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Index

Rules of Evidence in International Arbitration

Page 391 Index Index Active on-line data disclosure of documents, and 3.41 , 3.42 Administration of justice sensitivity of documents, and 9.101 Admissibility of evidence 9.01 – 9.129 adverse disclosure, and 9.03 attorney–client privilege 9.26 – 9.32 criteria 9.28 legal advice 9.27 , 9.30 rule of procedure, as 9.31 transnational rules 9.29 commercial and technical confidentiality 9.82 – 9.90 agreements with third parties 9.85 – 9.86 case by case analysis 9.84 resolving objections 9.87 – 9.90 special consideration 9.83 equal treatment 9.109 equality 9.125 – 9.129 requests for document production 9.128 equality of arms 9.115 – 9.124 fairness 9.109 , 9.115 – 9.124 rule of separation 9.121 illegal means 9.119 liberality 9.01 lost or destroyed evidence 9.77 – 9.81 civil disturbance or other disaster 9.81 lost due to passing of time 9.78 – 9.80 reasonable likelihood 9.77 manipulation of access to relevant information 9.123 , 9.124 material to outcome of case 9.13 – 9.17 due process, and 9.15 extrinsic evidence 9.16 objections to production based on burden 9.65 – 9.76 political or institutional sensitivity 9.91 – 9.108 cabinet confidence 9.99 compelling 9.97 – 9.102 deliberative privilege 9.99 domestic laws 9.93 – 9.96 equal treatment 9.94 – 9.96 improper assertion 9.108 probative value 9.101 procedural order 9.102 right to secrecy 9.91 , 9.92 sensitive documents 9.103 – 9.107 state secrets 9.97 , 9.100 privilege 9.05 , 9.18 – 9.64 agreement by parties 9.63 , 9.64 applicable mandatory law 9.22 burden of proof 9.25 categorisation 9.20 closest connection test 9.43 – 9.46 complexity of subject 9.18 equal treatment 9.60 – 9.64 fairness 9.60 – 9.64 guiding principles in determining appropriate rule 9.20 – 9.25 IBA Rules 9.19 international practice 9.23 least protection 9.62 legal or ethical rule 9.21 legitimate expectations of parties 9.41 most favourable 9.61 relevant sources of law 9.48 – 9.51 survey method 9.47 – 9.52 waiver 9.53 – 9.59 procedural economy 9.109 , 9.110 – 9.113 deadlines 9.110 – 9.112 equal treatment 9.112 fairness 9.112 proportionality 9.114 relevance and materiality objections 9.06 – 9.17 modern practice 9.02 right to be heard, and 9.07 relevance to case 9.09 – 9.12 liability of witness, and 9.10 point no longer in contention 9.12 stopping line of questioning 9.11 settlement privilege 9.33 – 9.40 content 9.34 international procedural law 9.35 Iran–US Claims Tribunal 9.36 limits 9.40 mediation 9.37 – 9.39 unlawful collection of evidence 9.119 – 9.122 unreasonable burden 9.65 – 9.76 objective factors 9.69 – 9.72 party’s jurisdictional background 9.74 – 9.76 subjectivity 9.66 Page 392 usefulness of documents 9.67 vague or overly broad requests 9.73 waiver of privilege 9.53 – 9.59 affirmative use 9.58 , 9.59 consent 9.55 earlier disclosure 9.56 , 9.57 Adverse disclosure Admissibility, and 9.0 Adverse inferences 7.03 , 7.37 – 7.42 accepted rules for drawing 7.41 , 7.42 consistent with facts 7.41 corroboration by all available inference 7.41 failure to produce evidence 7.37 , 7.38 merits of case 7.39 , 7.40 party not aware of duty to produce evidence 7.41 prima facie evidence of facts supporting claim 7.41 requested evidence accessible to non–producing party 7.41 Affirmations 8.75 – 8.83 administration to witnesses 8.76 – 8.81 Arbitration agreements depositions, permitting 2.06 – 2.14 Assessment of the evidence 7.01 – 7.14 exclusionary ruling 7.09 , 7.10 general authority of tribunal 7.05 – 7.14 limits of discretion 7.06 – 7.14 substantive law rules 7.07 weighing evidence 7.11 – 7.14 Attorney–client privilege 9.26 – 9.32 criteria 9.28 legal advice 9.27 , 9.30 rule of procedure, as 9.31 transnational rules 9.29 Balance of probabilities test 7.27 Battle of the experts 5.04 Burden of proof 7.02 , 7.15 – 7.36 onus probandi actori incumbit 7.17 – 7.23 prima facie evidence, and 7.31 – 7.36 privileges 9.25 shifting 7.31 – 7.36 substantive law, and 7.24 , 7.25 risk of non–production 7.32 – 7.34 terminology 7.15 Chemtura Corporation v Government of Canada Appendix 4 Commercial and technical confidentiality 9.82 – 9.90 agreements with third parties 9.85 – 9.86 case by case analysis 9.84 resolving objections 9.87 – 9.90 special consideration 9.83 Common sense rules of evidence, and 1.08 , 1.09 Common statements 1.05 Common usage depositions 2.09 Confidentiality of disclosed documents 3.145 – 3.176 confidential information disclosed to fulfil legal duty 3.159 , 3.160 disclosure where needed to protect or pursue legal right 3.161 – 3.166 documentary evidence exchanged during proceedings 3.151 , 3.152 fair procedure, and 3.147 , 3.148 , 3.149 framework 3.150 general rule 3.145 Hwang Model Confidentiality Order 3.174 – 3.175 issue estoppel, and 3.163 – 3.165 legitimate interest, and 3.162 no general duty 3.146 public proceedings, and 3.154 sensitive information 3.155 , 3.156 terms of confidentiality order 3.171 – 3.173 terms of procedural order 3.170 – 3.176 “to enforce or challenge an award” 3.167 transparency, and 3.154 – 3.156 tribunal’s authority to enforce 3.168 , 3.169 use of documentary evidence in connection with arbitration 3.157 , 3.158 Confidentiality undertaking for third–party experts Appendix 4 Confirmation of statement 8.82 Confirmations 8.75 – 8.83 Contents of expert report 5.10 – 5.25 Control of examination of witness 8.27 – 8.30 Costs document production, and 7.53 good faith, and 7.43 tribunal–appointed experts 6.62 Court assistance in taking documentary evidence 3.93 – 3.114 scope of article 3.9 3.100 – 3.105 threshold issues 3.95 – 3.99 treatment of evidence obtained by unauthorised legal process 3.114 tribunal’s authority over ancillary evidence gathering 3.106 – 3.113 Cross–examination right to 8.53 – 8.55 Customary practice witness statements 4.23 Deliberative privilege 9.99 Depositions 2.02 , 2.03 – 2.20 arbitration agreements permitting 2.06 – 2.14 common usage 2.09 conduct of 2.12 failure by counsel for adverse party to attend 2.18 faithful record of testimony 2.13 intent behind reference 2.07 interviewing adverse witnesses prior to hearing 2.19 , 2.20 meaning 2.04 order by tribunal 2.16 , 2.17 past tribunals, experience of 2.10 sample clause 2.03 US practice 2.04 , 2.05 use to obtain testimony from witnesses unable to attend hearing 2.15 – 2.18 witnesses, availability of 2.11 , 2.14 Page 393 Determination of foreign law 6.14 Direct testimony 8.40 – 8.42 witness statements as 8.83 Discovery and limited disclosure difference between 3.30 Document production 3.01 – 3.91 Documentary evidence 3.01 – 3.191 accuracy of reproduction 3.135 – 3.138 adverse document disclosure 3.22 – 3.24 allegations of forgery 3.139 – 3.141 application of substantive law standard 3.181 – 3.183 authenticity 3.131 – 3.144 award or procedural order 3.184 broader approach 3.33 burdensome for requesting party to produce 3.47 , 3.48 categories of document 3.35 – 3.39 checklist of requirements for request for production 3.26 civil law preference for 3.03 civil law view of disclosure 3.32 – 3.34 common law jurisdictions 3.02 completion of document production phase 3.11 , 3.12 conducting disclosure without tribunal’s involvement 3.20 confidentiality of disclosed documents 3.145 – 3.176 see also Confidentiality of disclosed documents consultations between parties 3.68 , 3.69 control issue 3.49 – 3.52 control of procedure by tribunal 3.06 copies 3.131 – 3.144 court assistance in taking 3.93 – 3.114 scope of article 3.9 3.100 – 3.105 threshold issues 3.95 – 3.99 treatment of evidence obtained by unauthorised legal process 3.114 tribunal’s authority over ancillary evidence gathering 3.106 – 3.113 customary filing deadlines 3.09 , 3.10 customary timing of disclosure phase 3.19 demonstrating possession, custody or control 3.49 – 3.52 difference between discovery and limited disclosure 3.30 different phases of production 3.177 – 3.179 disclosure based on substantive right 3.180 – 3.184 disclosure in arbitration versus US–style discovery 3.29 – 3.31 duty to provide good faith answers to request 3.54 , 3.59 – 3.61 electronic documents 3.40 – 3.44 see also Electronic discovery equal treatment 3.25 ethical considerations for counsel 3.28 , 3.57 ,3.63 failure to meet requirements of article 3.3 3.83 , 3.84 filing deadlines 3.06 – 3.08 forgeries 3.131 – 3.144 form objection 3.83 further evidence 3.12 general considerations 3.04 general powers of tribunal to order disclosure 3.115 – 3.125 good faith 3.13 higher burden 3.81 , 3.82 IBA Rules 3.04 interim measures 3.185 – 3.191 standard applicable to requests 3.188 – 3.191 investor–state arbitration 3.53 irrelevant documents 3.56 late submission 3.06 , 3.07 , 3.08 limited disclosure 3.21 – 3.25 multi–parties 3.58 narrow and specific standard 3.35 – 3.39 no duty to voluntarily disclose adverse evidence 3.14 , 3.15 not in possession, custody or control of requesting party 3.45 , 3.46 objections 3.64 – 3.67 order to disclose 3.16 originals 3.131 – 3.144 preference for 3.01 procedural economy 3.55 produce or object 3.54 production of documents under protest 3.62 provisional measures 3.186 , 3.187 rebuttal 3.126 – 3.130 Redfern schedule 3.64 – 3.67 relevance and materiality standard 3.70 – 3.80 material to its outcome 3.78 – 3.80 relevant to the case 3.72 – 3.77 request for document disclosure 3.14 standards applicable to request for disclosure 3.25 statement of claim 3.09 statement of defence 3.09 supplemental 3.126 – 3.130 time frame 3.36 – 3.39 timing of request for disclosure 3.17 – 3.19 translations 3.130 – 3.149 tribunal’s authority to compel party to use best efforts to obtain evidence 3.122 tribunal’s authority to order production of original 3.142 – 3.144 tribunal’s power to take any steps 3.123 tribunal’s right to request document production 3.118 – 3.121 using experts to resolve disputes 3.85 – 3.92 appointing expert 3.86 , 3.87 failure by party to cooperate with expert 3.91 independence and impartiality of expert 3.88 role of expert 3.89 , 3.90 wide–ranging discovery process 3.31 , 3.34 Due process principles 1.12 , 1.13 Duty to act in good faith 7.45 – 7.49 Duty to cooperate 7.45 – 7.49 Electronic discovery 3.40 – 3.44 categories 3.41 erased or fragmented data 3.43 limited in time and subject matter 3.42 Page 394 Equal treatment admissibility of evidence, and 9.109 documentary evidence 3.25 political or institutional sensitivity 9.94 – 9.96 privileges, and 9.60 – 9.64 procedural economy 9.112 Equality requests for document production 9.128 rules of evidence 1.14 Equality of arms good faith, and 7.51 , 7.52 Ethical considerations for counsel 3.28 , 3.57 , 3.63 expert reports, and 5.23 – 5.25 witness statements 4.26 , 4.27 Evaluation of materiality witness statements 4.51 Evidentiary hearing 8.01 – 8.88 affirmations 8.75 – 8.83 authority to limit witness testimony 8.20 – 8.23 avoiding duplicative testimony 8.40 – 8.42 confirmations 8.75 – 8.83 control of examination of witness 8.27 – 8.30 direct testimony 8.40 – 8.42 excluding witnesses from hearing and due process 8.24 , 8.25 hearing of witness after submission of written witness statement 8.12 – 8.15 in camera 8.48 – 8.50 irrelevant or immaterial questioning 8.34 – 8.39 language of 8.62 – 8.64 leading questions on direct examination 8.43 materiality of evidence 8.34 – 8.39 notification of witnesses 8.05 – 8.19 objections in relation to form of question 8.31 – 8.33 oral testimony 8.51 – 8.74 predominant purpose 8.03 raising objections during 8.26 – 8.33 relevance of evidence 8.34 – 8.39 right to 8.06 – 8.11 limits 8.07 notice periods 8.08 – 8.11 rules of limitation 8.28 sequestration of witnesses 8.44 – 8.47 summary of testimony 8.13 testifying by video conference 8.18 , 8.19 tribunal’s authority to call witness on own motion 8.85 – 8.88 “any person” 8.85 – 8.87 no duty to order attendance 8.88 tribunal’s control over 8.20 – 8.50 which part may call witnesses 8.16 , 8.17 Excluding witnesses from hearing due process, and 8.24 , 8.25 Exclusionary ruling 7.09 , 7.10 Failure to call witness to hearing 4.60 – 4.62 Failure to give notice of witness within specified time 4.05 – 4.07 Failure to produce evidence adverse inferences 7.37 , 7.38 Fair procedure confidentiality, and 3.147 , 3.148 , 3.149 Fairness 9.109 , 9.115 – 9.124 privilege 9.60 – 9.64 procedural economy 9.112 rule of separation 9.121 rules of evidence 1.14 Faithful record of testimony depositions 2.13 Filing deadlines documentary evidence 3.06 – 3.08 Forgeries documentary evidence 3.131 – 3.144 General powers of tribunal to order disclosure 3.115 – 3.125 Good faith 7.04 , 7.43 – 7.53 costs, and 7.43 document production and costs 7.53 duty to act in 7.45 – 7.49 duty to cooperate 7.45 – 7.49 equality of arms, and 7.51 , 7.52 IBA Rules of Evidence 1.23 , 1.24 objective standard 7.44 Hearing schedule 8.70 – 8.74 Hwang Model Procedural Order on Confidentiality text Appendix 3 IBA Guidelines on Party Representation in International Arbitration text Appendix 5 IBA Rules of Evidence 1.15 , 1.20 – 1.26 application 1.20 – 1.26 failure to apply 1.22 good faith 1.23 , 1.24 incorporation 1.21 international arbitration, and 1.26 supplementary nature of 1.25 IBA Rules on the Taking of Evidence in International Arbitration text Appendix 1 Identification of witnesses of fact 4.04 – 4.07 Identifying experts 5.07 In camera hearings 8.48 – 8.50 Independence of experts 5.12 – 5.16 , 6.23 , 6.24 , 6.25 – 6.26 Inspections 6.01 – 6.63 Interim measures 3.185 – 3.191 standard applicable to requests 3.188 – 3.191 International arbitration IBA Rules of Evidence, and 1.26 International standards rules of evidence, and 1.19 Interrogations 2.02 , 2.21 – 2.27 general guidelines for use 2.23 – 2.25 meaning 2.21 objections 2.25 specifying witness or representative to whom directed 2.24 tribunal involvement in drafting and approving 2.26 , 2.27 use of 2.22 Page 395 Interviewing adverse witnesses prior to hearing 2.19 , 2.20 Investigations by tribunal–appointed experts 6.32 – 6.43 equal treatment, and 6.34 , 6.39 – 6.43 production of evidence at request of expert 6.35 , 6.36 impartiality in conduct of 6.37 , 6.38 right to be heard 6.34 , 6.37 , 6.38 , 6.39 – 6.43 Investor–state arbitration documentary evidence 3.53 Iran–US Claims Tribunal 9.36 Irrelevant documents 3.56 Irrelevant or immaterial questioning 8.34 – 8.39 Issue estoppel confidentiality, and 3.163 – 3.165 Judicial notice 2.03 , 2.28 – 2.32 application 2.30 power of arbitrator to take 2.28 , 2.29 facts which may be taken 2.31 , 2.32 public notoriety 2.31 uncontroverted and clear fact 2.32 Lacunae in evidentiary record tribunal–appointed experts, and 6.08 Late evidence witnesses, and 4.06 Late submission documentary evidence 3.06 , 3.07 , 3.08 Leading questions 8.43 Legal obligations of confidentiality witnesses, and 4.13 , 4.14 Legitimate interest confidentiality, and 3.162 Liability of witness relevance to case, and 9.10 Limited disclosure documentary evidence 3.21 – 3.25 Lost or destroyed evidence 9.77 – 9.81 civil disturbance or other disaster 9.81 lost due to passing of time 9.78 – 9.80 reasonable likelihood 9.77 Mandate tribunal–appointed experts 6.04 – 6.22 Mandatory law tribunal–appointed experts, and 6.18 Manipulation of access to relevant information 9.123 , 9.124 Materiality of evidence 8.34 – 8.39 Merits of case adverse inferences, and 7.39 , 7.40 Multi–parties documentary evidence 3.58 Non–appearance of witnesses 4.50 Non–cooperating witnesses 4.63 – 4.73 Notification of witnesses 8.05 – 8.19 Oaths administration to witnesses 8.76 – 8.81 Objections to interrogations 2.25 Objections to production of evidence 9.65 – 9.76 Onus probandi actori incumbit 7.17 – 7.23 Opportunity to examine experts 6.53 , 6.54 Oral testimony 8.51 – 8.74 cross–examination, right to 8.53 – 8.55 examination of tribunal–appointed expert 8.60 , 8.61 examining witnesses using documents 8.56 – 8.58 hearing schedule 8.70 – 8.74 language of evidentiary hearing 8.62 – 8.64 questions by tribunal 8.65 – 8.67 re–cross examination 8.59 re–direct examination 8.59 witness conferencing 8.68 , 8.69 Order to disclose documentary evidence 3.16 Original documentary evidence 3.131 – 3.144 Party–appointed experts 5.01 – 5.39 affirmation of genuine belief in opinions expressed 5.21 , 5.22 battle of the experts 5.04 commercial relationship with party 5.15 , 5.16 contents of expert report 5.10 – 5.25 determining not to call or cross–examine 5.38 , 5.39 disclosure of instructions 5.19 , 5.20 documents relied upon 5.17 , 5.18 ethical guidance for counsel regarding reports 5.23 – 5.25 expert report 5.08 , 5.09 factual assumptions 5.17 , 5.18 factual issues 5.02 failure to attend hearing 5.34 – 5.37 fees 5.14 identifying 5.07 independence 5.12 – 5.16 ordering to meet and confer 5.28 – 5.32 rebuttable reports 5.26 , 5.27 statement of independence 5.12 summoning to evidentiary hearing 5.33 – 5.39 testimony 5.05 – 5.09 Political or institutional sensitivity 9.91 – 9.108 cabinet confidence 9.99 compelling 9.97 – 9.102 deliberative privilege 9.99 domestic laws 9.93 – 9.96 equal treatment 9.94 – 9.96 improper assertion 9.108 probative value 9.101 procedural order 9.102 right to secrecy 9.91 , 9.92 sensitive documents 9.103 – 9.107 state secrets 9.97 , 9.100 Predominant purpose of evidentiary hearing 8.03 Prima facie evidence burden of proof, and 7.31 – 7.36 facts supporting claim 7.41 Privilege 9.05 , 9.18 – 9.64 agreement by parties 9.63 , 9.64 Page 396 applicable mandatory law 9.22 burden of proof 9.25 categorisation 9.20 closest connection test 9.43 – 9.46 complexity of subject 9.18 equal treatment 9.60 – 9.64 fairness 9.60 – 9.64 guiding principles in determining appropriate rule 9.20 – 9.25 IBA Rules 9.19 international practice 9.23 least protection 9.62 legal or ethical rule 9.21 legitimate expectations of parties 9.41 most favourable 9.61 relevant sources of law 9.48 – 9.51 survey method 9.47 – 9.52 waiver 9.53 – 9.59 Procedural economy 9.109 , 9.110 – 9.113 deadlines 9.110 – 9.112 equal treatment 9.112 fairness 9.112 Production of documents under protest 3.62 Proportionality 9.114 Public notoriety judicial notice, and 2.31 Public proceedings confidentiality, and 3.154 Rebuttal expert reports 5.26 , 5.27 Rebuttal witness statements 4.45 – 4.47 Re–cross examination 8.59 Redfern schedule 3.64 – 3.67 Re–direct examination 8.59 Relevance and materiality objections 9.06 – 9.17 modern practice 9.02 right to be heard, and 9.07 Relevance and materiality standard 3.70 – 3.80 material to its outcome 3.78 – 3.80 relevant to the case 3.72 – 3.77 Request for document disclosure 3.14 Requested evidence accessible to non–producing party adverse inferences 7.41 Right to evidentiary hearing 8.06 – 8.11 limits 8.07 notice periods 8.08 – 8.11 Right to secrecy political or institutional sensitivity 9.91 . 9.92 Rules of evidence ad hoc solutions, as 1.03 application of local rules 1.17 , 1.18 , 1.19 common sense, and 1.08 , 1.09 common statements 1.05 conceptual challenge 1.01 definition 1.02 direct proof of existence 1.07 – 1.10 due process principles 1.12 , 1.13 equality 1.14 existence 1.06 – 1.11 0 fairness 1.14 guidelines 1.16 IBA 1.15 , 1.20 – 1.26 international standards 1.19 Sensitive information confidentiality 3.155 , 3.156 Sequestration of witnesses 8.44 – 8.47 Settlement privilege 9.33 – 9.40 content 9.34 international procedural law 9.35 Iran–US Claims Tribunal 9.36 limits 9.40 mediation 9.37 – 9.39 Shifting burden of proof 7.31 – 7.36 Signature of witness 4.44 Standard of proof 7.26 – 7.30 balance of probabilities test 7.27 inner conviction test 7.28 Statement of claim 3.09 Statement of defence 3.09 Translations documentary evidence 3.13 Transparency confidentiality, and 3.154 – 3.156 Tribunal–appointed experts 6.01 – 6.63 adopting full findings of expert 6.60 , 6.61 applying tribunal’s own expertise to determine specific issues 6.15 – 6.17 appointment 6.04 – 6.22 attributes of report 6.57 – 6.59 consultation with parties 6.04 costs 6.62 determination of foreign law 6.14 determining when specific issues have arisen 6.07 – 6.14 difference between roles of witness and arbitrator 6.16 , 6.17 duty to weigh evidence 6.10 examination of 8.60 , 8.61 formalities accompanying appointment 6.23 – 6.31 IBA Rules 6.03 independence 6.23 , 6.24 , 6.25 – 6.26 input from parties on content of terms of reference 6.06 inquisitorial nature 6.01 , 6.02 investigations by 6.32 – 6.43 equal treatment, and 6.34 , 6.39 – 6.43 production of evidence at request of expert 6.35 , 6.36 impartiality in conduct of 6.37 , 6.38 right to be heard 6.34 , 6.37 , 6.38 , 6.39 – 6.43 issues to be referred to 6.11 lacunae in evidentiary record 6.08 mandate 6.04 – 6.22 mandatory law, required by 6.18 opportunity to examine 6.53 , 6.54 party’s right to review and comment on report 6.44 – 6.52 qualifications 6.23 , 6.24 , 6.27 – 6.29 Page 397 raising objections alter expert appointed 6.30 , 6.31 right to review information relied upon by expert 6.51 , 6.52 role 6.05 technical questions 6.12 terms of reference 6.19 – 6.22 compensation 6.21 descriptions of issues and/or questions to be considered 6.21 general admonition to remain neutral and independent 6.21 general availability 6.21 instructions concerning evidence and investigation 6.21 instructions concerning report 6.21 request to attend hearing 6.21 time frame for report 6.21 time for raising objections 6.23 – 6.31 weighing probative value of expert report 6.55 – 6.61 UNCITRAL Arbitration Rules text Appendix 2 Uncontroverted and clear fact judicial notice, and 2.32 Unlawful collection of evidence 9.119 – 9.122 Unreasonable burden 9.65 – 9.76 objective factors 9.69 – 9.72 party’s jurisdictional background 9.74 – 9.76 subjectivity 9.66 usefulness of documents 9.67 vague or overly broad requests 9.73 Use of documentary evidence in connection with arbitration 3.157 , 3.158 Using experts to resolve disputes 3.85 – 3.92 appointing expert 3.86 , 3.87 failure by party to cooperate with expert 3.91 independence and impartiality of expert 3.88 role of expert 3.89 , 3.90 Video conference testifying by 8.18 , 8.19 Weighing probative value of expert report 6.55 – 6.61 Witness conferencing 8.68 , 8.69 Witness intimidation 4.20 Witness statements 4.23 – 4.59 advantages 4.23 – 4.25 affirming legal pleadings of counsel 4.37 contents 4.31 – 4.44 corroborating evidence 4.38 – 4.40 cross–examination, and 4.49 customary practice 4.23 direct testimony, as 8.83 disclosure of relationship to party 4.32 disregarding 4.48 – 4.52 documents accompanying 4.38 – 4.41 duty to present for cross–examination 4.53 – 4.57 ethical issues for counsel 4.26 , 4.27 evaluation of materiality 4.51 exceptional reasons for admitting testimony of non–attending witness 4.58 , 4.59 first person narrative account 4.35 full description of facts 4.33 – 4.37 non–appearance, and 4.50 party’s right to withdraw 4.28 rebuttal 4.45 – 4.47 signature of witness 4.44 time frame for submitting 4.29 , 4.30 time frame for submitting 4.29 , 4.30 use of 4.23 – 4.30 valid reasons for non–attendance at hearing 4.52 – 4.57 witness affirmation 4.42 , 4.43 Witnesses sequestration 8.44 – 8.47 notification of 8.05 – 8.19 Witnesses of fact 4.01 – 4.78 basic assumptions 4.01 broad definition 4.12 considerations prior to authorising court involvement 4.70 – 4.71 contacting adverse witnesses and ethical concerns 4.19 – 4.22 court’s assistance in taking testimony 4.68 , 4.69 failure to call witness to hearing 4.60 – 4.62 failure to give notice of witness within specified time 4.05 – 4.07 identification 4.04 – 4.07 late evidence 4.06 legal obligations of confidentiality to a party 4.13 , 4.14 non–cooperating 4.63 – 4.73 parties 4.08 persons interested in outcome of proceedings 4.10 – 4.12 preparing 4.15 – 4.22 differences of approach 4.15 , 4.16 ethical considerations for counsel 4.18 transnational standard 4.17 probative value of proffered testimony 4.07 steps legally available to tribunal to obtain testimony 4.72 , 4.73 tribunal not obliged to act 4.70 – 4.71 tribunal’s authority over taking of witness testimony 4.64 – 4.67 tribunal’s power to call 4.74 – 4.78 variations in practice 4.03 who may be a witness 4.08 – 4.14 witness intimidation 4.20 witness statements 4.23 – 4.59 see also Witness statements witness with connection to party 4.09 written statement 4.02

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