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Index

Shipping Law Handbook

Page 1121 Index Index Admiralty jurisdiction Channel Islands, Isle of Man and colonies, 21 – 22 generally, 18 – 21 introduction, 2 mode of exercise, 21 – 22 restrictions on actions in personam , 22 – 23 supplementary provisions, 23 Advance freight insurance, 406 Anchored vessels lights and shapes, 384 Applicable law absence of choice Rome Convention, 107 – 108 Rome I Regulation, 120 – 121 burden of proof Rome Convention, 110 Rome I Regulation, 125 consent, 123 consumer contracts Rome Convention, 108 Rome I Regulation, 121 – 122 Contracts (Applicable Law) Act 1990 Conventions to have force of law, 104 – 105 Crown application, 106 disapplication where rules of Rome I Regulation apply, 105 – 106 interpretation of Conventions, 105 revision of Conventions, 105 Rome Convention, 106 – 113 text, 104 – 113 contracts of carriage, 121 employment contracts Rome Convention, 108 – 109 Rome I Regulation, 123 formal validity Rome Convention, 109 Rome I Regulation, 124 freedom of choice Rome Convention, 107 Rome I Regulation, 120 habitual residence, 125 incapacity Rome Convention, 110 Rome I Regulation, 124 insurance contracts, 122 – 123 introduction, 1 , 3 – 4 mandatory rules of law Rome Convention, 109 Rome I Regulation, 123 material validity Rome Convention, 109 Rome I Regulation, 123 multiple liability, 125 ordre public Rome Convention, 110 Rome I Regulation, 126 public policy Rome Convention, 110 Rome I Regulation, 126 renvoi , exclusion of Rome Convention, 110 Rome I Regulation, 126 Rome Convention generally, 3 – 4 parties, 114 – 115 Protocol, 113 text, 106 – 113 Rome I Regulation generally, 3 – 4 text, 115 – 127 scope of applicable law Rome Convention, 109 Rome I Regulation, 125 set-off, 125 subrogation Rome Convention, 110 Rome I Regulation, 124 – 125 voluntary assignment Rome Convention, 110 Rome I Regulation, 124 – 125 Apportionment collision, 363 – 364 insurance, 416 – 417 salvage by court, 667 by receiver, 666 generally, 676 Arbitration appointment of arbitrators failure of appointment procedure, 142 number of arbitrators, 141 power to appoint sole arbitrator in case of default, 142 procedure, 141 – 142 Page 1122 arbitral proceedings concurrent hearings, 147 consolidation of proceedings, 147 general duty of parties, 132 , 148 general duty of tribunal, 132 , 146 general powers exercisable by tribunal, 147 – 148 legal or other representation, 147 overview of tribunal’s powers, 132 power to appoint experts, legal advisers or assessors, 147 powers of tribunal in case of party’s default, 148 procedural and evidential matters, 146 – 147 provisional awards, 148 Arbitration Act 1996 background, 130 overview, 130 – 134 text, 134 – 170 arbitration agreements definition, 139 discharge by death of party, 139 separability, 139 writing, 138 – 139 arbitrators appointment, 141 – 142 chairman, 142 – 143 court to have regard to agreed qualifications, 142 death of arbitrator or appointing party, 144 decision-making where no chairman or umpire, 143 filling of vacancies, 144 immunity, 145 introduction, 131 liability of parties for arbitrators’ fees and expenses, 145 number, 141 removal by court, 143 – 144 resignation, 144 revocation of authority, 143 umpire, 143 assessors, 147 awards additional awards, 153 appeal on point of law, 133 , 156 challenges, 155 – 156 correction, 153 date, 152 different issues, 150 – 151 effect, 153 enforcement, 133 – 134 , 154 – 155 extension of time for making award, 151 form, 152 interest, 151 notification, 152 place where award treated as made, 152 provisional awards, 148 remedies, 151 rules applicable to substance of dispute, 150 settlement, 151 – 152 withholding in case of non-payment, 152 – 153 chairman, 142 – 143 challenges to awards appeal on point of law, 133 , 156 serious irregularity, 155 – 156 substantive jurisdiction, 155 charge to secure payment of solicitors’ costs, 158 commencement application of Limitation Acts, 140 court’s power to extend time limit, 140 generally, 141 common law, matters governed by, 160 concurrent hearings, 147 consolidation of proceedings, 147 consumer arbitration agreements, 163 costs agreement to pay costs in any event, 153 awards of costs, 153 effect of agreement or award about costs, 154 generally, 153 limitation of recoverable costs, 154 overview, 133 recoverable costs, 154 recoverable fees and expenses of arbitrators, 154 County Court jurisdiction, 166 – 167 small claims arbitration, 163 court’s powers (arbitral proceedings) determination of preliminary points of law, 150 enforcement of peremptory orders of tribunal, 149 extension of time limits, 159 overview, 133 powers exercisable in support of arbitral proceedings, 149 – 150 removal of arbitrators, 143 – 144 securing attendance of witnesses, 149 service of documents, 158 – 159 court’s powers (awards) appeal on point of law, 133 , 156 challenges to awards, 155 – 156 effect of order of court, 157 enforcement of awards, 133 – 134 , 154 – 155 supplementary provisions, 156 – 157 death of arbitrator or appointing party, 144 domestic arbitration agreements exclusion of court’s jurisdiction, 162 modification of Part I, 161 – 162 power to repeal or amend ss. 85 – 87 , 162 stay of legal proceedings, 162 enforcement of awards court’s powers, 154 – 155 Geneva Convention awards, 165 introduction, 133 – 134 New York Convention awards, 165 – 166 evidential matters, 146 – 147 experts, 147 general duty of tribunal, 132 , 146 general principles, 137 Geneva Convention awards, 133 – 134 , 165 High Court jurisdiction, 166 – 167 immunity of arbitral institutions, 158 interest on awards, 151 introduction, 129 judge-arbitrators, 163 – 164 , 168 – 170 Page 1123 jurisdiction of courts, 166 – 167 jurisdiction of tribunal competence to rule on own jurisdiction, 145 determination of preliminary point, 146 objections to substantive jurisdiction, 145 – 146 legal advisers, 147 legal or other representation, 147 LMAA arbitration generally, 129 – 130 LMAA Fast and Low Cost Arbitration (FALCA) Rules 1996, 253 – 257 LMAA Intermediate Claims Procedure 2012, 200 – 207 LMAA Intermediate Claims Procedure 2017, 237 – 245 LMAA Mediation Terms 2002, 246 – 249 LMAA Small Claims Procedure 2012, 196 – 199 LMAA Small Claims Procedure 2017, 232 – 236 LMAA Terms 2012, 176 – 195 LMAA Terms 2017, 208 – 231 LMAA/Baltic Exchange Mediation Terms 2009, 249 – 252 loss of right to object, 157 – 158 mandatory provisions, 131 , 138 , 168 New York Convention 1958 parties, 174 – 175 text, 170 – 173 New York Convention awards evidence, 165 – 166 generally, 133 – 134 , 165 refusal of recognition/enforcement, 166 saving for other bases of recognition/enforcement, 166 non-mandatory provisions, 138 notice in connection with legal proceedings, 159 – 160 number of arbitrators, 141 object, 137 parties’ general duty, 132 , 148 procedural matters, 146 – 147 provisional awards, 148 removal of arbitrators, 143 – 144 requirements in connection with legal proceedings, 159 – 160 resignation of arbitrators, 144 rights of persons taking no part in proceedings, 157 salvage introduction, 662 Lloyd’s Standard Salvage and Arbitration Clauses, 693 – 697 publication of awards, 678 seat of arbitration, 138 service of documents court’s powers, 158 – 159 generally, 158 small claims County Court arbitration, 163 LMAA Small Claims Procedure 2012, 196 – 199 LMAA Small Claims Procedure 2017, 232 – 236 statutory arbitrations, 164 – 165 stay of legal proceedings domestic arbitration agreements, 162 generally, 139 reference of interpleader issue to arbitration, 140 retention of security where Admiralty proceedings stayed, 140 time limits commencement of arbitration, 140 – 141 court’s power to extend, 159 reckoning periods of time, 159 tribunal’s powers appointment of experts, legal advisers or assessors, 147 default of party, 148 general powers, 147 – 148 overview, 132 procedural and evidential matters, 146 – 147 umpire, 143 Arrest Arrest Convention 1952 parties, 8 – 9 text, 4 – 8 exercise of right of arrest, 11 International Convention on Arrest of Ships 1999 generally, 2 parties, 15 text, 10 – 15 introduction, 1 – 2 jurisdiction on merits of the case, 13 maritime liens, 13 multiple arrest, 12 powers of arrest, 11 protection of owners and demise charterers, 12 rearrest, 12 release from arrest, 11 – 12 security for claims, 3 , 29 Asbatankvoy Charterparty text, 959 – 962 Athens Convention 1974 annexes, 309 – 316 application within British Islands, 293 Convention to have force of law, 270 , 275 Domestic Carriage Order 1987, 288 generally, 262 IMO reservation and guidelines, 310 – 316 parties, 284 – 286 Protocol 2002, 293 provisions having effect in connection with Convention, 275 – 277 text, 299 – 316 United Kingdom Carriers Order 1998, 288 – 289 Baltime 1939 Charterparty text, 859 – 863 Barecon 2017 Charterparty text, 937 – 958 Bills of lading cargo claims contents of bill, 339 – 340 evidentiary effect of bill, 321 , 340 issue of bill, 339 reservations, 340 forms Combiconbill 1995, 847 – 848 Combiconbill 2016, 849 – 850 Congenbill 1994, 833 – 834 Congenbill 2007, 835 – 836 Congenbill 2016, 837 – 838 Page 1124 Conlinebill 2000, 839 – 840 Conlinebill 2016, 841 – 842 Conlinebooking 2000, 843 – 844 Conlinebooking 2016, 845 – 846 introduction, 832 Multidoc 2016, 851 – 852 United States bill as prima facie evidence, 355 contents of bill, 354 – 355 generally, 354 “shipped” bill of lading, 355 Booking notes Conlinebooking 2000, 843 – 844 Conlinebooking 2016, 845 – 846 introduction, 832 Bottomry insurance, 406 Boxtime 2004 Charterparty text, 914 – 929 BPTIME 3 Charterparty text, 1000 – 1018 BPVOY 5 Charterparty text, 963 – 999 Brussels Limitation Convention 1957 generally, 259 parties, 284 – 286 SDR Protocol 1979, 268 – 269 text, 263 – 268 Brussels Regulation (Recast) enforcement of judgments generally, 85 – 86 , 88 refusal of enforcement, 87 generally, 2 – 3 jurisdiction consumer contracts, 80 – 81 employment contracts, 81 examination as to jurisdiction and admissibility, 82 – 83 exclusive jurisdiction, 81 – 82 general provisions, 78 insurance-related matters, 79 – 80 lis pendens , 83 – 84 prorogation of jurisdiction, 82 provisional/protective measures, 84 related actions, 83 – 84 special jurisdiction, 78 – 79 recognition of judgments generally, 85 , 88 refusal of recognition, 86 – 87 text, 72 – 103 Bunker Pollution Convention 2001 generally, 540 parties, 595 – 596 text, 583 – 590 Canal authorities limitation of liability, 263 , 272 Cargo claims absolute warranty of seaworthiness not to be implied, 328 bills of lading contents, 339 – 340 evidentiary effect, 340 issue, 339 reservations, 340 British possessions, 328 – 329 Carriage of Goods by Sea Act 1971 generally, 318 text, 327 – 334 Carriage of Goods by Sea Act 1992 generally, 321 text, 351 – 353 carrier’s liability actual carrier, 338 basis of liability, 336 – 337 deck cargo, 337 – 338 limits of liability, 337 loss of right to limit responsibility, 337 non-contractual claims, 337 period of responsibility, 336 through carriage, 338 carriers’ obligations, 317 – 320 claims and actions arbitration, 342 – 343 jurisdiction, 342 limitation of actions, 341 – 342 notice of loss, damage or delay, 341 contractual stipulations, 343 conversion of SDRs into sterling, 328 dangerous goods, 339 evidential value of bills of lading, 321 general average, 343 guarantees by shipper, 340 – 341 Hague Rules English law, 318 generally, 317 – 319 outline, 318 – 319 parties, 348 – 350 text, 322 – 327 Hague-Visby Rules generally, 317 – 318 parties, 348 – 350 Parties to Convention Order 1985, 346 SDR Protocol, 318 Hamburg Rules common understanding, 346 generally, 319 – 320 outline, 319 – 320 parties, 348 – 350 text, 334 – 346 introduction, 317 jurisdiction, 342 limitation of actions, 341 – 342 notice of loss, damage or delay, 341 Rotterdam Rules, 320 shipper’s liability dangerous goods, 339 general rule, 338 – 339 shipping documents introduction, 321 liabilities, 352 Page 1125 representations in bills of lading, 352 rights, 351 – 352 title to sue, 320 – 321 transport documents bills of lading, 339 – 340 documents other than bill of lading, 341 guarantees by shipper, 340 – 341 unit of account generally, 344 revision, 345 – 346 United States Carriage of Goods by Sea Act 1936, 354 – 359 generally, 321 – 322 Carriage of Goods by Sea Act 1971 generally, 318 text, 327 – 334 Carriage of Goods by Sea Act 1992 generally, 321 text, 351 – 353 Change of voyage insurance, 411 Charterparties forms Asbatankvoy, 959 – 962 Baltime 1939, 859 – 863 Barecon 2017, 937 – 958 Boxtime 2004, 914 – 929 BPTIME 3 , 1000 – 1018 BPVOY 5 , 963 – 999 Gencon 1976, 853 – 855 Gencon 1994, 856 – 858 introduction, 832 LNGVOY, 1057 – 1077 NYPE 1946, 864 – 867 NYPE 1993, 868 – 883 NYPE 2015, 884 – 913 ShellLNGTime 1 , 1078 – 1105 Shelltime 4 , 1040 – 1056 Shellvoy 6 , 1019 – 1039 Civil Jurisdiction and Judgments Act 1982 bar on further proceedings on same cause of action, 31 Channels Islands, Isle of Man and colonies, 31 domicile corporations and associations, 32 – 34 , 43 Crown, 35 – 36 deemed domicile, 34 – 35 , 43 individuals, 31 – 32 , 42 trusts, 35 , 43 general provisions, 36 – 37 implementation of Conventions, 24 – 28 interim relief and protective measures, 28 – 29 overseas judgments given in breach of settlement agreement, 30 savings for powers to stay, assist, strike out or dismiss proceedings, 36 seat of corporations and associations, 32 – 34 security in case of stay, 29 steps not amounting to submission to jurisdiction of overseas court, 30 transitional provisions, 39 Civil Liability Convention 1969 generally, 538 parties, 591 – 595 text, 541 – 549 Collision apportionment of liability, 363 – 364 civil liability, 362 Collision Convention 1910 generally, 363 parties, 398 – 399 text, 395 – 397 Collision Convention 1952 generally, 2 parties, 18 – 19 text, 15 – 18 Collision Convention 1972 generally, 361 text, 372 – 394 Collision Regulations 1972 application, 362 generally, 361 outline, 362 – 363 text, 361 – 394 conduct of vessels in any condition of visibility action to avoid collision, 376 look-out, 375 narrow channels, 376 – 377 risk of collision, 376 safe speed, 375 – 376 traffic separation schemes, 377 conduct of vessels in restricted visibility, 379 – 380 conduct of vessels in sight of one another action by give-way vessel, 378 action by stand-on vessel, 379 crossing situation, 378 head-on situation, 378 overtaking, 378 responsibilities between vessels, 379 sailing vessels, 378 contribution, 364 criminal liability, 361 death, 364 detention of ships, 367 distress signals, 366 – 367 , 386 , 394 exemptions, 367 , 387 in personam actions, restrictions on, 22 – 23 introduction, 361 joint and several liability, 364 lights and shapes anchored vessels, 384 application, 380 definitions, 380 exemptions, 387 fishing vessels, 382 – 383 , 392 pilot vessels, 384 positioning, 388 – 391 power-driven vessels underway, 381 restricted manoeuvrability vessels, 383 – 384 sailing vessels underway, 382 seaplanes, 384 technical details, 388 – 391 Page 1126 towing and pushing, 381 – 382 vessels aground, 384 vessels constrained by draught, 384 vessels not under command, 383 – 384 vessels underoars, 382 visibility of lights, 380 – 381 Merchant Shipping Act 1995 generally, 362 text, 363 – 365 Merchant Shipping (Distress Signals and Prevention of Collisions) Regulations 1996 generally, 361 text, 365 – 367 Merchant Shipping Notice, 361 , 368 – 371 penalties, 367 personal injury, 364 responsibility, 374 restricted visibility conduct of vessels, 379 – 380 sound signals, 386 sound and light signals definitions, 384 – 385 distress signals, 386 equipment for sound signals, 385 exemptions, 387 manoeuvring and warning signals, 385 signals to attract attention, 386 sound signals in restricted visibility, 386 technical details, 392 – 394 steering and sailing rules conduct of vessels in any condition of visibility, 375 – 377 conduct of vessels in restricted visibility, 379 – 380 conduct of vessels in sight of one another, 378 – 379 time limit for proceedings, 364 – 365 verification of compliance with Convention provisions, 387 – 388 Combiconbill Combiconbill 1995, 847 – 848 Combiconbill 2016, 849 – 850 Combined transport documents Combiconbill 1995, 847 – 848 Combiconbill 2016, 849 – 850 introduction, 832 Multidoc 2016, 851 – 852 Congenbill Congenbill 1994, 833 – 834 Congenbill 2007, 835 – 836 Congenbill 2016, 837 – 838 Conlinebooking Conlinebooking 2000, 843 – 844 Conlinebooking 2016, 845 – 846 Conservancy authorities limitation of liability, 263 , 272 Constructive total loss insurance, 414 Consumer contracts applicable law Rome Convention, 108 Rome I Regulation, 121 – 122 jurisdiction Brussels Regulation (Recast), 80 – 81 Lugano Convention, 47 – 48 Contingent interests insurance, 406 Contracts (Applicable Law) Act 1990 Conventions to have force of law, 104 – 105 Crown application, 106 disapplication where rules of Rome I Regulation apply, 105 – 106 interpretation of Conventions, 105 revision of Conventions, 105 Rome Convention, 106 – 113 text, 104 – 113 Contribution collision, 364 insurance, 418 Criminal offences collision, 361 , 367 oil pollution prosecution and enforcement of fines, 608 – 609 shipping casualties, 606 waste reception facilities at harbours, 602 CRISTAL oil pollution, 537 Crossing situation avoidance of collision, 378 Death arbitrator or appointing party, 144 collision, 364 limitation of liability, 304 Defeasible interests insurance, 406 Delay in voyage insurance, 412 Detention of ships see also Arrest collision, 367 oil pollution, 609 – 611 uninsured ships arbitration on questions of detention, 292 compensation for unjustified detention, 292 generally, 291 – 292 Deviation from voyage insurance, 411 , 412 Discharge of oil acts done in exercise of harbour authorities’ powers, 603 – 604 authorisation under other enactments, 604 defences, 603 duty to report discharge, 604 generally, 602 – 603 restrictions on transfer of oil at night, 604 Distress signals avoidance of collision, 366 – 367 , 386 , 394 Dock authorities limitation of liability, 263 , 272 Domestic carriage limitation of liability, 288 , 293 Page 1127 Domicile corporations and associations, 32 – 34 , 43 Crown, 35 – 36 deemed domicile, 34 – 35 , 43 individuals, 31 – 32 , 42 trusts, 35 , 43 Drilling units salvage, 674 Duty of fair presentation see Marine insurance Employment contracts applicable law Rome Convention, 108 – 109 Rome I Regulation, 123 jurisdiction Brussels Regulation (Recast), 81 Lugano Convention, 48 – 49 Enforcement of judgments see Recognition and enforcement of judgments Exclusive jurisdiction Brussels Regulation (Recast), 81 – 82 Lugano Convention, 49 FALCA Rules LMAA arbitration, 253 – 257 Fire damage to valuables on British ships, 263 Fishing vessels lights and shapes, 382 – 383 , 392 Floating policies insurance, 408 – 409 Formal validity of contract Rome Convention, 109 Rome I Regulation, 124 Forms see Standard forms and under specific subjects Forum non conveniens jurisdiction, 2 – 3 Fraudulent insurance claims generally, 426 – 427 Fund Convention 1971 oil pollution, 538 Fund Convention 1992 generally, 538 – 539 parties, 591 – 595 Supplementary Fund Protocol 2003 generally, 539 parties, 591 – 595 text, 573 – 583 text, 558 – 573 tonnage, 541 Gencon Charterparty Gencon 1976, 853 – 855 Gencon 1994, 856 – 858 General average cargo claims, 343 generally, 664 insurance general average contributions, 417 general average loss, 415 United States, 357 York-Antwerp Rules 1974 Rules, 800 – 805 1994 Rules, 805 – 811 2004 Rules, 805 – 811 2016 Rules, 819 – 830 Give-way vessel avoidance of collision, 378 Government ships oil pollution, 612 , 625 salvage, 674 wreck removal, 673 Guarantees cargo claims, 340 – 341 salvage generally, 661 – 662 , 677 Salvage Guarantee Form ISU 1 , 710 – 711 Salvage Guarantee Form ISU 2 , 712 – 714 Salvage Guarantee Form ISU 4 , 715 – 716 Salvage Guarantee Form ISU 5 , 717 – 719 Habitual residence applicable law, 125 Hague Rules English law, 318 generally, 317 – 319 outline, 318 – 319 parties, 348 – 350 text, 322 – 327 Hague-Visby Rules generally, 317 – 318 parties, 348 – 350 Parties to Convention Order 1985, 346 SDR Protocol, 318 Hamburg Rules common understanding, 346 generally, 319 – 320 outline, 319 – 320 parties, 348 – 350 text, 334 – 346 Harbour authorities limitation of liability, 263 , 272 Head-on situation avoidance of collision, 378 High Court jurisdiction Admiralty jurisdiction, 18 – 24 Channel Islands, Isle of Man and colonies, 21 – 22 general jurisdiction, 18 mode of exercise of Admiralty jurisdiction, 21 – 22 prize jurisdiction, 23 restrictions on actions in personam , 22 – 23 supplementary provisions as to Admiralty jurisdiction, 23 Hull clauses see Marine insurance Humanitarian cargoes salvage, 678 Institute Clauses see Marine insurance Page 1128 Insurance see Marine insurance Inter-Club New York Produce Exchange Agreement 1996 text, 930 – 932 Inter-Club New York Produce Exchange Agreement 1996 (amended 2011) text, 933 – 936 Interest arbitration awards, 151 judgments, 41 salvage, 678 Interim relief absence of substantive proceedings, 28 – 29 Brussels Regulation (Recast), 84 cases of doubtful jurisdiction, 28 Civil Jurisdiction and Judgments Act 1982 (Interim Relief) Order 1997, 38 English law, 28 – 29 , 38 introduction, 3 Lugano Convention, 51 International Convention on Arrest of Ships 1999 generally, 2 parties, 15 text, 10 – 15 International Oil Pollution Compensation Fund see Oil pollution ISU forms see Salvage Jurisdiction Admiralty jurisdiction of High Court Channel Islands, Isle of Man and colonies, 21 – 22 generally, 18 – 21 introduction, 2 mode of exercise, 21 – 22 restrictions on actions in personam , 22 – 23 supplementary provisions, 23 Brussels Regulation (Recast) consumer contracts, 80 – 81 employment contracts, 81 examination as to jurisdiction and admissibility, 82 – 83 exclusive jurisdiction, 81 – 82 general provisions, 78 insurance-related matters, 79 – 80 introduction, 2 – 3 lis pendens , 83 – 84 prorogation of jurisdiction, 82 provisional/protective measures, 84 related actions, 83 – 84 special jurisdiction, 78 – 79 text, 72 – 103 Channel Islands, 21 – 22 Collision Convention 1952 introduction, 2 parties, 18 – 19 text, 15 – 18 colonies, 21 – 22 consumer contracts Brussels Regulation (Recast), 80 – 81 Lugano Convention, 47 – 48 employment contracts Brussels Regulation (Recast), 81 Lugano Convention, 48 – 49 examination as to jurisdiction and admissibility Brussels Regulation (Recast), 82 – 83 Lugano Convention, 50 exclusive jurisdiction Brussels Regulation (Recast), 81 – 82 Lugano Convention, 49 forum non conveniens , 2 – 3 general jurisdiction of High Court, 18 generally, 1 – 2 High Court Admiralty jurisdiction, 18 – 24 Channel Islands, Isle of Man and colonies, 21 – 22 general jurisdiction, 18 mode of exercise of Admiralty jurisdiction, 21 – 22 prize jurisdiction, 23 restrictions on actions in personam , 22 – 23 supplementary provisions as to Admiralty jurisdiction, 23 in personam actions, restrictions on, 22 – 23 insurance-related matters Brussels Regulation (Recast), 79 – 80 Lugano Convention, 46 – 47 Isle of Man, 21 – 22 lis pendens Brussels Regulation (Recast), 83 – 84 Lugano Convention, 50 – 51 Lugano Convention 2007 annexes, 65 – 71 consumer contracts, 47 – 48 employment contracts, 48 – 49 examination as to jurisdiction and admissibility, 50 exclusive jurisdiction, 49 general provisions as to jurisdiction, 44 – 45 insurance-related matters, 46 – 47 introduction, 2 – 3 lis pendens , 50 – 51 parties, 71 prorogation of jurisdiction, 49 – 50 Protocols, 61 – 65 provisional/protective measures, 51 related actions, 50 – 51 relationship with Brussels I Regulation, 56 – 58 special jurisdiction, 45 – 46 text, 44 – 71 prize jurisdiction of High Court, 23 prorogation of jurisdiction Brussels Regulation (Recast), 82 Lugano Convention, 49 – 50 provisional/protective measures Brussels Regulation (Recast), 84 Lugano Convention, 51 related actions Brussels Regulation (Recast), 83 – 84 Lugano Convention, 50 – 51 Senior Courts Act 1981, 18 – 24 special jurisdiction Brussels Regulation (Recast), 78 – 79 Lugano Convention, 45 – 46 Page 1129 Liability Convention 1992 generally, 538 – 539 parties, 591 – 595 text, 549 – 558 Liens see Maritime liens Lights and shapes anchored vessels, 384 application, 380 definitions, 380 exemptions, 387 fishing vessels, 382 – 383 , 392 pilot vessels, 384 positioning, 388 – 391 power-driven vessels underway, 381 restricted manoeuvrability vessels, 383 – 384 sailing vessels underway, 382 seaplanes, 384 technical details, 388 – 391 towing and pushing, 381 – 382 vessels aground, 384 vessels constrained by draught, 384 vessels not under command, 383 – 384 vessels underoars, 382 visibility of lights, 380 – 381 Limitation Convention 1976 Convention to have force of law, 271 generally, 260 parties, 284 – 286 Protocol, 260 provisions having effect in connection with Convention, 282 – 284 provisions omitted from 1995 Act, 260 – 261 text, 277 – 281 Limitation of liability (cargo claims) Hague Rules English law, 318 generally, 317 – 319 outline, 318 – 319 parties, 348 – 350 text, 322 – 327 Hague-Visby Rules generally, 317 – 318 parties, 348 – 350 Parties to Convention Order 1985, 346 SDR Protocol, 318 Hamburg Rules common understanding, 346 generally, 319 – 320 outline, 319 – 320 parties, 348 – 350 text, 334 – 346 introduction, 261 Limitation of liability (maritime claims) Brussels Convention 1957 generally, 259 parties, 284 – 286 SDR Protocol 1979, 268 – 269 text, 263 – 268 canal authorities, 263 , 272 carriage of passengers and luggage by sea, 270 – 271 conservancy authorities, 263 , 272 Crown application, 273 dock authorities, 263 , 272 domestic carriage, 288 , 293 fire damage to valuables on British ships, 263 harbour authorities, 263 , 272 insurance arbitration on questions of detention, 292 certificates, 290 compensation for unjustified detention, 292 detention of ship, 291 – 292 fees, 292 issue of certificates, 290 – 291 penalties, 291 provision of information to passengers, 292 requirement to have insurance, 290 review of regulations, 293 introduction, 259 – 260 Limitation Convention 1976 Convention to have force of law, 271 generally, 260 parties, 284 – 286 Protocol, 260 provisions having effect in connection with Convention, 282 – 284 provisions omitted from 1995 Act, 260 – 261 text, 277 – 281 limitation fund, 280 – 281 limits of liability, 278 – 280 Merchant Shipping Act 1995 generally, 260 text, 270 – 284 Merchant Shipping (Carriage of Passengers by Sea) Regulations 2012, 289 – 293 pilotage, 263 , 287 right of limitation, 277 – 278 salvors, 271 – 272 SDR Protocol 1979 generally, 259 parties, 284 – 286 text, 268 – 269 shipowners, 271 – 272 UK carriers, 288 – 289 Limitation of liability (oil pollution claims) concurrent liabilities of owners and others, 620 establishment of limitation fund outside UK, 620 generally, 262 – 263 , 618 introduction, 540 limitation actions, 618 – 619 restrictions on enforcement after establishment of limitation fund, 619 – 620 specified damage to property, 625 Limitation of liability (passenger claims) advance payment, 296 aggregation of claims, 305 amendment of limits, 307 – 308 Athens Convention 1974 annexes, 309 – 316 application within British Islands, 293 Convention to have force of law, 270 , 275 Domestic Carriage Order 1987, 288 generally, 262 IMO reservation and guidelines, 310 – 316 parties, 284 – 286 Page 1130 Protocol 2002, 293 provisions having effect in connection with Convention, 275 – 277 text, 299 – 316 United Kingdom Carriers Order 1998, 288 – 289 basis for claims, 305 carriers’ servants, 305 commercial carriage by public authorities, 307 compensation in respect of mobility or other specific equipment, 296 contributory fault, 303 conversion, 304 death, 304 EU Regulation 2009 introduction, 262 relevant provisions of Athens Convention, 299 – 316 text, 294 – 316 global limitation on liability, 296 IMO reservation and guidelines, 310 – 316 information to passengers, 296 – 297 insurance Athens Convention, 301 – 303 , 309 EU Regulation 2009, 296 introduction, 262 invalidity of contractual provisions, 306 liability of carrier, 300 – 301 limit of liability amendment of limits, 307 – 308 death and personal injury, 304 loss or damage to luggage and vehicles, 304 supplementary provisions, 305 loss of right to limit liability, 305 loss or damage to luggage and vehicles, 304 Merchant Shipping Act 1995 generally, 262 text, 270 – 284 notice of loss or damage to luggage, 305 – 306 nuclear damage, 307 performing carrier, 301 personal injury, 304 time-bar for actions, 306 unit of account, 304 valuables, 303 Lis pendens Brussels Regulation (Recast), 83 – 84 Lugano Convention, 50 – 51 Lloyd’s forms Lloyd’s Marine Policy (MAR 91), 404 , 446 – 449 salvage Lloyd’s Open Form 2000, 690 Lloyd’s Open Form 2011, 691 – 692 Lloyd’s Procedural Rules, 698 – 699 Lloyd’s Standard Salvage and Arbitration Clauses, 662 , 693 – 697 LMAA arbitration generally, 129 – 130 LMAA Fast and Low Cost Arbitration (FALCA) Rules 1996, 253 – 257 LMAA Intermediate Claims Procedure 2012, 200 – 207 LMAA Intermediate Claims Procedure 2017, 237 – 245 LMAA Mediation Terms 2002, 246 – 249 LMAA Small Claims Procedure 2012, 196 – 199 LMAA Small Claims Procedure 2017, 232 – 236 LMAA Terms 2012, 176 – 195 LMAA Terms 2017, 208 – 231 LMAA/Baltic Exchange Mediation Terms 2009, 249 – 252 LNGVOY Charterparty text, 1057 – 1077 London Maritime Arbitrators Association see LMAA arbitration Look-outs avoidance of collision, 375 Lugano Convention 2007 annexes, 65 – 71 enforcement of judgments, 52 – 55 generally, 2 – 3 jurisdiction consumer contracts, 47 – 48 employment contracts, 48 – 49 examination as to jurisdiction and admissibility, 50 exclusive jurisdiction, 49 general provisions as to jurisdiction, 44 – 45 insurance-related matters, 46 – 47 lis pendens , 50 – 51 prorogation of jurisdiction, 49 – 50 provisional/protective measures, 51 related actions, 50 – 51 special jurisdiction, 45 – 46 parties, 71 Protocols, 61 – 65 recognition of judgments, 51 – 52 , 54 – 55 relationship with Brussels I Regulation, 56 – 58 text, 44 – 71 Luggage carriage of passengers and luggage by sea, 270 – 271 loss or damage, 304 notice of loss or damage, 305 – 306 Mandatory rules of law Rome Convention, 109 Rome I Regulation, 123 Manoeuvring signals avoidance of collision, 385 Marine insurance abandonment, notice of, 414 – 415 actual total loss, 413 advance freight, 406 alteration of port of departure, 411 applicable law, 122 – 123 apportionment of valuation, 416 – 417 assignment of interest, 407 assignment of policy, 403 , 412 bottomry, 406 cargo clauses Institute Cargo Clauses (A), 454 – 458 Institute Cargo Clauses (B), 459 – 463 Institute Cargo Clauses (C), 464 – 468 change of voyage, 411 charges of insurance, 406 commencement of risk, 411 Page 1131 conclusion of contract, 407 constructive total loss, 414 contingent interests, 406 contracting out, 428 – 429 contribution, 418 defeasible interests, 406 definition, 405 delay in voyage, 412 deviation from voyage, 411 , 412 different destination, sailing for, 411 discharge from liability, 403 disclosure, 407 double insurance, 409 duty of fair presentation application and interpretation, 423 generally, 423 – 424 knowledge (general), 425 knowledge of insured, 424 knowledge of insurer, 424 – 425 remedies for breach, 425 , 430 – 432 supplementary provisions, 425 extent of insurer’s liability, 415 – 416 failure of consideration, 419 floating policies, 408 – 409 forms generally, 404 Institute Cargo Clauses (A), 454 – 458 Institute Cargo Clauses (B), 459 – 463 Institute Cargo Clauses (C), 464 – 468 Institute Strikes Clauses (Cargo) Institute Time Clauses Hulls, 477 – 486 Institute Time Clauses Hulls (Restricted Perils), 487 – 498 Institute Voyage Clauses Hulls 1983, 499 – 507 Institute Voyage Clauses Hulls 1995, 508 – 515 Institute War and Strikes Clauses (Hulls – Time), 515 – 516 Institute War and Strikes Clauses (Hulls – Voyage), 517 – 518 Institute War Clauses (Cargo), 469 – 472 International Hull Clauses, 519 – 536 International Underwriting Association Marine Policy, 450 – 453 Lloyd’s Marine Policy (MAR 91), 404 , 446 – 449 fraudulent claims, 426 – 427 general average contributions, 417 general average loss, 415 good faith, 407 , 428 hull clauses Institute Time Clauses Hulls, 477 – 486 Institute Time Clauses Hulls (Restricted Perils), 487 – 498 Institute Voyage Clauses Hulls 1983, 499 – 507 Institute Voyage Clauses Hulls 1995, 508 – 515 Institute War and Strikes Clauses (Hulls – Time), 515 – 516 Institute War and Strikes Clauses (Hulls – Voyage), 517 – 518 International Hull Clauses, 519 – 536 implied obligations varied by agreement or usage, 419 – 420 Institute Clauses generally, 404 Institute Cargo Clauses (A), 454 – 458 Institute Cargo Clauses (B), 459 – 463 Institute Cargo Clauses (C), 464 – 468 Institute Strikes Clauses (Cargo) Institute Time Clauses Hulls, 477 – 486 Institute Time Clauses Hulls (Restricted Perils), 487 – 498 Institute Voyage Clauses Hulls 1983, 499 – 507 Institute Voyage Clauses Hulls 1995, 508 – 515 Institute War and Strikes Clauses (Hulls – Time), 515 – 516 Institute War and Strikes Clauses (Hulls – Voyage), 517 – 518 Institute War Clauses (Cargo), 469 – 472 insurable interests advance freight, 406 assignment of interest, 407 avoidance of wagering/gaming contracts, 405 bottomry, 406 charges of insurance, 406 contingent interests, 406 defeasible interests, 406 definition, 405 – 406 master’s and seamen’s wages, 406 partial interests, 406 quantum of interest, 406 reinsurance, 406 when interest must attach, 406 insurable value, 407 Insurance Act 2015 generally, 401 – 402 text, 423 – 432 insurer’s right of recovery, 403 International Underwriting Association Marine Policy, 450 – 453 interpretation of policy terms, 420 , 421 – 422 introduction, 401 – 402 jurisdiction Brussels Regulation (Recast), 79 – 80 Lugano Convention, 46 – 47 late payment of claims, 427 – 428 Lloyd’s Marine Policy (MAR 91), 404 , 446 – 449 loss, 413 – 414 marine adventure, 405 Marine Insurance Act 1906 generally, 401 – 403 text, 405 – 422 maritime claims arbitration on questions of detention, 292 certificates, 290 compensation for unjustified detention, 292 detention of ship, 291 – 292 fees, 292 issue of certificates, 290 – 291 penalties, 291 provision of information to passengers, 292 requirement to have insurance, 290 review of regulations, 293 maritime perils, 405 master’s and seamen’s wages, 406 Page 1132 measure of indemnity apportionment of valuation, 416 – 417 extent of insurer’s liability, 415 – 416 general average contributions, 417 general provisions, 417 liabilities to third parties, 417 partial loss, 416 particular average warranties, 417 salvage charges, 417 successive losses, 417 suing and labouring clause, 418 total loss, 416 missing ship, 413 mixed sea and land risks, 405 mutual insurance, 419 oil pollution bunker oil, 621 – 622 generally, 620 – 621 issue of certificates, 622 third party rights against insurers, 623 partial interests, 406 partial loss generally, 413 , 415 measure of indemnity, 416 particular average loss, 415 particular average warranties, 417 passenger claims Athens Convention, 301 – 303 , 309 EU Regulation 2009, 296 policy assignment, 403 , 412 contract must be embodied in policy, 407 designation of subject matter, 408 floating policies, 408 – 409 form, 409 , 420 – 421 interpretation of terms, 420 , 421 – 422 introduction, 402 matters to be specified, 408 premium to be arranged, 409 signature of insurer, 408 unvalued policies, 408 valued policies, 408 voyage and time policies, 408 premium generally, 402 , 412 – 413 return, 418 – 419 quantum of interest, 406 ratification by assured, 419 reasonable time, 420 receipt for premium, 413 recovery under the policy, 402 reinsurance, 406 representations, 407 return of premium, 418 – 419 rights of insurer on payment, 418 salvage charges, 415 , 417 several ports of discharge, 411 – 412 slip as evidence, 420 strikes clauses Institute Strikes Clauses (Cargo) Institute War and Strikes Clauses (Hulls – Time), 515 – 516 Institute War and Strikes Clauses (Hulls – Voyage), 517 – 518 subrogation, 418 successive losses, 417 suing and labouring clause, 418 third parties, liabilities to, 417 third party rights against insurers application, 439 conditions affecting transferred rights, 437 corporate bodies, 435 – 436 , 441 – 442 enforcement of insured’s liability, 438 – 439 enforcement of transferred rights, 438 establishing liability, 433 – 434 individuals, 434 individuals dying insolvent, 435 insurer’s right of set-off, 437 introduction, 403 – 404 limit on rights transferred, 437 provision of information, 437 , 442 – 444 Scottish trusts, 436 – 437 supplemental provisions, 439 – 441 , 444 – 445 transfer of rights to third parties, 432 – 433 time clauses Institute Time Clauses Hulls, 477 – 486 Institute Time Clauses Hulls (Restricted Perils), 487 – 498 time policies, 408 total loss actual total loss, 413 constructive total loss, 414 generally, 416 transhipment, 413 – 414 transparency requirements, 429 underinsurance, 418 unvalued policies, 408 utmost good faith abolition of rule, 428 generally, 407 valued policies, 408 void and voidable policies, 402 – 403 voyage, 411 – 412 voyage clauses Institute Voyage Clauses Hulls 1983, 499 – 507 Institute Voyage Clauses Hulls 1995, 508 – 515 voyage policies, 408 wagering/gaming contracts, avoidance of, 405 war clauses Institute War and Strikes Clauses (Hulls – Time), 515 – 516 Institute War and Strikes Clauses (Hulls – Voyage), 517 – 518 Institute War Clauses (Cargo), 469 – 472 warranties Insurance Act 2015, 426 Marine Insurance Act 1906, 409 – 411 wreck removal cancellation of certificates, 671 compulsory insurance or financial security, 684 – 685 detention of ships, 671 electronic certificates, 672 failure to insure, 671 Page 1133 generally, 670 – 671 issue of certificates, 671 production of certificates, 671 third party rights against insurers, 671 – 672 Maritime liens arrest, 13 , 21 salvage, 677 Material validity Rome Convention, 109 Rome I Regulation, 123 Mediation LMAA Mediation Terms 2002, 246 – 249 LMAA/Baltic Exchange Mediation Terms 2009, 249 – 252 Merchant Shipping Act 1995 collision generally, 362 text, 363 – 365 limitation of liability (maritime claims) generally, 260 text, 270 – 284 limitation of liability (passenger claims) generally, 262 text, 270 – 284 oil pollution generally, 538 – 541 text, 597 – 637 salvage, 665 – 687 Merchant Shipping (Distress Signals and Prevention of Collisions) Regulations 1996 generally, 361 text, 365 – 367 Merchant Shipping Notice collision, 361 , 368 – 371 Multidoc 2016 text, 851 – 852 Multimodal transport documents Combiconbill 1995, 847 – 848 Combiconbill 2016, 849 – 850 introduction, 832 Multidoc 2016, 851 – 852 Narrow channels avoidance of collision, 376 – 377 New York Convention 1958 parties, 174 – 175 recognition and enforcement of awards evidence, 165 – 166 generally, 133 – 134 , 165 New York Convention awards, 165 refusal of recognition/enforcement, 166 saving for other bases of recognition/enforcement, 166 text, 170 – 173 Norwegian Saleform Norwegian Saleform 1993, 1106 – 1112 Norwegian Saleform 2012, 1113 – 1120 NYPE Charterparty NYPE 1946, 864 – 867 NYPE 1993, 868 – 883 NYPE 2015, 884 – 913 Offences collision, 361 , 367 oil pollution prosecution and enforcement of fines, 608 – 609 shipping casualties, 606 waste reception facilities at harbours, 602 Oil pollution annual reports, 612 Bunker Pollution Convention 2001 generally, 540 parties, 595 – 596 text, 583 – 590 Civil Liability Convention 1969 generally, 538 parties, 591 – 595 text, 541 – 549 conventions, 538 – 539 CRISTAL, 537 detention of ships, 609 – 611 discharge of oil from ships acts done in exercise of harbour authorities’ powers, 603 – 604 authorisation under other enactments, 604 defences, 603 duty to report discharge, 604 generally, 602 – 603 restrictions on transfer of oil at night, 604 enforcement application of fines, 611 conventions relating to oil pollution, 611 – 612 detention of ships, 609 – 611 oil records, 607 – 608 prosecution and enforcement of fines, 608 – 609 exemptions, power to grant, 612 foreign judgments, registration of, 623 – 624 Fund Convention 1971, 538 Fund Convention 1992 generally, 538 – 539 parties, 591 – 595 Supplementary Fund Protocol 2003, 539 , 573 – 583 text, 558 – 573 tonnage, 541 Government ships, 612 , 625 insurance generally, 620 – 621 issue of certificates, 622 pollution from bunker oil, 621 – 622 third party rights against insurers, 623 International Oil Pollution Compensation Fund compensation, 629 – 632 contributions, 627 – 629 definitions, 627 effect of judgments, 632 – 633 extinguishment of claims, 633 Fund Convention 1992, 558 – 573 interpretation provisions, 634 – 635 jurisdiction, 632 – 633 liability of Fund, 629 – 630 liability of Supplementary Fund, 631 , 636 – 637 limitation of liability of Fund, 630 – 631 , 636 limitation of liability of Supplementary Fund, 631 – 632 power to obtain information, 628 – 629 Page 1134 proceedings involving Fund, 634 subrogation, 633 – 634 Supplementary Fund Protocol 2003, 573 – 583 transitional provisions, 635 introduction, 537 – 538 jurisdiction of UK courts, 623 – 624 liability bunker oil, 614 – 615 compulsory insurance, 620 – 623 concurrent liabilities of owners and others, 620 defences, 540 – 541 definitions, 613 exceptions, 616 extinguishment of claims, 620 limitation of liability, 540 , 618 – 620 limitation periods, 620 other cases, 615 – 616 overview, 540 – 541 owner, 540 persons other than owner, 541 restriction of liability, 616 – 617 supplementary provisions, 617 – 618 tankers, 613 – 614 Liability Convention 1992 generally, 538 – 539 parties, 591 – 595 text, 549 – 558 limitation of liability concurrent liabilities of owners and others, 620 establishment of limitation fund outside UK, 620 generally, 618 introduction, 540 limitation actions, 618 – 619 restrictions on enforcement after establishment of limitation fund, 619 – 620 specified damage to property, 625 limitation tonnage, 541 Merchant Shipping Act 1995 generally, 538 – 541 text, 597 – 637 Merchant Shipping (Pollution) Act 2006, 539 , 637 – 638 prevention of pollution discharge of oil from ships, 602 – 604 enforcement, 607 – 612 generally, 597 – 59 shipping casualties, 604 – 607 transfers between ships in territorial waters, 599 – 600 waste reception facilities at harbours, 600 – 602 prosecutions, 608 – 609 records, 607 – 608 recourse actions, 625 revisions to conventions, power to give effect to, 637 – 638 shipping casualties foreign ships, 607 generally, 604 – 605 offences, 606 pollution by substances other than oil, 606 service of directions, 606 – 607 unreasonable loss or damage, 606 Small Tanker Oil Pollution Indemnification Agreement 2006 generally, 539 text, 649 – 657 Supplementary Fund Protocol 2003 generally, 539 parties, 591 – 595 text, 573 – 583 Tanker Oil Pollution Indemnification Agreement 2006 generally, 539 text, 639 – 648 TOVALOP, 537 transfer of oil transfer at night, 604 transfer between ships in territorial waters, 599 – 600 waste reception facilities at harbours charges, 601 – 602 generally, 600 interpretation provisions, 602 offences, 602 supplementary provisions, 602 use of facilities, 601 waste management plans, 600 – 601 Ordre public Rome Convention, 110 Rome I Regulation, 126 Overtaking avoidance of collision, 378 Particular average particular average loss, 415 particular average warranties, 417 Personal injury collision, 364 limitation of liability, 304 Pilotage lights and shapes on pilot vessels, 384 limitation of liability, 263 , 287 Platforms salvage, 674 Pollution see Oil pollution Prize jurisdiction generally, 23 Prorogation of jurisdiction Brussels Regulation (Recast), 82 Lugano Convention, 49 – 50 Provisional/protective measures absence of substantive proceedings, 28 – 29 Brussels Regulation (Recast), 84 cases of doubtful jurisdiction, 28 Civil Jurisdiction and Judgments Act 1982 (Interim Relief) Order 1997, 38 English law, 28 – 29 , 38 introduction, 3 Lugano Convention, 51 Public policy Rome Convention, 110 Rome I Regulation, 126 Page 1135 Pushing lights and shapes, 381 – 382 Recast Brussels Regulation see Brussels Regulation (Recast) Recognition and enforcement of judgments adaptation orders (Northern Ireland), 40 admissibility of judgments and related documents, 42 allocation of jurisdiction within UK with respect to trusts and consumer contracts, 41 appeals, 41 Brussels Regulation (Recast) enforcement of judgments, 85 – 88 generally, 2 – 3 recognition of judgments, 85 – 88 text, 72 – 103 Civil Jurisdiction and Judgments Act 1982 bar on further proceedings on same cause of action, 31 Channels Islands, Isle of Man and colonies, 31 domicile, 31 – 36 general provisions, 36 – 37 implementation of Conventions, 24 – 28 interim relief and protective measures, 28 – 29 overseas judgments given in breach of settlement agreement, 30 savings for powers to stay, assist, strike out or dismiss proceedings, 36 seat of corporations and associations, 32 – 34 security in case of stay, 29 steps not amounting to submission to jurisdiction of overseas court, 30 transitional provisions, 39 Civil Jurisdiction and Judgments Act 1982 (Interim Relief) Order 1997, 38 Civil Jurisdiction and Judgments Order 2001, 38 – 43 domicile corporations and associations, 32 – 34 , 43 Crown, 35 – 36 deemed domicile, 34 – 35 , 43 individuals, 31 – 32 , 42 trusts, 35 , 43 enforcement of judgments other than maintenance orders, 40 implementation of Conventions, 24 – 28 interest on judgments, 41 interim relief absence of substantive proceedings, 28 – 29 Brussels Regulation (Recast), 84 cases of doubtful jurisdiction, 28 Civil Jurisdiction and Judgments Act 1982 (Interim Relief) Order 1997, 38 English law, 28 – 29 , 38 introduction, 3 Lugano Convention, 51 Lugano Convention 2007 annexes, 65 – 71 enforcement of judgments, 52 – 55 parties, 71 Protocols, 61 – 65 recognition of judgments, 51 – 52 , 54 – 55 relationship with Brussels I Regulation, 56 – 58 text, 44 – 71 proof of judgments and related documents, 42 provisional/protective measures absence of substantive proceedings, 28 – 29 Brussels Regulation (Recast), 84 cases of doubtful jurisdiction, 28 Civil Jurisdiction and Judgments Act 1982 (Interim Relief) Order 1997, 38 English law, 28 – 29 , 38 introduction, 3 Lugano Convention, 51 refusal of recognition or enforcement, 86 – 87 savings for powers to stay, assist, strike out or dismiss proceedings, 36 seat corporations and associations, 32 – 34 , 43 Crown, 35 – 36 security in case of stay, 29 transitional provisions, 39 Reinsurance generally, 406 Related actions Brussels Regulation (Recast), 83 – 84 Lugano Convention, 50 – 51 Renvoi Rome Convention, 110 Rome I Regulation, 126 Restricted manoeuvrability vessels lights and shapes, 383 – 384 Restricted visibility conduct of vessels, 379 – 380 sound signals, 386 Rome Convention generally, 3 – 4 parties, 114 – 115 Protocol, 113 text, 106 – 113 Rome I Regulation generally, 3 – 4 text, 115 – 127 Rotterdam Rules cargo claims, 320 Safe speed avoidance of collision, 375 – 376 Sailing vessels avoidance of collision, 378 Sale and purchase of tonnage introduction, 832 Norwegian Saleform 1993, 1106 – 1112 Norwegian Saleform 2012, 1113 – 1120 Salvage annulment of salvage contracts, 674 apportionment by court, 667 by receiver, 666 generally, 676 arbitration introduction, 662 Lloyd’s Standard Salvage and Arbitration Clauses, 693 – 697 publication of awards, 678 authority of signatory, 660 Page 1136 coastal states’ rights, 675 co-operation, 675 Crown, 667 detention of property, 665 – 666 drilling units, 674 English law, 659 – 660 enhanced awards, 662 – 663 humanitarian cargoes, 678 interest, 678 interim payments, 677 introduction, 659 – 663 ISU forms ISU Sub-Contract (Award Sharing) 2001, 661 , 720 – 724 Salvage Guarantee Form ISU 1 , 710 – 711 Salvage Guarantee Form ISU 2 , 712 – 714 Salvage Guarantee Form ISU 4 , 715 – 716 Salvage Guarantee Form ISU 5 , 717 – 719 ISU Sub-Contract (Award Sharing) 2001, 661 , 720 – 724 limitation of salvor’s liability, 271 – 272 , 663 limitation periods, 677 Lloyd’s Open Form Lloyd’s Open Form 2000, 690 Lloyd’s Open Form 2011, 691 – 692 overview, 659 – 663 Lloyd’s Procedural Rules, 698 – 699 Lloyd’s Standard Salvage and Arbitration Clauses, 662 , 693 – 697 maritime liens, 677 master’s duties, 675 Merchant Shipping Act 1995, 665 – 687 misconduct of salvors, 677 modification of salvage contracts, 674 owner’s duties, 675 persons, 676 platforms, 674 prohibition of salvage operations, 677 publication of arbitral awards, 678 redelivery, 661 rewards apportionment, 676 conditions, 675 criteria for fixing, 675 – 676 special compensation, 676 safety net, 662 – 663 sale of detained property, 666 salvage contracts, 674 Salvage Convention 1989 force of law, 665 parties, 687 – 688 provisions having effect in connection with Convention, 678 – 679 text, 673 – 678 Salvage Guarantee Forms generally, 661 – 662 ISU 1 , 710 – 711 ISU 2 , 712 – 714 ISU 4 , 715 – 716 ISU 5 , 717 – 719 salvage operations coastal states’ rights, 675 co-operation, 675 duties of owner and master, 675 duties of salvor, 675 introduction, 660 – 661 operations controlled by public authorities, 674 prohibition, 677 salvor’s duties, 675 salvors’ rights apportionment between salvors, 676 misconduct, 677 prohibition of salvage operations, 677 rewards, 675 – 676 salvage of persons, 676 services rendered under existing contracts, 677 special compensation, 676 SCOPIC clause Code of Practice (International Group and London Property Underwriters), 709 Code of Practice (ISU and International Group), 708 introduction, 663 Salvage Guarantee Form ISU 5 , 717 – 719 text, 700 – 707 security generally, 661 – 662 , 677 Salvage Guarantee Form ISU 1 , 710 – 711 Salvage Guarantee Form ISU 2 , 712 – 714 Salvage Guarantee Form ISU 4 , 715 – 716 Salvage Guarantee Form ISU 5 , 717 – 719 special compensation, 676 state-owned cargoes, 678 state-owned vessels, 674 sub-contracting introduction, 661 ISU Sub-Contract (Award Sharing) 2001, 720 – 724 termination, 661 valuation of property, 665 wreck removal conditions about removal, 669 costs, 669 – 670 determination of hazard, 682 exceptions to liability, 683 – 684 general lighthouse authorities’ expenses, 670 Government ships, 673 insurance, 670 – 672 insurance or financial security, 684 – 685 introduction, 663 liability of owner, 683 limitation periods, 670 locating wrecks, 668 , 682 marking wrecks, 668 , 682 measures to facilitate removal of wrecks, 682 – 683 removal by registered owner, 668 – 669 removal in default, 669 reports, 668 , 681 – 682 time limits, 685 Wreckfixed 2010, 725 – 735 Wreckhire 2010, 736 – 749 Wrecks Convention 2007, 679 – 687 Wreckstage 2010, 750 – 763 Page 1137 SCOPIC clause Code of Practice (International Group and London Property Underwriters), 709 Code of Practice (ISU and International Group), 708 introduction, 663 Salvage Guarantee Form ISU 5 , 717 – 719 text, 700 – 707 SDR Limitation Protocol 1979 generally, 259 parties, 284 – 286 text, 268 – 269 Seaplanes lights and shapes, 384 Seat recognition and enforcement of judgments seat of corporations and associations, 32 – 34 , 43 seat of Crown, 35 – 36 seat of arbitration, 138 Security arrest, 3 , 29 cargo claims, 340 – 341 retention of security where Admiralty proceedings stayed, 140 salvage generally, 661 – 662 , 677 Salvage Guarantee Form ISU 1 , 710 – 711 Salvage Guarantee Form ISU 2 , 712 – 714 Salvage Guarantee Form ISU 4 , 715 – 716 Salvage Guarantee Form ISU 5 , 717 – 719 wreck removal, 684 – 685 Set-off applicable law, 125 third party rights against insurers, 437 Shapes see Lights and shapes ShellLNGTime 1 Charterparty text, 1078 – 1105 Shelltime 4 Charterparty text, 1040 – 1056 Shellvoy 6 Charterparty text, 1019 – 1039 Shipping documents see also Bills of lading introduction, 321 liabilities, 352 representations in bills of lading, 352 rights, 351 – 352 Signals see Sound and light signals Small claims County Court arbitration, 163 LMAA Small Claims Procedure 2012, 196 – 199 LMAA Small Claims Procedure 2017, 232 – 236 Small Tanker Oil Pollution Indemnification Agreement 2006 generally, 539 text, 649 – 657 Sound and light signals definitions, 384 – 385 distress signals, 366 – 367 , 386 , 394 equipment for sound signals, 385 exemptions, 387 manoeuvring and warning signals, 385 signals to attract attention, 386 sound signals in restricted visibility, 386 technical details, 392 – 394 Special jurisdiction Brussels Regulation (Recast), 78 – 79 Lugano Convention, 45 – 46 Speed avoidance of collision, 375 – 376 Standard forms bills of lading Combiconbill 1995, 847 – 848 Combiconbill 2016, 849 – 850 Congenbill 1994, 833 – 834 Congenbill 2007, 835 – 836 Congenbill 2016, 837 – 838 Conlinebill 2000, 839 – 840 Conlinebill 2016, 841 – 842 Conlinebooking 2000, 843 – 844 Conlinebooking 2016, 845 – 846 introduction, 832 Multidoc 2016, 851 – 852 booking notes Conlinebooking 2000, 843 – 844 Conlinebooking 2016, 845 – 846 introduction, 832 charterparties Asbatankvoy, 959 – 962 Baltime 1939, 859 – 863 Barecon 2017, 937 – 958 Boxtime 2004, 914 – 929 BPTIME 3 , 1000 – 1018 BPVOY 5 , 963 – 999 Gencon 1976, 853 – 855 Gencon 1994, 856 – 858 Inter-Club Agreement 1996, 933 – 936 Inter-Club New York Produce Exchange Agreement 1996, 930 – 932 introduction, 832 LNGVOY, 1057 – 1077 NYPE 1946, 864 – 867 NYPE 1993, 868 – 883 NYPE 2015, 884 – 913 ShellLNGTime 1 , 1078 – 1105 Shelltime 4 , 1040 – 1056 Shellvoy 6 , 1019 – 1039 combined transport documents Combiconbill 1995, 847 – 848 Combiconbill 2016, 849 – 850 introduction, 832 Multidoc 2016, 851 – 852 introduction, 831 – 832 sale and purchase of tonnage introduction, 832 Norwegian Saleform 1993, 1106 – 1112 Norwegian Saleform 2012, 1113 – 1120 Stand-on vessel avoidance of collision, 379 State-owned cargoes salvage, 678 Page 1138 State-owned vessels oil pollution, 612 , 625 salvage, 674 wreck removal, 673 Stay of legal proceedings arbitration domestic arbitration agreements, 162 generally, 139 reference of interpleader issue to arbitration, 140 retention of security where Admiralty proceedings stayed, 140 recognition and enforcement of judgments savings provisions, 36 security in case of stay, 29 Steering and sailing rules conduct of vessels in any condition of visibility action to avoid collision, 376 look-out, 375 narrow channels, 376 – 377 risk of collision, 376 safe speed, 375 – 376 traffic separation schemes, 377 conduct of vessels in restricted visibility, 379 – 380 conduct of vessels in sight of one another action by give-way vessel, 378 action by stand-on vessel, 379 crossing situation, 378 head-on situation, 378 overtaking, 378 responsibilities between vessels, 379 sailing vessels, 378 STOPIA 2006 generally, 539 text, 649 – 657 Strikes clauses see Marine insurance Subrogation applicable law Rome Convention, 110 Rome I Regulation, 124 – 125 insurance, 418 oil pollution, 633 – 634 Suing and labouring clause insurance, 418 Supplementary Fund Protocol 2003 generally, 539 parties, 591 – 595 text, 573 – 583 Tanker Oil Pollution Indemnification Agreement 2006 generally, 539 text, 639 – 648 Third party rights against insurers see Marine insurance Time policies generally, 408 Institute Time Clauses Hulls, 477 – 486 Institute Time Clauses Hulls (Restricted Perils), 487 – 498 TOPIA 2006 generally, 539 text, 639 – 648 Total loss actual total loss, 413 constructive total loss, 414 generally, 416 TOVALOP oil pollution, 537 Towage introduction, 664 lights and shapes on towing vessels, 381 – 382 Towcon 2008, 765 – 785 Towhire 2008, 786 – 799 UK Standard Conditions for Towage and Other Services, 764 Traffic separation schemes avoidance of collision, 377 Transfer of oil transfer at night, 604 transfer between ships in territorial waters, 599 – 600 Transhipment insurance, 413 – 414 Transport documents bills of lading see also Bills of lading contents, 339 – 340 evidentiary effect, 321 , 340 issue, 339 reservations, 340 documents other than bill of lading, 341 guarantees by shipper, 340 – 341 Underinsurance generally, 418 Unit of account cargo claims generally, 344 revision, 345 – 346 passenger claims, 304 United States COGSA 1936 agreement as to liability prior to loading or after discharge, 358 bills of lading, 354 charterparties, 357 discrimination between competing shippers, 358 duties and rights of carrier, 354 foreign trade, 358 general average, 357 increase of liabilities, 357 introduction, 321 – 322 liabilities before loading and after discharge, 358 responsibilities and liabilities of carrier and ship bill as prima facie evidence, 355 cargo, 354 contents of bill, 354 – 355 guaranty of statements, 355 limitation of actions, 355 limitation of liability for negligence, 355 – 356 notice of loss or damage, 355 seaworthiness, 354 “shipped” bill of lading, 355 rights and immunities of carrier and ship amount of liability, 357 deviations, 356 – 357 freedom from negligence, 356 Page 1139 inflammable, explosive or dangerous cargo, 357 uncontrollable causes of loss, 356 unseaworthiness, 356 valuation of cargo, 357 rights and liabilities under other provisions, 358 special agreement as to particular goods, 357 surrender of rights, 357 weight of bulk cargo, 358 Valuables fire damage to valuables on British ships, 263 passenger claims, 303 Vehicles loss or damage, 304 Visibility of lights avoidance of collision, 380 – 381 Visibility restrictions conduct of vessels, 379 – 380 sound signals, 386 Voyage policies generally, 408 Institute Voyage Clauses Hulls 1983, 499 – 507 Institute Voyage Clauses Hulls 1995, 508 – 515 Wages insurance, 406 War clauses see Marine insurance Warning signals avoidance of collision, 385 Waste reception facilities charges, 601 – 602 generally, 600 interpretation provisions, 602 offences, 602 supplementary provisions, 602 use of facilities, 601 waste management plans, 600 – 601 Wreck removal conditions about removal, 669 costs, 669 – 670 determination of hazard, 682 exceptions to liability, 683 – 684 general lighthouse authorities’ expenses, 670 Government ships, 673 insurance cancellation of certificates, 671 compulsory insurance or financial security, 684 – 685 detention of ships, 671 electronic certificates, 672 failure to insure, 671 generally, 670 – 671 issue of certificates, 671 production of certificates, 671 third party rights against insurers, 671 – 672 introduction, 663 liability of owner, 683 limitation periods, 670 locating wrecks, 668 , 682 marking wrecks, 668 , 682 measures to facilitate removal of wrecks, 682 – 683 removal by registered owner, 668 – 669 removal in default, 669 reports, 668 , 681 – 682 time limits, 685 Wreckfixed 2010, 725 – 735 Wreckhire 2010, 736 – 749 Wrecks Convention 2007 introduction, 663 parties, 688 – 689 text, 679 – 687 Wreckstage 2010, 750 – 763 York-Antwerp Rules 1974 Rules, 800 – 805 1994 Rules, 805 – 811 2004 Rules, 805 – 811 2016 Rules, 819 – 830 generally, 664

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