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Index

New Technologies, Artificial Intelligence and Shipping law in the 21st Century


Page 191

Index

Index

  • ballast water treatment 7
  • bankers 17, 51, 52, 55, 57, 182–183
  • BankID 41, 42
  • Belgium 94, 150n9
  • Bermuda 190
  • big data 14, 178, 180, 182
  • bills of lading
    • blockchain 5–6
    • Bolero Bill of Lading (BBL) 11
    • customary trade practices 26
    • delivery of goods 33–34, 56–57, 118
    • delivery terms 48, 49
    • difference between US and UK law 32n75
    • digitisation 5–6, 117, 122
    • electronic signatures 40
    • exchanging for delivery orders 56–57
    • Glencore v MSC 50–52
    • Himalaya clauses 8, 140
    • international legal regimes 23
    • and the master 142, 144
    • negotiability 33, 50, 51
    • paramount clauses 8
    • Rotterdam Rules 29, 32
    • shipper-carrier relationships 23
    • shore-based controllers 142, 143, 147
  • BIMCO 19–21, 86, 141, 142n34, 146
  • Bingham, Lord 51, 166
  • biometrics 180
  • Bitcoin 6, 17, 40
  • black boxes 179
  • blockchain
    • electronic signatures 40–41
    • insurance 178, 182–183
    • and liability 117,

      Page 192

      122
    • security risks 122
    • in the shipping industry 3–16
    • smart contracts 17–18
    • smart ports 101
  • blue cards 137, 140, 146
  • Bolero project 10–11
  • border control 185
  • both to blame collisions 142, 143
  • Botport law 90–104
  • breach of contract 61
  • Brexit 188
  • bulk carriage of commodities 10
  • bunker contracts 21
  • bunker fuel 86, 130
  • burden of proof 24, 125, 155
  • bystander injury 125, 127
  • cabotage 73
  • Canada 140n26
  • car insurance 179
  • care of cargo 123–124, 154, 156–158, 161
  • cargo documentation 117, 122–123, 142
  • cargo insurance 180, 182
  • cargo loss 23–25, 28–29, 47–63, 123–124, 140
  • carriage of goods by sea
    • domestic statues, judicial doctrines and customary trade practices 25–26
    • international conventions 23–28
  • carrier liability 24, 50, 124, 148–161
  • Central Commission for Navigation of the Rhine (CCNR) 94
  • certification, electronic 43, 137, 146
  • channelling liability 112, 125–126
  • charterparties 6, 8, 18, 19–21, 85, 141–142
  • charterers 19–20, 75, 107, 112, 113, 120, 122, 139, 141–142, 147
  • chatbots 178, 182, 187, 188
  • China 71, 100
  • choice of forum clauses 15, 16
  • choice of law clauses 15, 16, 85
  • ciphers 37
  • civil procedure rules for disclosure 166–173
  • cloud computing 176
  • Code on Genetic Testing and Insurance 181–2
  • collision avoidance systems 68, 77–78, 98
  • collisions
    • and autonomous ships 76–78, 83, 87, 111, 113, 114, 124–125, 142, 143
    • both to blame collisions 142, 143
    • product liability 117, 119
  • collusive behaviours 11
  • COLREGS (International Regulations for Averting Collisions at Sea 1972) 76–8, 87, 88, 89, 92, 106, 133–5, 152
  • Comité Maritime International (CMI) 31, 87, 91, 132, 146, 150
  • Commfides 41
  • company digital signatures 39, 44
  • company seals 39, 44
  • Company Security Officers (CSO) 79–80
  • condition of goods 149, 156
  • congestion 70
  • consignees 7, 28, 33, 49–50, 51, 54, 122
  • container transport
    • autonomous ships 69
    • digitisation of documentation 118
    • dockers 101
    • multimodal contracts 26–27
    • port-to-port basis 26
    • Rotterdam Rules 29
    • stowage 156
    • transport sharing devices/apps 10
  • continuously unmanned ships (CUS) 68, 74, 83
  • contract of carriage 26, 27, 28, 31, 34, 51, 62, 124, 140, 144, 154
  • control of goods in transit 34, 52, 53–56
  • corruption 95
  • counterfeiting 9
  • criminal law and the master 140
  • Crown immunity 69
  • cryptocurrencies 3, 17, 40
  • cryptology 38
  • custody of goods 52
  • customary trade practices 26
  • Customs 103
  • C-WORKER 7 (ASV Global) 69, 79, 84
  • cyber insurance 184, 187
  • cyber resilience 86
  • cybercrime 101, 147
  • cybersecurity 77, 86, 111, 115, 122, 147, 154, 180, 184, 186, 187
  • damage to cargo 123–124, 140
  • damages 8, 125, 184
  • data connectivity 111, 115, 129
  • data management 98, 102–103
  • data protection 12, 180, 181
  • Data Sampling 168
  • data security 12, 18, 44, 45, 60, 103
  • data sharing 103, 166
  • decentralized networks 18
  • decryption keys 37–38, 45
  • defences 43–45, 46, 49–50, 120, 155
  • delivery of goods
    • bills of lading 33–34, 48, 49, 56–57, 118
    • carrier’s obligation 33–34
    • definition of ‘delivery’ 53–56
    • delivery terms 49, 50, 52–53, 56–60, 61, 62
    • misdelivery 29, 61–62, 122
    • symbolic delivery 49, 53, 56
  • delivery orders 56–60, 61–62

  • Page 193

    deployed over side equipment 67
  • digital currencies 17, 40
  • digital payments 95
  • digital signatures 36–46
  • digitisation
    • Insurtech 178–190
    • legal technology 165–177
    • and product liability 116–120
    • smart ports 102–103
  • disabling want of knowledge 151
  • disclosure in shipping litigation 165–177
  • disposal of cargo in transit 29–30, 157, 158
  • dispute resolution 15–17, 165–177, 185–186
  • distress signals 136
  • distributed ledger technology (DLT) 5–7, 8, 9, 12, 18, 41, 117, 122
  • distrust, mutual 17
  • DNV GL 70
  • dockers 101–102
  • document, definition of 167–168, 173
  • document of title function 29, 31, 32, 117
  • door-to-door transactions 25, 33
  • double-spending 40–41
  • drones 14, 72, 94, 100, 101, 105, 180
  • drugs trade 101
  • due despatch 141
  • due diligence 42, 113, 149, 153, 154–155, 160
  • dumping (waste) at sea 81
  • duty of care 84, 121, 124, 128
  • duty to provide assistance 74, 135–137, 144
  • ECDIS (Electronic Chart Display and Information System) 98, 176
  • e-commerce 14, 16, 29
  • e-contracts 16
  • e-disclosure databases 167–168
  • e-documentation 117, 122, 165–177
  • e-freight forwarding 100
  • electronic certificates 43, 137, 146
  • Electronic Data Interchange (EDI) 29–30, 103, 117, 176
  • electronic disclosure 167–173
  • electronic messages 11
  • electronic monitoring systems 124
  • electronic release systems (ERS) 48, 49–50, 51
  • electronic signatures 7, 36–46
  • electronically stored information (ESI) 26, 27, 171
  • emails 48, 57, 60, 166, 169, 171, 172, 177
  • e-malfunctions 122
  • emergency situations 68, 92, 98, 110, 129, 153
  • e-navigation 98
  • encryption 11, 37–38, 41, 45, 122
  • enforceability of international contracts 15–17
  • entitlement to the cargo 40
  • environmental issues 86, 130
  • environmental standards 7
  • ESSDOCS 117
  • estoppel 49, 60–61
  • ethical dilemmas 108n15
  • evidential value of automatic detection systems 96
  • facilitation payments 95
  • facsimiles of signatures 36
  • fault liability 108, 109, 111, 119, 122, 160
  • ferries, autonomous 106
  • fines 137
  • Finferries 105–106
  • fireboats 69, 93
  • flag state jurisdiction 73–74, 79, 131–132
  • forgeries 44, 46
  • fraud 9, 185
  • freedom of contract 100
  • freight forwarders 100
  • functional equivalence 31
  • Fundamental Rights Agency (FRA) 187
  • gamification 178, 180, 181
  • GENCON 19, 143–144
  • genetic data 180, 181–182
  • geographical information systems (GIS) 182
  • Germany 71, 190
  • GIANO 69
  • giving way 134
  • global marketplace 17
  • global standardization 19
  • good faith defences 44
  • GPS (Global Positioning System) 86, 176
  • Greenhouse gas emissions 9, 70
  • hacking 60, 111, 122, 129, 145, 147, 154, 186
  • Hamburg 101
  • Harbour masters 94, 96-97
  • hardware failure 121, 127
  • hauliers 48
  • hazardous/toxic materials 82, 109, 125, 158
  • health insurance 180–181, 182
  • Himalaya clauses 8, 140
  • hold harmless provisions 85
  • holders of electronic records 33
  • holograms 105
  • Hull Fouling Clause 141
  • human error 86, 115, 116, 129, 150, 160, 189
  • hybrid autonomous-manned vessels 68, 74, 106, 149
  • hybrid blockchain 12, 15
  • hyperloops 101

  • Page 194

    IBM 183
  • ice risk areas 143
  • IDEA 20
  • identity verification 36, 39, 41, 43, 45
  • ILO (International Labour Organization) 102, 138
  • IMDG Code 142
  • IMO (International Maritime Organization) 78, 87–88, 89, 91, 97, 98, 106, 113, 130, 132, 146, 147
  • imputation 50, 51
  • IMSBC Code 142
  • indemnity clauses 85
  • India 73
  • information asymmetries 9
  • infrastructure
    • digital signatures 41–42
    • electronic signatures 42–43
    • smart ports 94–95
  • inland destinations, carriage to 27
  • inland waterways 94, 129
  • insolvency 84
  • inspection regimes 96–97, 112, 113
  • insurance
    • and artificial intelligence 178–190
    • and autonomous ships 75, 83, 85–86, 137, 146
    • claims handling 184–185
    • document disclosure 167
    • fraud 185
    • Insurtech 178–190
    • product liability 118, 123
    • third-party liabilities 111, 112, 115
    • underwriting 178–184
    • Usage Based Insurance (UBI) 179–181
  • Inter-Club Agreement 120, 142
  • Interfishmarket 10
  • intermediaries
    • avoiding use of with blockchain 10
    • avoiding use of with smart contracts 13
    • in global marketplace 17
    • lawyers 13–14
  • internal waters 73
  • International Association of Marine Aids to Navigation and Lighthouse Authorities (IALA) 98, 99
  • international contracts, enforceability 15–17
  • international conventions
    • autonomous shipping 73–84, 130
    • carriage of goods by sea 23–25
    • definition of ‘ship’ 71
    • other modes of carriage 26–28
    • ports 91
  • International Group of P&I Clubs 85–86
  • International Monetary Fund (IMF) 75
  • International Ship and Port Facility Security (ISPS) Code 79–80
  • International Transport Forum, OECD 3
  • international waters 88
  • International Working Group for Maritime Law and Unmanned Craft (IWG) 87–88
  • Internet of Things (IoT) 9, 181, 182, 184
  • interoperability issues 18, 41–42
  • ISM (International Safety Management) Code 79
  • ISPS Code 79–80
  • IT managers and smart contracts 13
    • see also software producers and liability; voyage programmers
  • Japan 183
  • jettison 143–144, 157, 158
  • job losses 74, 101
  • jurisdiction issues 15, 16, 73, 85, 140
  • keys (physical) 54–55
  • knock-for-knock provisions 85
  • knowledge imputed 50, 51
  • Kongsberg 69, 129
  • KOTUG 69
  • labour laws 102, 138–139
  • lack of authority defence 44, 46
  • large vendors 14
  • legal technology, disclosure in shipping litigation 165–177
  • Lemonade Inc 184, 187
  • less container load (LCL) transport 10
  • liability
    • after discharge, before delivery 50
    • and artificial intelligence 188–189
    • and autonomous shipping 74–76, 88
    • blockchain 8
    • carrier liability 24, 50, 124, 148–161
    • channelling liability 112, 125–126
    • electronic signatures 42–43, 45
    • fault-based liability 108, 109, 111, 119, 122, 160
    • limited liability 74–75, 113–114, 119, 120, 124, 140
    • in the maritime transport industry generally 8
    • Nairobi Convention (Nairobi wreck removal convention 2007) 82–83
    • online intermediaries 100
    • pollution liability 125
    • product liability 116–128
    • Rotterdam Rules 28–29, 31
    • several liability 119
    • smart ports 95, 96
    • software producers and liability 155
    • strict liability 84, 88, 107–110, 121, 125, 126–128, 189
    • terminal operators 101
  • lie detector technology 185
  • limitation of liability 74–75, 113–114, 119, 120, 124, 140
  • liner transportation 10
  • linesmen 100
  • liquidation 54
  • Lloyd’s Emerging Risks and Research 85
  • Lloyd’s Open Form (LOF) 85
  • logistics sector 3
  • logs 141

  • Page 195

    look out, requirements for 76, 134
    • see also watch keeping requirements
  • loss of cargo 23–25, 28–29, 47–63, 123–124, 140
  • MAchine eXecutable Collision regulations for Marine Autonomous Systems research project (MAXCMAS) 77n21
  • machine learning 182, 187, 188
  • Maersk Line 147
  • maintenance 68, 70, 87, 113, 130, 141, 146–147, 158
  • malware 147, 184, 185
  • manning requirements 131–132
  • manoeuvring rules 76, 89, 93, 134–135
  • manufacturer, channelling liability to 112, 113, 117
  • marine diesel oil (MDO) 130
  • marine fuel purchasing 21
  • marine gas oil (MGO) 130
  • marine hull insurance 183
  • Marine Industries Alliance 88
  • Maritime and Coastguard Agency (MCA) 88
  • Maritime Autonomous Surface Ships (MASS) 67–89, 106, 130
  • Maritime Law Association 131, 132
  • maritime performing parties 101
  • Maritime Safety Committee (MSC) 87, 106, 130, 147
  • Maritime Single Windows 103
  • maritime tracking 103
  • maritime zones 73
  • Marsh 183
  • MASRWG Voluntary Code of Practice 84, 85, 88
  • master
    • care of cargo 157
    • MASRWG Voluntary Code of Practice 89
    • ship’s delivery orders 58
    • smart contracts 21
    • UNCLOS 74
    • and unmanned vessels 74, 88, 129–147
  • mates’ receipts 142
  • metadata 166, 169, 171
  • MIB (Motor Insurers’ Bureau) 190
  • middlemen see intermediaries
  • misappropriation of cargo 47–49
  • misdelivery 29, 61–62, 122
  • mitigation 45, 181
  • monitoring systems 69, 86, 118, 124, 129, 133, 146, 158, 176
  • mooring men 100
  • mortgage 84
  • multimodal transactions 8, 25, 26–27
  • Mummery LJ 176n38
  • MUNIN (Maritime Unmanned Navigation through Intelligence Networks) 105, 109, 149
  • nationality of ships 73
  • native format documents 169–170, 175
  • nautical fault exception 158–161
  • navigation
    • and autonomous ships 76, 83, 86, 107, 110–111, 133
    • in the definition of a ‘ship’ 70
    • digitisation 118–119
    • e-navigation 98
    • nautical fault exception 160
    • navigation rights 73
    • navigation systems and document disclosure 176
    • product liability 124–126
    • role of the master 141
    • smart ports 92, 98
    • software producers and liability 141
  • negligence
    • and autonomous ships 76, 84, 107, 113, 134
    • electronic signatures 45
    • master 143, 144
    • nautical fault exception 159
    • product liability 116–117, 119, 121, 124–125
    • seaworthiness 150
    • and software 122–123
  • negotiability 29, 33, 50
  • neutral platforms 10
  • NKK 120
  • non-discrimination principle 91
  • non-permissioned DLT 6–7
  • non-vessel-operating carriers (NVOC) 27n28
  • Norway 39, 42, 44, 45, 71, 106
  • Norwegian Forum for Autonomous Ships (NFAS) 68n1
  • Norwegian Maritime Law Commission 42
  • Norwich Union 179
  • notify parties 48
  • NxtPort 103
  • NYPE (New York Produce Exchange Form) 141–143
  • off-hire 142
  • offshore sector 112
  • oil and gas contracts 85
  • oil pollution 82, 125, 137, 140
  • oil record books 137, 140
  • Optical Character Recognition (OCR) technology 101, 170, 175
  • oracles 7
  • original documents 39
  • owners see shipowners
  • P&I 49, 85, 118, 119, 123, 125, 128
  • paper documentation
    • audit trails on 19–20
    • benefits of pen-and-ink signatures 41–42
    • costs of 23, 34
    • e-documents with same

      Page 196

      legal force as 11
    • holders of 33
    • security of 60
    • substitutability with electronic 32
  • paperless offices 165
  • paramount clauses 8
  • passphrases, security of 44, 45
  • patent applications 4n11, 6n16
  • pay as you drive (PAYD) insurance 179
  • pay how you drive (PHYD) insurance 179
  • PDF Advanced Electronic Signatures (PAdES) 39
  • peer-to-peer systems 9, 17
  • periodically unmanned bridge (PUB) 68, 74
  • periodically unmanned ships (PUS) 68, 74, 83
  • permissioned ledgers 7–8, 12, 15, 18
  • personal data 12, 180, 181, 182, 186
  • personal injury claims 75, 125, 127, 139, 184
  • pilotage assistance 99, 145–146
  • pilots 93, 99, 139, 143, 145–146
  • PIN codes 47–63, 101, 118, 122, 123
  • piracy 86, 142, 145, 157–158
  • pledges 55
  • pollution detection 94
  • pollution liability 125
  • pollution prevention 79, 80, 82, 108
  • ‘pooling’ cargo 10
  • port agents 130, 141, 142, 147
  • port of refuge 143–144
  • port security officers 97
  • Port State Control 93, 96–97
  • Portable Pilot Units (PPUs) 99
  • ports
    • autonomous ships coming into 68, 73, 91, 99, 130, 145
    • crew’s cargo duties 158
    • port management 94–96
    • port states 91, 131
    • security 96, 97
    • smart ports 90–104
  • port-to-port basis 33
  • port-to-port transactions 25, 26, 27
  • possession of goods 53–56
  • powers of attorney 45
  • powers of control 52
  • predictive coding 173
  • privacy issues 179–180, 185
  • product liability 116–128
  • property damage insurance 85
  • public blockchains 18
  • public keys 37, 38, 45–46
  • Purple Water 69
  • qualified signatures 40
  • radar 98, 103
  • radio communications 67, 74, 92, 98, 103, 129
  • real-time characteristics of smart contracts 14
  • real-time data and autonomous ships 77
  • real-time demand and supply matching 9
  • real-time tracking and insurance 180
  • reasonable care 113, 156
  • reasonableness test 73
  • reasonably suited standard 154
  • receipt for goods 31
  • recklessness 88, 114, 139
  • recourse action 113
  • reefers 118
  • registered owner, channelling liability to 112
  • reinsurance 183
  • release notes 48, 49, 50, 51, 52–53, 56–57, 62
  • relevance tests 166
  • Remote Operated Vehicles (ROVs) 67
  • remote operation of ships 67, 89, 99, 105, 106, 110, 130, 145, 149, 152–153, 159
  • rendering assistance to other ships 74, 135–137, 144
  • Report of the Working Group on International Legislation on Shipping 149n8
  • reverse engineering 15
  • revocations 52
  • right to be forgotten 12
  • right to demand delivery 33–34
  • right of disposal 29
  • risk profiles 86
  • robotic process automation (RPA) 182
  • robotics 101, 178, 182
  • Rolls Royce 69, 105, 118n18, 145
  • Rosetti Marino 69
  • Rotterdam 69, 90, 94, 100–101
  • routing recommendations 141
  • safe manning documents 138
  • sale and charter of vessel 7
  • sale of goods 44, 121
  • sale of services 121, 127
  • salvage 83, 85, 144
  • sandboxes, regulatory 190
  • SARUMS 149
  • satellite coverage 77
  • scrapping and recycling 7
  • seafaring 92, 138–139, 152
  • seals 39
  • seamanship 76–77, 78, 134
  • search, document 166–173, 174–175
  • search and rescue (SAR) 87
  • sea waybills 31, 32, 142, 144
  • seaworthiness 119, 141, 149–155
  • security, port 96, 97

  • Page 197

    security alert systems 79
  • security risks 79–80, 110
  • self-mooring systems 100
  • sensitive data 12
  • sensors 77, 96, 97, 99, 112, 126, 127, 129, 182
  • servants of the carrier 144, 159, 160
  • several liability 119
  • ship to shore interfaces 86
  • shipowners
    • channelling liability to 112, 114
    • due diligence 153
    • in-house software development 160
    • insurance 137
    • product liability 117
    • and the role of the master 139, 143, 147
  • Shipowners’ Club 86
  • ships, legal definition of 70–72, 73–84, 131n5
  • ship’s delivery orders 50, 57–60, 144
  • ship’s papers orders 167
  • shipwrecks 83
  • shopping agents 100
  • shore-based controllers
    • and autonomous ships 78, 92, 96, 97, 98
    • bills of lading 142, 143, 147
    • functional equivalent of master 140, 143, 144, 146
    • as master 133
    • multiple vessels at once 153
    • nautical fault exception 159
    • product liability 120
    • and proper manning requirements 152
    • and the role of the master 129, 130, 132, 138–140, 141–145
    • salvage 144
    • seaworthiness 143
    • and shipowners 153
    • training and certification 152–153
  • signatures 36–46
  • Singapore 100
  • slow steaming 141
  • smart cargo transportation 118, 158
  • smart containers 100–101, 158
  • smart contracts 4, 10, 12–15, 16, 18, 21, 178
  • smart ports 90–104
  • smart shipping 94
    • see autonomous shipping
  • smart stowage 101
  • smart surveillance cameras 96
  • smart thermostats 182
  • SmartCon 20
  • smuggling 143
  • software maintenance standards 146
  • software malfunctions 109–110, 116, 119, 122, 126, 154–155, 185, 189
  • software producers and liability 108–109, 119, 121–122, 126, 127, 141, 160
  • sound systems 156, 158, 161
  • special trade passenger ship instruments 87
  • spoofing 86
  • standard disclosure 167
  • standard terms and conditions 47, 50, 100
  • standardized contracts 19–20, 85
  • states as trusted managers of blockchains 12
  • stevedores 142, 161
  • storage facilities 53
  • stowage 101, 118, 122, 156
  • streaming of data 77
  • strict liability 84, 88, 107–110, 121, 125, 126–128, 189
  • strike action 93, 143
  • sub-bailees 54, 55
  • sub-contracting 27
  • submarines 67, 105
  • submersibles 70
  • supercargo 143
  • supply chains 13, 14, 18, 181
  • surveillance 96, 105, 129
  • tackle-to-tackle basis 25, 33
  • tallymen 101
  • telematics 178, 179, 180–181, 182
  • temperature monitoring 118, 157
  • terminal operators 100–101
  • terms of carriage 49–50
  • terrorism 79, 81, 97
  • theft of cargo 48–49, 123
  • third parties, transfer of rights to 23, 34
  • third party authority 5
  • third party damage 85
  • third party losses 43
  • third-party liabilities 105–115, 120, 122, 125
  • third-party repairmen 154
  • tort 44–45, 76, 84, 107, 109–110, 113, 117, 139
  • towage 93
  • transfer of goods 53–56
  • transport sharing devices/apps 9
  • trigger events 18
  • trolley problem 108n15, 190
  • true records, establishing 5
  • trust
    • electronic versus pen-and-ink signatures 36
    • importance of 17
    • in the Internet 37
    • trusted actors 7, 12, 16
    • trusted clients 7
    • trusted managers 15
  • tube transportation 101
  • tugs, remote-controlled 69, 93–94, 118
  • UK Ship Register 69, 79, 83–84
  • ultra slow steaming 141
  • uncertainty 17, 20
  • UNCITRAL (UN Commission on International Trade Law) 29–34, 41
  • underwater vehicles 67, 70, 105
  • underwriting 178–184, 187
  • unmanned ships 14, 67–89
    • see also autonomous shipping
  • unpermissioned ledgers 6

  • Page 198

    unseaworthiness 119–120, 124, 143, 150–151, 153, 154–155
  • Usage Based Insurance (UBI) 179–181
  • user-points 41–42
  • variation of contract 61
  • verification 37
  • Vessel Traffic Service (VTS) 96, 97–99, 103
  • vessels not under command 134–135
  • virtual bridges 133
  • virtual watchkeeping 138
  • voice recognition 105
  • Voyage Data Recorders (VDRs) 103, 176
  • voyage programmers 130, 133, 142, 149–150, 160–161
  • waivers 62
  • walled gardens 20
  • war risk areas 142, 143
  • warehouses 101
  • warranties 141n31, 143
  • warships 82
  • waste management 81
  • watch keeping requirements 78, 137–138, 150
  • weight limits 80
  • wrecks 83
  • Yara Birkeland 69, 72–73, 92, 106, 129, 132

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