledge of insurer, 424425
      • remedies for breach, 425, 430432
      • supplementary provisions, 425
    • extent of insurer’s liability, 415416
    • failure of consideration, 419
    • floating policies, 408409
    • forms
      • generally, 404
      • Institute Cargo Clauses (A), 454458
      • Institute Cargo Clauses (B), 459463
      • Institute Cargo Clauses (C), 464468
      • Institute Strikes Clauses (Cargo)
      • Institute Time Clauses Hulls, 477486
      • Institute Time Clauses Hulls (Restricted Perils), 487498
      • Institute Voyage Clauses Hulls 1983, 499507
      • Institute Voyage Clauses Hulls 1995, 508515
      • Institute War and Strikes Clauses (Hulls – Time), 515516
      • Institute War and Strikes Clauses (Hulls – Voyage), 517518
      • Institute War Clauses (Cargo), 469472
      • International Hull Clauses, 519536
      • International Underwriting Association Marine Policy, 450453
      • Lloyd’s Marine Policy (MAR 91), 404, 446449
    • fraudulent claims, 426427
    • general average contributions, 417
    • general average loss, 415
    • good faith, 407, 428
    • hull clauses
      • Institute Time Clauses Hulls, 477486
      • Institute Time Clauses Hulls (Restricted Perils), 487498
      • Institute Voyage Clauses Hulls 1983, 499507
      • Institute Voyage Clauses Hulls 1995, 508515
      • Institute War and Strikes Clauses (Hulls – Time), 515516
      • Institute War and Strikes Clauses (Hulls – Voyage), 517518
      • International Hull Clauses, 519536
    • implied obligations varied by agreement or usage, 419420
    • Institute Clauses
      • generally, 404
      • Institute Cargo Clauses (A), 454458
      • Institute Cargo Clauses (B), 459463
      • Institute Cargo Clauses (C), 464468
      • Institute Strikes Clauses (Cargo)
      • Institute Time Clauses Hulls, 477486
      • Institute Time Clauses Hulls (Restricted Perils), 487498
      • Institute Voyage Clauses Hulls 1983, 499507
      • Institute Voyage Clauses Hulls 1995, 508515
      • Institute War and Strikes Clauses (Hulls – Time), 515516
      • Institute War and Strikes Clauses (Hulls – Voyage), 517518
      • Institute War Clauses (Cargo), 469472
    • insurable interests
      • advance freight, 406
      • assignment of interest, 407
      • avoidance of wagering/gaming contracts, 405
      • bottomry, 406
      • charges of insurance, 406
      • contingent interests, 406
      • defeasible interests, 406
      • definition, 405406
      • master’s and seamen’s wages, 406
      • partial interests, 406
      • quantum of interest, 406
      • reinsurance, 406
      • when interest must attach, 406
    • insurable value, 407
    • Insurance Act 2015
    • insurer’s right of recovery, 403
    • International Underwriting Association Marine Policy, 450453
    • interpretation of policy terms, 420, 421422
    • introduction, 401402
    • jurisdiction
      • Brussels Regulation (Recast), 7980
      • Lugano Convention, 4647
    • late payment of claims, 427428
    • Lloyd’s Marine Policy (MAR 91), 404, 446449
    • loss, 413414
    • marine adventure, 405
    • Marine Insurance Act 1906
    • maritime claims
      • arbitration on questions of detention, 292
      • certificates, 290
      • compensation for unjustified detention, 292
      • detention of ship, 291292
      • fees, 292
      • issue of certificates, 290291
      • penalties, 291
      • provision of information to passengers, 292
      • requirement to have insurance, 290
      • review of regulations, 293
    • maritime perils, 405
    • master’s and seamen’s wages, 406

    • Page 1132

      measure of indemnity
      • apportionment of valuation, 416417
      • extent of insurer’s liability, 415416
      • general average contributions, 417
      • general provisions, 417
      • liabilities to third parties, 417
      • partial loss, 416
      • particular average warranties, 417
      • salvage charges, 417
      • successive losses, 417
      • suing and labouring clause, 418
      • total loss, 416
    • missing ship, 413
    • mixed sea and land risks, 405
    • mutual insurance, 419
    • oil pollution
      • bunker oil, 621622
      • generally, 620621
      • issue of certificates, 622
      • third party rights against insurers, 623
    • partial interests, 406
    • partial loss
      • generally, 413, 415
      • measure of indemnity, 416
    • particular average loss, 415
    • particular average warranties, 417
    • passenger claims
    • policy
      • assignment, 403, 412
      • contract must be embodied in policy, 407
      • designation of subject matter, 408
      • floating policies, 408409
      • form, 409, 420421
      • interpretation of terms, 420, 421422
      • introduction, 402
      • matters to be specified, 408
      • premium to be arranged, 409
      • signature of insurer, 408
      • unvalued policies, 408
      • valued policies, 408
      • voyage and time policies, 408
    • premium
    • quantum of interest, 406
    • ratification by assured, 419
    • reasonable time, 420
    • receipt for premium, 413
    • recovery under the policy, 402
    • reinsurance, 406
    • representations, 407
    • return of premium, 418419
    • rights of insurer on payment, 418
    • salvage charges, 415, 417
    • several ports of discharge, 411412
    • slip as evidence, 420
    • strikes clauses
      • Institute Strikes Clauses (Cargo)
      • Institute War and Strikes Clauses (Hulls – Time), 515516
      • Institute War and Strikes Clauses (Hulls – Voyage), 517518
    • subrogation, 418
    • successive losses, 417
    • suing and labouring clause, 418
    • third parties, liabilities to, 417
    • third party rights against insurers
      • application, 439
      • conditions affecting transferred rights, 437
      • corporate bodies, 435436, 441442
      • enforcement of insured’s liability, 438439
      • enforcement of transferred rights, 438
      • establishing liability, 433434
      • individuals, 434
      • individuals dying insolvent, 435
      • insurer’s right of set-off, 437
      • introduction, 403404
      • limit on rights transferred, 437
      • provision of information, 437, 442444
      • Scottish trusts, 436437
      • supplemental provisions, 439441, 444445
      • transfer of rights to third parties, 432433
    • time clauses
      • Institute Time Clauses Hulls, 477486
      • Institute Time Clauses Hulls (Restricted Perils), 487498
    • time policies, 408
    • total loss
      • actual total loss, 413
      • constructive total loss, 414
      • generally, 416
    • transhipment, 413414
    • transparency requirements, 429
    • underinsurance, 418
    • unvalued policies, 408
    • utmost good faith
      • abolition of rule, 428
      • generally, 407
    • valued policies, 408
    • void and voidable policies, 402403
    • voyage, 411412
    • voyage clauses
      • Institute Voyage Clauses Hulls 1983, 499507
      • Institute Voyage Clauses Hulls 1995, 508515
    • voyage policies, 408
    • wagering/gaming contracts, avoidance of, 405
    • war clauses
      • Institute War and Strikes Clauses (Hulls – Time), 515516
      • Institute War and Strikes Clauses (Hulls – Voyage), 517518
      • Institute War Clauses (Cargo), 469472
    • warranties
      • Insurance Act 2015, 426
      • Marine Insurance Act 1906, 409411
    • wreck removal
      • cancellation of certificates, 671
      • compulsory insurance or financial security, 684685
      • detention of ships, 671
      • electronic certificates, 672
      • failure to insure, 671

      • Page 1133

        generally, 670671
      • issue of certificates, 671
      • production of certificates, 671
      • third party rights against insurers, 671672
  • Maritime liens
  • Material validity
    • Rome Convention, 109
    • Rome I Regulation, 123
  • Mediation
    • LMAA Mediation Terms 2002, 246249
    • LMAA/Baltic Exchange Mediation Terms 2009, 249252
  • Merchant Shipping Act 1995
    • collision
    • limitation of liability (maritime claims)
    • limitation of liability (passenger claims)
    • oil pollution
    • salvage, 665687
  • Merchant Shipping (Distress Signals and Prevention of Collisions) Regulations 1996
  • Merchant Shipping Notice
  • Multidoc 2016
  • Multimodal transport documents
  • Narrow channels
    • avoidance of collision, 376377
  • New York Convention 1958
    • parties, 174175
    • recognition and enforcement of awards
      • evidence, 165166
      • generally, 133134, 165
      • New York Convention awards, 165
      • refusal of recognition/enforcement, 166
      • saving for other bases of recognition/enforcement, 166
    • text, 170173
  • Norwegian Saleform
  • NYPE Charterparty
  • Offences
    • collision, 361, 367
    • oil pollution
      • prosecution and enforcement of fines, 608609
      • shipping casualties, 606
    • waste reception facilities at harbours, 602
  • Oil pollution
    • annual reports, 612
    • Bunker Pollution Convention 2001
    • Civil Liability Convention 1969
    • conventions, 538539
    • CRISTAL, 537
    • detention of ships, 609611
    • discharge of oil from ships
      • acts done in exercise of harbour authorities’ powers, 603604
      • authorisation under other enactments, 604
      • defences, 603
      • duty to report discharge, 604
      • generally, 602603
      • restrictions on transfer of oil at night, 604
    • enforcement
      • application of fines, 611
      • conventions relating to oil pollution, 611612
      • detention of ships, 609611
      • oil records, 607608
      • prosecution and enforcement of fines, 608609
    • exemptions, power to grant, 612
    • foreign judgments, registration of, 623624
    • Fund Convention 1971, 538
    • Fund Convention 1992
    • Government ships, 612, 625
    • insurance
      • generally, 620621
      • issue of certificates, 622
      • pollution from bunker oil, 621622
      • third party rights against insurers, 623
    • International Oil Pollution Compensation Fund
      • compensation, 629632
      • contributions, 627629
      • definitions, 627
      • effect of judgments, 632633
      • extinguishment of claims, 633
      • Fund Convention 1992, 558573
      • interpretation provisions, 634635
      • jurisdiction, 632633
      • liability of Fund, 629630
      • liability of Supplementary Fund, 631, 636637
      • limitation of liability of Fund, 630631, 636
      • limitation of liability of Supplementary Fund, 631632
      • power to obtain information, 628629

      • Page 1134

        proceedings involving Fund, 634
      • subrogation, 633634
      • Supplementary Fund Protocol 2003, 573583
      • transitional provisions, 635
    • introduction, 537538
    • jurisdiction of UK courts, 623624
    • liability
      • bunker oil, 614615
      • compulsory insurance, 620623
      • concurrent liabilities of owners and others, 620
      • defences, 540541
      • definitions, 613
      • exceptions, 616
      • extinguishment of claims, 620
      • limitation of liability, 540, 618620
      • limitation periods, 620
      • other cases, 615616
      • overview, 540541
      • owner, 540
      • persons other than owner, 541
      • restriction of liability, 616617
      • supplementary provisions, 617618
      • tankers, 613614
    • Liability Convention 1992
    • limitation of liability
      • concurrent liabilities of owners and others, 620
      • establishment of limitation fund outside UK, 620
      • generally, 618
      • introduction, 540
      • limitation actions, 618619
      • restrictions on enforcement after establishment of limitation fund, 619620
      • specified damage to property, 625
    • limitation tonnage, 541
    • Merchant Shipping Act 1995
    • Merchant Shipping (Pollution) Act 2006, 539, 637638
    • prevention of pollution
      • discharge of oil from ships, 602604
      • enforcement, 607612
      • generally, 59759
      • shipping casualties, 604607
      • transfers between ships in territorial waters, 599600
      • waste reception facilities at harbours, 600602
    • prosecutions, 608609
    • records, 607608
    • recourse actions, 625
    • revisions to conventions, power to give effect to, 637638
    • shipping casualties
      • foreign ships, 607
      • generally, 604605
      • offences, 606
      • pollution by substances other than oil, 606
      • service of directions, 606607
      • unreasonable loss or damage, 606
    • Small Tanker Oil Pollution Indemnification Agreement 2006
    • Supplementary Fund Protocol 2003
    • Tanker Oil Pollution Indemnification Agreement 2006
    • TOVALOP, 537
    • transfer of oil
      • transfer at night, 604
      • transfer between ships in territorial waters, 599600
    • waste reception facilities at harbours
      • charges, 601602
      • generally, 600
      • interpretation provisions, 602
      • offences, 602
      • supplementary provisions, 602
      • use of facilities, 601
      • waste management plans, 600601
  • Ordre public
    • Rome Convention, 110
    • Rome I Regulation, 126
  • Overtaking
    • avoidance of collision, 378
  • Particular average
    • particular average loss, 415
    • particular average warranties, 417
  • Personal injury
    • collision, 364
    • limitation of liability, 304
  • Pilotage
    • lights and shapes on pilot vessels, 384
    • limitation of liability, 263, 287
  • Platforms
  • Pollution
    • see Oil pollution
  • Prize jurisdiction
    • generally, 23
  • Prorogation of jurisdiction
    • Brussels Regulation (Recast), 82
    • Lugano Convention, 4950
  • Provisional/protective measures
    • absence of substantive proceedings, 2829
    • Brussels Regulation (Recast), 84
    • cases of doubtful jurisdiction, 28
    • Civil Jurisdiction and Judgments Act 1982 (Interim Relief) Order 1997, 38
    • English law, 2829, 38
    • introduction, 3
    • Lugano Convention, 51
  • Public policy
    • Rome Convention, 110
    • Rome I Regulation, 126

  • Page 1135

    Pushing
    • lights and shapes, 381382
  • Recast Brussels Regulation
    • see Brussels Regulation (Recast)
  • Recognition and enforcement of judgments
    • adaptation orders (Northern Ireland), 40
    • admissibility of judgments and related documents, 42
    • allocation of jurisdiction within UK with respect to trusts and consumer contracts, 41
    • appeals, 41
    • Brussels Regulation (Recast)
      • enforcement of judgments, 8588
      • generally, 23
      • recognition of judgments, 8588
      • text, 72103
    • Civil Jurisdiction and Judgments Act 1982
      • bar on further proceedings on same cause of action, 31
      • Channels Islands, Isle of Man and colonies, 31
      • domicile, 3136
      • general provisions, 3637
      • implementation of Conventions, 2428
      • interim relief and protective measures, 2829
      • overseas judgments given in breach of settlement agreement, 30
      • savings for powers to stay, assist, strike out or dismiss proceedings, 36
      • seat of corporations and associations, 3234
      • security in case of stay, 29
      • steps not amounting to submission to jurisdiction of overseas court, 30
      • transitional provisions, 39
    • Civil Jurisdiction and Judgments Act 1982 (Interim Relief) Order 1997, 38
    • Civil Jurisdiction and Judgments Order 2001, 3843
    • domicile
    • enforcement of judgments other than maintenance orders, 40
    • implementation of Conventions, 2428
    • interest on judgments, 41
    • interim relief
      • absence of substantive proceedings, 2829
      • Brussels Regulation (Recast), 84
      • cases of doubtful jurisdiction, 28
      • Civil Jurisdiction and Judgments Act 1982 (Interim Relief) Order 1997, 38
      • English law, 2829, 38
      • introduction, 3
      • Lugano Convention, 51
    • Lugano Convention 2007
      • annexes, 6571
      • enforcement of judgments, 5255
      • parties, 71
      • Protocols, 6165
      • recognition of judgments, 5152, 5455
      • relationship with Brussels I Regulation, 5658
      • text, 4471
    • proof of judgments and related documents, 42
    • provisional/protective measures
      • absence of substantive proceedings, 2829
      • Brussels Regulation (Recast), 84
      • cases of doubtful jurisdiction, 28
      • Civil Jurisdiction and Judgments Act 1982 (Interim Relief) Order 1997, 38
      • English law, 2829, 38
      • introduction, 3
      • Lugano Convention, 51
    • refusal of recognition or enforcement, 8687
    • savings for powers to stay, assist, strike out or dismiss proceedings, 36
    • seat
      • corporations and associations, 3234, 43
      • Crown, 3536
    • security in case of stay, 29
    • transitional provisions, 39
  • Reinsurance
    • generally, 406
  • Related actions
    • Brussels Regulation (Recast), 8384
    • Lugano Convention, 5051
  • Renvoi
    • Rome Convention, 110
    • Rome I Regulation, 126
  • Restricted manoeuvrability vessels
    • lights and shapes, 383384
  • Restricted visibility
    • conduct of vessels, 379380
    • sound signals, 386
  • Rome Convention
  • Rome I Regulation
  • Rotterdam Rules
    • cargo claims, 320
  • Safe speed
    • avoidance of collision, 375376
  • Sailing vessels
    • avoidance of collision, 378
  • Sale and purchase of tonnage
  • Salvage
    • annulment of salvage contracts, 674
    • apportionment
      • by court, 667
      • by receiver, 666
      • generally, 676
    • arbitration
      • introduction, 662
      • Lloyd’s Standard Salvage and Arbitration Clauses, 693697
      • publication of awards, 678
    • authority of signatory, 660

    • Page 1136

      coastal states’ rights, 675
    • co-operation, 675
    • Crown, 667
    • detention of property, 665666
    • drilling units, 674
    • English law, 659660
    • enhanced awards, 662663
    • humanitarian cargoes, 678
    • interest, 678
    • interim payments, 677
    • introduction, 659663
    • ISU forms
      • ISU Sub-Contract (Award Sharing) 2001, 661, 720724
      • Salvage Guarantee Form ISU 1, 710711
      • Salvage Guarantee Form ISU 2, 712714
      • Salvage Guarantee Form ISU 4, 715716
      • Salvage Guarantee Form ISU 5, 717719
    • ISU Sub-Contract (Award Sharing) 2001, 661, 720724
    • limitation of salvor’s liability, 271272, 663
    • limitation periods, 677
    • Lloyd’s Open Form
      • Lloyd’s Open Form 2000, 690
      • Lloyd’s Open Form 2011, 691692
      • overview, 659663
    • Lloyd’s Procedural Rules, 698699
    • Lloyd’s Standard Salvage and Arbitration Clauses, 662, 693697
    • maritime liens, 677
    • master’s duties, 675
    • Merchant Shipping Act 1995, 665687
    • misconduct of salvors, 677
    • modification of salvage contracts, 674
    • owner’s duties, 675
    • persons, 676
    • platforms, 674
    • prohibition of salvage operations, 677
    • publication of arbitral awards, 678
    • redelivery, 661
    • rewards
      • apportionment, 676
      • conditions, 675
      • criteria for fixing, 675676
      • special compensation, 676
    • safety net, 662663
    • sale of detained property, 666
    • salvage contracts, 674
    • Salvage Convention 1989
      • force of law, 665
      • parties, 687688
      • provisions having effect in connection with Convention, 678679
      • text, 673678
    • Salvage Guarantee Forms
    • salvage operations
      • coastal states’ rights, 675
      • co-operation, 675
      • duties of owner and master, 675
      • duties of salvor, 675
      • introduction, 660661
      • operations controlled by public authorities, 674
      • prohibition, 677
    • salvor’s duties, 675
    • salvors’ rights
      • apportionment between salvors, 676
      • misconduct, 677
      • prohibition of salvage operations, 677
      • rewards, 675676
      • salvage of persons, 676
      • services rendered under existing contracts, 677
      • special compensation, 676
    • SCOPIC clause
      • Code of Practice (International Group and London Property Underwriters), 709
      • Code of Practice (ISU and International Group), 708
      • introduction, 663
      • Salvage Guarantee Form ISU 5, 717719
      • text, 700707
    • security
      • generally, 661662, 677
      • Salvage Guarantee Form ISU 1, 710711
      • Salvage Guarantee Form ISU 2, 712714
      • Salvage Guarantee Form ISU 4, 715716
      • Salvage Guarantee Form ISU 5, 717719
    • special compensation, 676
    • state-owned cargoes, 678
    • state-owned vessels, 674
    • sub-contracting
      • introduction, 661
      • ISU Sub-Contract (Award Sharing) 2001, 720724
    • termination, 661
    • valuation of property, 665
    • wreck removal
      • conditions about removal, 669
      • costs, 669670
      • determination of hazard, 682
      • exceptions to liability, 683684
      • general lighthouse authorities’ expenses, 670
      • Government ships, 673
      • insurance, 670672
      • insurance or financial security, 684685
      • introduction, 663
      • liability of owner, 683
      • limitation periods, 670
      • locating wrecks, 668, 682
      • marking wrecks, 668, 682
      • measures to facilitate removal of wrecks, 682683
      • removal by registered owner, 668669
      • removal in default, 669
      • reports, 668, 681682
      • time limits, 685
      • Wreckfixed 2010, 725735
      • Wreckhire 2010, 736749
      • Wrecks Convention 2007, 679687
      • Wreckstage 2010, 750763

  • Page 1137

    SCOPIC clause
    • Code of Practice (International Group and London Property Underwriters), 709
    • Code of Practice (ISU and International Group), 708
    • introduction, 663
    • Salvage Guarantee Form ISU 5, 717719
    • text, 700707
  • SDR Limitation Protocol 1979
  • Seaplanes
    • lights and shapes, 384
  • Seat
    • recognition and enforcement of judgments
      • seat of corporations and associations, 3234, 43
      • seat of Crown, 3536
    • seat of arbitration, 138
  • Security
    • arrest, 3, 29
    • cargo claims, 340341
    • retention of security where Admiralty proceedings stayed, 140
    • salvage
      • generally, 661662, 677
      • Salvage Guarantee Form ISU 1, 710711
      • Salvage Guarantee Form ISU 2, 712714
      • Salvage Guarantee Form ISU 4, 715716
      • Salvage Guarantee Form ISU 5, 717719
    • wreck removal, 684685
  • Set-off
    • applicable law, 125
    • third party rights against insurers, 437
  • Shapes
    • see Lights and shapes
  • ShellLNGTime 1 Charterparty
  • Shelltime 4 Charterparty
  • Shellvoy 6 Charterparty
  • Shipping documents
    • see also Bills of lading
    • introduction, 321
    • liabilities, 352
    • representations in bills of lading, 352
    • rights, 351352
  • Signals
    • see Sound and light signals
  • Small claims
    • County Court arbitration, 163
    • LMAA Small Claims Procedure 2012, 196199
    • LMAA Small Claims Procedure 2017, 232236
  • Small Tanker Oil Pollution Indemnification Agreement 2006
  • Sound and light signals
    • definitions, 384385
    • distress signals, 366367, 386, 394
    • equipment for sound signals, 385
    • exemptions, 387
    • manoeuvring and warning signals, 385
    • signals to attract attention, 386
    • sound signals in restricted visibility, 386
    • technical details, 392394
  • Special jurisdiction
    • Brussels Regulation (Recast), 7879
    • Lugano Convention, 4546
  • Speed
    • avoidance of collision, 375376
  • Standard forms
  • Stand-on vessel
    • avoidance of collision, 379
  • State-owned cargoes

  • Page 1138

    State-owned vessels
  • Stay of legal proceedings
    • arbitration
      • domestic arbitration agreements, 162
      • generally, 139
      • reference of interpleader issue to arbitration, 140
      • retention of security where Admiralty proceedings stayed, 140
    • recognition and enforcement of judgments
      • savings provisions, 36
      • security in case of stay, 29
  • Steering and sailing rules
    • conduct of vessels in any condition of visibility
      • action to avoid collision, 376
      • look-out, 375
      • narrow channels, 376377
      • risk of collision, 376
      • safe speed, 375376
      • traffic separation schemes, 377
    • conduct of vessels in restricted visibility, 379380
    • conduct of vessels in sight of one another
      • action by give-way vessel, 378
      • action by stand-on vessel, 379
      • crossing situation, 378
      • head-on situation, 378
      • overtaking, 378
      • responsibilities between vessels, 379
      • sailing vessels, 378
  • STOPIA 2006
  • Strikes clauses
    • see Marine insurance
  • Subrogation
    • applicable law
      • Rome Convention, 110
      • Rome I Regulation, 124125
    • insurance, 418
    • oil pollution, 633634
  • Suing and labouring clause
    • insurance, 418
  • Supplementary Fund Protocol 2003
  • Tanker Oil Pollution Indemnification Agreement 2006
  • Third party rights against insurers
    • see Marine insurance
  • Time policies
    • generally, 408
    • Institute Time Clauses Hulls, 477486
    • Institute Time Clauses Hulls (Restricted Perils), 487498
  • TOPIA 2006
  • Total loss
    • actual total loss, 413
    • constructive total loss, 414
    • generally, 416
  • TOVALOP
    • oil pollution, 537
  • Towage
    • introduction, 664
    • lights and shapes on towing vessels, 381382
    • Towcon 2008, 765785
    • Towhire 2008, 786799
    • UK Standard Conditions for Towage and Other Services, 764
  • Traffic separation schemes
    • avoidance of collision, 377
  • Transfer of oil
    • transfer at night, 604
    • transfer between ships in territorial waters, 599600
  • Transhipment
  • Transport documents
    • bills of lading
      • see also Bills of lading
      • contents, 339340
      • evidentiary effect, 321, 340
      • issue, 339
      • reservations, 340
    • documents other than bill of lading, 341
    • guarantees by shipper, 340341
  • Underinsurance
    • generally, 418
  • Unit of account
    • cargo claims
    • passenger claims, 304
  • United States COGSA 1936
    • agreement as to liability prior to loading or after discharge, 358
    • bills of lading, 354
    • charterparties, 357
    • discrimination between competing shippers, 358
    • duties and rights of carrier, 354
    • foreign trade, 358
    • general average, 357
    • increase of liabilities, 357
    • introduction, 321322
    • liabilities before loading and after discharge, 358
    • responsibilities and liabilities of carrier and ship
      • bill as prima facie evidence, 355
      • cargo, 354
      • contents of bill, 354355
      • guaranty of statements, 355
      • limitation of actions, 355
      • limitation of liability for negligence, 355356
      • notice of loss or damage, 355
      • seaworthiness, 354
      • “shipped” bill of lading, 355
    • rights and immunities of carrier and ship
      • amount of liability, 357
      • deviations, 356357
      • freedom from negligence, 356

      • Page 1139

        inflammable, explosive or dangerous cargo, 357
      • uncontrollable causes of loss, 356
      • unseaworthiness, 356
      • valuation of cargo, 357
    • rights and liabilities under other provisions, 358
    • special agreement as to particular goods, 357
    • surrender of rights, 357
    • weight of bulk cargo, 358
  • Valuables
    • fire damage to valuables on British ships, 263
    • passenger claims, 303
  • Vehicles
    • loss or damage, 304
  • Visibility of lights
    • avoidance of collision, 380381
  • Visibility restrictions
    • conduct of vessels, 379380
    • sound signals, 386
  • Voyage policies
    • generally, 408
    • Institute Voyage Clauses Hulls 1983, 499507
    • Institute Voyage Clauses Hulls 1995, 508515
  • Wages
    • insurance, 406
  • War clauses
    • see Marine insurance
  • Warning signals
    • avoidance of collision, 385
  • Waste reception facilities
    • charges, 601602
    • generally, 600
    • interpretation provisions, 602
    • offences, 602
    • supplementary provisions, 602
    • use of facilities, 601
    • waste management plans, 600601
  • Wreck removal
    • conditions about removal, 669
    • costs, 669670
    • determination of hazard, 682
    • exceptions to liability, 683684
    • general lighthouse authorities’ expenses, 670
    • Government ships, 673
    • insurance
      • cancellation of certificates, 671
      • compulsory insurance or financial security, 684685
      • detention of ships, 671
      • electronic certificates, 672
      • failure to insure, 671
      • generally, 670671
      • issue of certificates, 671
      • production of certificates, 671
      • third party rights against insurers, 671672
    • introduction, 663
    • liability of owner, 683
    • limitation periods, 670
    • locating wrecks, 668, 682
    • marking wrecks, 668, 682
    • measures to facilitate removal of wrecks, 682683
    • removal by registered owner, 668669
    • removal in default, 669
    • reports, 668, 681682
    • time limits, 685
    • Wreckfixed 2010, 725735
    • Wreckhire 2010, 736749
    • Wrecks Convention 2007
    • Wreckstage 2010, 750763

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