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Index

Litigation in the technology and construction court

Page 257 Index Index absence of evidence 3.22 acceleration claims 5.46 – 5.53 achieving milestones 4.51 Acknowledgement of Service 2.10 addition of other parties 2.16 adjournment 10.12 – 10.16 adjudication 1.5 , 9.1 – 9.26 ; after the adjudication 9.10 – 9.18 ; before the adjudication 9.2 – 9.4 ; dispute resolution 1.5 ; during the adjudication 9.5 – 9.9 ; introduction 9.1 ; stays of execution 9.19 – 9.26 administrative matters 3.77 – 3.78 ADR see alternative dispute resolution after the adjudication 9.10 – 9.18 Akenhead J 4.73 , 4.124 , 5.26 , 10.20 alternative dispute resolution 2.16 , 10.1 – 10.32 ; cost sanctions 10.25 – 10.29 ; early neutral evaluation 10.30 – 10.31 ; enforcement of contractual schemes 10.5 – 10.11 ; and general case management 10.22 – 10.24 ; introduction 10.1 – 10.2 ; jurisdiction, adjournment, stay? 10.12 – 10.16 ; mediation 10.32 ; and Pre-action Protocol 10.17 – 10.21 ; what ADR is 10.3 – 10.4 ambush 9.8 apparent bias 11.17 appeal 2.51 – 2.52 , 11.20 – 11.25 appeal bundles 3.76 applications 3.64 – 3.66 ; to lift automatic suspension 7.7 – 7.18 appointing experts 6.34 – 6.37 approach to consideration of costs budgets 8.19 – 8.23 Arbitral Tribunal 11.7 , 11.14 , 11.16 arbitration 11.1 – 11.25 ; appeal 11.20 – 11.25 ; extension of time limits 11.10 – 11.12 ; introduction 11.1 – 11.2 ; jurisdiction of arbitrator 11.8 – 11.9 ; powers in relation to procedure 11.13 – 11.19 ; stay of proceedings 10.3 – 10.7 arbitration v litigation 1.6 – 1.11 as-built programme 2.34 , 4.65 – 4.66 as-planned critical path 4.115 – 4.116 ; relevance 4.115 – 4.116 as-planned programme 4.55 – 4.57 authorities in pleading requirements 4.21 – 4.23 automatic injunction 7.2 , 7.10 , 7.17 – 7.18 ‘balance of interests’ test 7.12 bankruptcy 9.22 Barry, David 4.150 baseline programme 2.34 , 4.55 – 4.57 before the adjudication 9.2 – 9.4 best practice 3.78 Beware the Dark Arts 4.150 bilateral nature of arbitration 1.10 black box delay analysis 4.154 breach 2.7 , 2.12 , 6.8 , 6.25 Brexit referendum 7.5 Briggs LJ 10.28 bringing a challenge 7.21 Brooke LJ 3.9 burden of proof 4.24 – 4.25 Business and Property Courts 1.1 , 1.4 , 3.3 ‘but for’ test 4.2 calling witnesses 3.24 – 3.25 Case Management Conference 2.15 – 2.17 , 3.61 – 3.63 Case Management Information Sheet 2.16 causation 2.12 , 3.31 , 4.128 Centre for Dispute Resolution 10.6 challenging presentation of defects claims 6.24 – 6.33 changing baseline 4.63 – 4.64 ‘chess-clock’ arrangement 2.46 choosing an expert 3.33 – 3.35 ; see also appointing experts Civil Procedure Rules 2.8 , 2.14 , 4.19 – 4.20 , 8.15 – 8.16 , 9.21 ; Part 16.4 4.19 ; Part 25.1 6.40 ; Part 35.10(3) 3.36 , 3.42 ; Part 35.12 6.19 ; Part 35.9 6.40 ; Part 62 11.24 ; Rule 44.2(8) 8.24 Page 258 Claim Form 2.6 – 2.10 , 3.61 , 8.28 , 9.11 – 9.12 , 10.19 , 11.24 claim overview see overview of a claim CMC see Case Management Conference coaching of witnesses 2.47 Colman J. 4.7 commencement of proceedings 2.8 – 2.10 completing delay claim process 4.106 – 4.109 completion date 4.17 , 4.96 – 4.99 ; constraints on 4.96 – 4.99 completion of proceedings 2.16 complex critical path 4.111 – 4.114 complexities of defending a claim 4.110 – 4.116 ; complex/multiple critical paths 4.111 – 4.114 ; relevance of critical path at particular points 4.115 – 4.116 compliance 2.10 , 3.42 – 3.47 , 7.13 conciliation 10.4 concurrent delay 4.112 confidential information 7.36 – 7.55 constraints 4.96 – 4.99 construction delays 4.1 – 4.2 contractor critical delay-related claims 5.11 – 5.31 ; increased costs due to inflation 5.31 ; introduction 5.11 – 5.13 ; loss of profit claims 5.30 ; overheads claims 5.23 – 5.29 ; preliminaries/prolongation cost claims 5.14 – 5.22 contractor delay-related claims under contract 5.2 – 5.10 ; different tests for time and money 5.3 ; introduction 5.2 ; notice 5.10 ; relevance of contractual provisions 5.4 – 5.7 ; relevance of tender pricing 5.8 – 5.9 contractor preference 4.102 contractor-risk event 4.18 , 4.112 contractual ADR schemes 10.5 – 10.11 contractual notice provisions 4.126 – 4.127 contractual provisions re valuation 5.4 – 5.7 contractual requirements for prospective approach 4.37 – 4.46 controlling presentation of defects claims 6.24 – 6.33 cost of arbitration 1.8 cost sanctions 10.25 – 10.29 costs budgeting 2.16 , 8.1 – 8.29 ; approach to consideration of 8.19 – 8.23 ; and interim payments 8.23 – 8.26 ; introduction 8.1 – 8.8 ; practical considerations 8.27 – 8.29 ; presentation 8.9 – 8.14 ; timing 8.15 – 8.18 costs of inflation 5.31 Coulson J 3.16 , 9.10 , 9.13 – 9.16 , 9.18 , 9.26 , 10.15 , 10.23 – 10.24 Coulson on Construction Adjudication 9.10 , 9.23 Court Settlement Process 10.32 CPR see Civil Procedure Rules critical delay 4.4 critical path 4.71 – 4.87 critical path analysis 4.87 cross-examination 2.33 , 3.6 , 3.18 – 3.19 , 3.21 – 3.22 , 3.28 , 3.31 , 3.35 , 3.58 , 3.74 , 5.28 crystallisation 9.2 custodians 2.22 DB see Dispute Adjudication Board date of trial 2.164.102 de-duplification 2.22 , 2.24 , 3.70 , 3.73 ‘death by a thousand cuts’ 4.28 declaratory relief 7.6 defects claims 6.1 – 6.44 ; controlling presentation 6.24 – 6.33 ; defending the case 6.10 – 6.23 ; general nature of defect claim 6.1 – 6.6 ; instructing appropriate expertise 6.34 – 6.44 ; prosecution a defects claim 6.7 – 6.9 Defence to Counterclaim 2.16 defending defects claims 6.10 – 6.23 ; liability defences 6.10 – 6.14 ; limitation 6.21 – 6.23 ; quantum defences 6.15 – 6.20 defending a delay claim 4.26 – 4.109 ; concluding the process 4.106 – 4.109 ; identifying critical path 4.71 – 4.87 ; identifying delay events 4.67 – 4.70 ; identifying how delay was caused 4.88 – 4.105 ; identifying period of delay 4.50 – 4.66 ; introduction 4.26 – 4.33 ; prospective or retrospective 4.34 – 4.49 defining critical path 4.71 – 4.72 defining disruption 5.32 – 5.33 delay analysis using baseline programme 4.58 – 4.62 delay claims 4.1 – 4.159 ; difficulties and complexities 4.110 – 4.116 ; frequent mistakes made 4.117 – 4.159 ; introduction 4.1 – 4.2 ; legal requirements 4.3 – 4.18 ; making/ defending in practice 4.26 – 4.109 ; pleading requirements 4.19 – 4.25 delay and disruption money claims 5.1 – 5.55 ; acceleration claims 5.46 – 5.53 ; contractor’s critical delay-related claims 5.11 – 5.31 ; contractor’s delay-related claims under contract 5.2 – 5.10 ; disruption claims 5.32 – 5.43 ; employer claims 5.54 – 5.55 ; introduction 5.1 ; subcontractor claims 5.44 – 5.45 delay events 4.67 – 4.70 delay statement 3.14 delayed critical path activity 4.92 deployment of evidence 3.1 – 3.3 detriment 9.5 different tests for time and money 5.3 Page 259 disclosure 2.16 , 2.18 – 2.24 , 7.19 – 7.35 ; early disclosure in procurement litigation 7.22 – 7.27 ; introductory matters 7.19 – 7.21 ; tactical considerations 7.28 – 7.35 Disclosure of Electronic Documents 2.21 discretionary stay 2.10 dismissal 11.25 disproportionate budgets 8.20 Dispute Adjudication Board 10.4 dispute resolution 1.5 Dispute Resolution Board 10.4 disruption claims 5.32 – 5.43 ; authorities 5.34 – 5.37 ; introduction 5.32 – 5.33 ; practicalities 5.38 – 5.41 ; ’thickening’ costs 5.42 – 5.43 disruption statement 3.14 documentary evidence 3.58 – 3.78 ; administrative matters 3.77 – 3.78 ; appeal bundles 3.76 ; applications 3.64 – 3.66 ; Case Management Conference 3.61 – 3.63 ; electronic trial bundles 3.72 – 3.75 ; trial 3.67 – 3.71 domestic arbitration 1.6 , 1.11 DRB see Dispute Resolution Board during the adjudication 9.5 – 9.9 Dyson LJ 2.38 e-disclosure 2.21 – 2.22 early disclosure in procurement 7.22 – 7.27 early neutral evaluation 10.4 , 10.30 – 10.31 , 11.1 Edwards-Stuart J 2.38 , 9.5 – 9.7 , 9.22 effect of constraint on successor activities 4.103 – 4.105 efficacy of ADR 10.22 electronic programme-based analysis 4.144 - 4.159 ; logic links 4.145 – 4.148 ; methods 4.149 – 4.150 ; reliability of 4.151 – 4.159 electronic trial bundles 3.72 – 3.75 Emden formula 5.25 – 5.26 employer claims for delay 5.54 – 5.55 employer-risk event 4.18 , 4.112 , 5.40 , 5.48 Employer’s Requirements 6.8 , 6.23 encouragement to settle disputes 10.1 – 10.2 ENE see early neutral evaluation enforcement of contractual ADR schemes 10.5 – 10.11 EOT see extension of time clauses equitable discretion 11.3 establishing how event caused delay 4.88 – 4.105 ; contractor preference 4.102 ; constraints between follow-on activities 4.96 – 4.99 ; effect of constraints 4.103 – 4.105 ; introduction 4.88 – 4.95 ; physical constraints 4.100 ; resource constraints 4.101 establishing liability 4.118 – 4.120 EU Court of Justice 7.27 European Commission 7.9 evidence 3.1 – 3.78 ; documentary evidence 3.58 - 3.78 ; expert reports and joint statements 3.26 – 3.57 ; introduction 3.1 – 3.3 ; witness statements 3.4 – 3.25 evidence at trial 3.54 – 3.57 , 4.128 – 4.129 expert determination 1.5 expert evidence 2.31 – 2.39 , 4.143 , 6.41 – 6.44 ‘expert’ factual witnesses 3.8 – 3.12 expert meetings 3.48 – 3.53 expert reports 2.3 , 2.16 , 3.26 – 3.57 ; choosing an expert 3.33 – 3.35 ; compliance 3.42 – 3.47 ; evidence at trial 3.54 – 3.57 ; joint statements/expert meetings 3.48 – 3.53 ; need for independent expert 3.26 – 3.32 ; preparing an expert 3.36 – 3.41 ; reports 3.42 – 3.47 ‘expert shopping’ 2.38 – 2.39 extension of time clauses 4.4 – 4.18 , 4.138 extension of time limits for referral 11.10 – 11.12 factual causation of defect 4.32 , 6.8 factual witness evidence 2.16 , 4.130 – 4.142 fast track projects 4.60 FIDIC 5.2 finish-to-finish link 4.145 finish-to-start link 4.145 first Case Management Conference 2.15 – 2.17 fitness for purpose obligations 6.8 flagrant breach 10.12 float 4.17 – 4.18 focus on immediately affected activity only 4.121 – 4.122 focus on last event to delay completion 4.123 – 4.125 focus on liability only 4.118 – 4.120 follow-on activity constraints 4.96 – 4.99 frequent mistakes in practice 4.117 – 4.159 ; electronic programme-based analysis 4.144 - 4.159 ; evidence at trial 4.128 – 4.129 ; expert evidence 4.143 ; factual witness evidence 4.130 – 4.142 ; focus on immediately affected activity 4.121 – 4.122 ; focus on last delaying event 4.123 – 4.125 ; focus on liability only 4.118 – 4.120 ; ignoring contractual notice provisions 4.126 – 4.127 ; introduction 4.117 friendly discussion 10.10 general case management 10.22 – 10.24 general nature of defects claims 6.1 – 6.6 global claims 5.34 – 5.38 good faith negotiation 10.6 , 10.10 Government Procurement Agreement 7.5 gross approach 4.124 group actions 1.3 Guidance Note for Public Procurement Cases 7.3 Page 260 Hamblen J. 4.11 – 4.12 , 4.15 handling confidential information 7.36 – 7.55 Haroun and the Sea of Stories 4.155 head of cost 5.11 – 5.13 HHJ Toulmin CMG, QC 4.156 HHJ Wilcox 9.5 – 9.6 ‘hired gun’ 3.38 HM Courts and Tribunals Service 1.12 hot-tubbing 2.48 , 3.56 – 3.57 Hudson formula 5.25 – 5.26 Hughes LJ 2.38 hybrid applications 7.22 , 9.18 ICE contracts 1.6 , 1.11 identifying critical path 4.71 – 4.87 ; definition 4.71 – 4.72 ; importance in delay claims 4.73 - 4.80 ; in practice 4.81 – 4.87 identifying defects 6.8 identifying delay events 4.67 – 4.70 identifying period of delay in delay claim 4.50 – 4.66 ; as-built programme 4.65 – 4.66 ; as-planned or baseline programme 4.55 - 4.57 ; changing baseline 4.63 – 4.64 ; realism of baseline programme 4.58 – 4.62 ignoring contractual notice provisions 4.126 – 4.127 importance of critical path 4.73 – 4.80 incidental costs 2.5 increased costs from inflation 5.31 independence of experts 3.38 , 6.41 – 6.44 ineffectiveness 7.4 inflation costs 5.31 ineffectiveness 7.4 insolvency 9.22 instructing appropriate expertise 6.34 – 6.44 ; appointment of experts 6.34 – 6.37 ; independence and quality of expert evidence 6.41 – 6.44 ; investigations 6.38 – 6.40 interim payments 8.24 – 8.26 interlocutory applications 7.1 , 7.3 international cases 1.3 introduction to litigation 1.1 – 1.12 ; arbitration v litigation 1.6 – 1.11 ; dispute resolution 1.5 ; TCC guide 1.12 ; what the TCC is 1.1 – 1.4 introductory disclosure 7.19 – 7.21 investigations 6.38 – 6.40 Irish law 11.12 irregularity 11.21 Jackson ADR Handbook 10.27 , 10.29 Jackson reforms 8.1 – 8.8 JCT contracts 1.6 , 4.4 , 4.38 – 4.39 , 4.124 , 5.3 - 5.4 , 5.10 , 5.22 , 5.36 joint statements 3.26 – 3.57 ; see also expert reports judgment 2.50 jurisdiction 10.12 – 10.16 jurisdiction of arbitrator 11.8 – 11.9 ‘jurisdictional’ argument 9.5 knock-on effect of delay 4.88 – 4.95 lack of credibility 4.48 landscape of construction dispute resolution 9.1 law of interpretative presumption 10.9 legal causation of defect 6.8 legal requirements in delay claims 4.3 – 4.18 ; extension of time clauses 4.4 – 4.18 ; float 4.17 – 4.18 ; prevention principle 4.13 – 4.16 Leggatt J 10.7 length of trial 2.16 liability defences 6.10 – 6.14 lifting automatic suspension 7.7 – 7.18 limitation 6.8 , 6.21 – 6.23 liquidated damages 4.5 , 4.24 , 4.30 , 4.138 logic links 4.145 – 4.148 Lord Denning 4.14 , 10.11 Lord Drummond Young 4.157 Lord Hope 9.22 Lord Oliver 4.21 – 4.22 , 4.88 loss 6.8 loss of profit claims 5.30 main programme obligations 2.12 making a delay claim 4.26 – 4.109 ; concluding the process 4.106 – 4.109 ; identifying critical path 4.71 – 4.87 ; identifying delay events 4.67 – 4.70 ; identifying how delay was caused 4.88 – 4.105 ; identifying period of delay 4.50 – 4.66 ; introduction 4.26 – 4.33 ; prospective or retrospective 4.34 – 4.49 material change 7.4 , 7.17 mediation 2.4 , 10.4 , 10.32 methods of programme-based analysis 4.149 – 4.150 mitigation 4.32 , 4.102 , 5.49 , 6.15 mock trial 2.47 Mr Justice Jackson 3.10 Mr Recorder Furst QC 10.26 multi-party disputes 1.10 multiple critical paths 4.111 – 4.114 Mustill & Boyd 11.5 narrative of performance 6.8 narrative statement 2.12 near-critical path 4.115 – 4.116 NEC contracts 1.11 , 4.39 , 5.4 ; NEC 3 4.39 need for independent expert 3.26 – 3.32 negligence 10.19 nexus 4.23 , 4.68 non-binding recommendation 10.4 Page 261 notice 5.10 number of witnesses 3.4 – 3.7 O&M manuals 4.145 obligations 6.8 OCR see Optical Character Recognition O’Farrell J 9.8 Office of the Government Commerce Response 7.12 Official Referees 1.1 – 1.2 OHP see overheads and profit percentage one stop contractor 1.10 ‘opinion’ evidence 4.141 Optical Character Recognition 3.74 outlier budgets 8.12 overhead claims 5.23 – 5.29 overheads and profit percentage 5.24 overview of a claim 2.1 – 2.52 ; appeal 2.51 – 2.52 ; commencement of proceedings 2.8 – 2.10 ; disclosure 2.18 – 2.24 ; expert evidence 2.31 - 2.39 ; first Case Management Conference 2.15 – 2.17 ; introduction 2.1 ; judgment 2.50 ; pleadings 2.11 – 2.14 ; pre-action phase 2.2 - 2.7 ; Pre-Trial Review 2.40 ; trial 2.41 – 2.49 ; witness statements 2.25 – 2.30 Part 18 Request for Further Information 2.16 Particulars of Claim 2.9 , 2.12 parties 6.8 party autonomy 11.11 personal confidentiality 1.9 , 7.36 – 7.55 personal injury 1.3 physical constraints 4.100 platform providers 2.21 pleading requirements in delay claims 4.19 - 4.25 ; authorities as to 4.21 – 4.23 ; burden of proof 4.24 – 4.25 ; Civil Procedure Rules 4.19 – 4.20 pleadings 2.11 – 2.14 policing presentation of defects claims 6.24 – 6.33 practical considerations of costs budgets 8.27 – 8.29 practicalities 5.38 – 5.41 Practice Direction 31B 2.21 Practice Direction 52 3.76 practice of identifying critical path 4.81 – 4.87 pre-action phase of litigation 2.2 – 2.7 Pre-Action Protocol for Construction and Engineering Disputes 2.2 , 2.7 , 10.17 – 10.21 pre-emptive declaration 9.13 Pre-Trial Review 2.17 , 2.40 Precedent H schedules 8.4 preliminaries 5.14 – 5.22 preliminary issues 2.16 preparing an expert 3.36 – 3.41 presentation of costs budgets 8.9 – 8.14 prevention principle 4.13 – 4.16 Primavera 4.57 , 4.143 principle of futility 10.7 principle of law of interpretative presumption 10.9 Privy Council 4.21 – 4.22 problems with prospective analysis 4.41 – 4.49 procedural aspects of arbitration 11.13 – 11.19 process of litigation 1.7 procurement litigation see public procurement litigation Professional Negligence Pre-Action Protocol 2.2 Professional Standards Committee of the Bar Council 2.47 programme-based analysis 4.144 – 4.159 ; logic links 4.145 – 4.148 ; methods 4.149 – 4.150 ; reliability of 4.151 – 4.159 prolixity 6.9 prolongation cost claims 5.14 – 5.22 prosecuting defects claims 6.7 – 6.9 prospective analysis 4.34 – 4.49 ; contractual requirements 4.37 – 4.40 ; problems with 4.41 – 4.49 ; or retrospective analysis? 4.36 PTR see Pre-Trial Review Public Contracts Regulations 7.4 , 7.7 public nuisance 1.3 public procurement litigation 7.1 – 7.55 ; applications to lift automatic suspension 7.7 – 7.18 ; disclosure 7.19 – 7.35 ; handling confidential information 7.36 – 7.55 ; introduction 7.1 – 7.6 QS see quantity surveying quality of expert evidence 6.41 – 6.44 quantification of loss 2.12 quantity surveying 6.37 quantum defences 6.15 – 6.20 quantum evidence 2.16 quantum experts 2.16 , 2.31 ‘race to contract’ 7.9 Ramsey J 2.23 – 2.24 , 4.94 , 9.25 , 10.8 , 10.10 , 10.29 realism of baseline programme 4.58 – 4.62 reasonable endeavours clause 10.9 recourse to arbitration 11.19 recoverable costs 10.14 regional centres of the TCC 1.4 relevance of as-planned critical path 4.115 – 4.116 relevance of contractual provisions to valuation 5.4 – 5.7 Page 262 relevance of critical path in delay claims 4.73 – 4.80 relevance of tender pricing 5.8 – 5.9 Relevant Matter 5.3 reliability of programme-based analysis 4.151 – 4.159 remedial schemes 2.34 remediation 6.7 , 6.15 – 6.17 Remedies Directive 7.7 , 7.9 , 7.12 , 7.14 remit of the TCC 1.2 – 1.3 report compliance 3.42 – 3.47 Request for Further Information 2.14 , 2.16 , 3.67 , 3.78 , 6.28 resource constraints 4.101 results from retrospective v prospective analysis 4.36 retrospective analysis 4.34 – 4.49 ; of prospective analysis? 4.36 RFI see Request for Further Information Richard Fernyhough QC 4.89 Rules of Supreme Court Order 47 9.21 Rushdie, Salman 4.155 sanctions of cost 10.25 – 10.29 SCL Delay and Disruption Protocol 4.150 Scott Schedule 2.13 Second Public Consultation 7.12 sequence of calling witnesses 3.24 – 3.25 shape of litigation 2.1 Shipbuilder’s Association of Japan form 4.4 ‘smash and grab’ adjudication 9.17 snagging 4.124 Society for Computers and Law 2.21 split trial 2.16 standard disclosure 1.8 , 2.18 – 2.20 Standard Form of Contract 4.4 , 4.38 – 4.39 , 4.124 , 5.3 – 5.4 , 5.10 , 5.22 , 5.36 start-to-start link 4.145 starting with money 5.1 statement of case 6.7 – 6.9 stay of proceedings 10.12 – 10.16 , 11.3 – 11.7 stays of execution 9.19 – 9.26 strike out judgment 7.2 structure of statement of case 6.7 – 6.9 structuring witness statements 3.13 – 3.23 Stuart Smith J 8.20 subcontractor claims 5.44 – 5.45 submissions 3.58 substantive appeal 11.25 substantive breach 2.7 summary judgment 7.2 supporting arbitral process 11.1 – 11.2 tactical considerations in procurement 7.28 – 7.35 tactical silence 3.22 taking witness statements 3.13 – 3.23 Teare J. 10.10 – 10.11 TECBAR 2.21 technical breach 2.7 technical causation of defect 6.8 Technology and Construction Court guide 1.3 , 1.12 , 2.3 – 2.4 , 2.13 , 2.16 , 2.18 – 2.21 , 2.26 , 2.32 , 2.43 – 2.46 , 3.56 , 7.55 ; 5.1.6 6.30 ; 5.5.5 6.30 ; 5.6.1 6.31 ; 5.6.2 6.31 ; 5.6.3 6.31 ; 7.2.2 10.13 ; 8.4.1 2.16 ; 9.4.3 9.13 ; 11.1.1 2.19 ; 13.3.4 6.40 ; 13.3.5 6.40 ; 13.8.2 3.56 ; 15.2.2 3.78 ; 15.2.3 3.67 , 3.70 ; Appendix E 10.16 ; Appendix G 10.32 ; Appendix H 7.32 , 7.35 , 7.49 , 7.53 , 7.55 ; Section 7.5 10.30 ; Section 8 2.16 , 10.18 TeCSA 2.21 template for defence 4.26 – 4.33 tender pricing 5.8 – 5.9 ; relevance 5.8 – 5.9 tests for money 5.3 ‘thickening’ costs 5.42 – 5.43 third-party action 2.12 time clauses 4.4 – 4.18 time limit of public procurement litigation 7.1 – 7.6 time limits for referral 11.10 – 11.12 timing of costs budgets 8.15 – 8.18 tort 6.8 Toulson J 11.11 trial 2.41 – 2.49 , 3.67 – 3.71 unfair terms 11.6 unreasonable conduct 10.28 vergens ad inopiam 9.22 Waller LJ 11.11 what ADR is 10.3 – 10.4 what the TCC is 1.1 – 1.4 White Book 3.3 ‘windows’ 2.12 without prejudice meeting 2.4 , 2.36 , 10.19 witness statements 2.16 , 2.25 – 2.30 , 3.4 – 3.25 ; ’expert’ factual witnesses 3.8 – 3.12 ; number of witnesses 3.4 – 3.7 ; sequence of calling witnesses 3.24 – 3.25 ; taking/structuring witness statements 3.13 – 3.23 World Trade Organization 7.5 WP offer 10.29

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