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Index

New Technologies, Artificial Intelligence and Shipping law in the 21st Century

Page 191 Index Index AAWA project 145 agents, use of 45, 50–51, 52, 55, 100, 126, 130, 142 AIS (Automatic Identification System) 77, 78, 129, 176 algorithms artificial intelligence 178 autonomous shipping 108 blockchain 13, 14, 15 collision avoidance systems 77 encryption 38, 39–40 insurance 180, 182 and liability 108, 121–122 potential for discrimination 187 product liability 119 seaworthiness 155 smart contracts 4 Amazon 14, 17, 100 anti-competitive effects 11 anti-selection (insurance) 181–182, 188 antitrust 11–12 Antwerp 48, 49, 50, 60, 90, 94, 103, 157 AP Møller-Mærsk 10 arbitration clauses 85 artificial intelligence autonomous shipping 109, 131 as business risk 184 and insurance 178–190 machine learning 182, 187, 188 Maritime Autonomous Surface Ships (MASS) 67 predictive coding in document search 173 self-adapting systems 160n38 smart ports 90 trolley problem 108n15 , 190 asset registers 183 assignment 40 assistance to other ships 74, 135–137, 144 ASV Global 69, 77 asymmetric encryption 37–38, 40, 45 attornment 54 audit trails 18, 20 authentication 18, 20, 33, 36 see also identity verification authority, acting outside 44, 46 authority to vary a contract 61 automated container terminals 100–101 automated mooring 100 automatic detection systems 96, 97 automatic mooring systems 129 autonomous shipping carrier liability 148–161 jurisdiction issues 140 and maritime law 67–89 product liability 118–119, 124–126, 127 regulatory and contractual challenges 129–147 and the role of the master 129–147 and smart ports 91–94, 97, 98, 103 third-party liabilities 105–115 autonomous vehicles 189 autonomy assisted bridge (AAB) 68 auto-pilot 98 see also autonomous shipping Aviva 179 ballast water treatment 7 bankers 17, 51, 52, 55, 57, 182–183 BankID 41, 42 Belgium 94, 150n9 Bermuda 190 big data 14, 178, 180, 182 bills of lading blockchain 5–6 Bolero Bill of Lading (BBL) 11 customary trade practices 26 delivery of goods 33–34, 56–57, 118 delivery terms 48, 49 difference between US and UK law 32n75 digitisation 5–6, 117, 122 electronic signatures 40 exchanging for delivery orders 56–57 Glencore v MSC 50–52 Himalaya clauses 8, 140 international legal regimes 23 and the master 142, 144 negotiability 33, 50, 51 paramount clauses 8 Rotterdam Rules 29, 32 shipper-carrier relationships 23 shore-based controllers 142, 143, 147 BIMCO 19–21, 86, 141, 142n34 , 146 Bingham, Lord 51, 166 biometrics 180 Bitcoin 6, 17, 40 black boxes 179 blockchain electronic signatures 40–41 insurance 178, 182–183 and liability 117, Page 192 122 security risks 122 in the shipping industry 3–16 smart contracts 17–18 smart ports 101 blue cards 137, 140, 146 Bolero project 10–11 border control 185 both to blame collisions 142, 143 Botport law 90–104 breach of contract 61 Brexit 188 bulk carriage of commodities 10 bunker contracts 21 bunker fuel 86, 130 burden of proof 24, 125, 155 bystander injury 125, 127 cabotage 73 Canada 140n26 car insurance 179 care of cargo 123–124, 154, 156–158, 161 cargo documentation 117, 122–123, 142 cargo insurance 180, 182 cargo loss 23–25, 28–29, 47–63, 123–124, 140 carriage of goods by sea domestic statues, judicial doctrines and customary trade practices 25–26 international conventions 23–28 carrier liability 24, 50, 124, 148–161 Central Commission for Navigation of the Rhine (CCNR) 94 certification, electronic 43, 137, 146 channelling liability 112, 125–126 charterparties 6, 8, 18, 19–21, 85, 141–142 charterers 19–20, 75, 107, 112, 113, 120, 122, 139, 141–142, 147 chatbots 178, 182, 187, 188 China 71, 100 choice of forum clauses 15, 16 choice of law clauses 15, 16, 85 ciphers 37 civil procedure rules for disclosure 166–173 cloud computing 176 Code on Genetic Testing and Insurance 181–2 collision avoidance systems 68, 77–78, 98 collisions and autonomous ships 76–78, 83, 87, 111, 113, 114, 124–125, 142, 143 both to blame collisions 142, 143 product liability 117, 119 collusive behaviours 11 COLREGS (International Regulations for Averting Collisions at Sea 1972) 76–8, 87, 88, 89, 92, 106, 133–5, 152 Comité Maritime International (CMI) 31, 87, 91, 132, 146, 150 Commfides 41 company digital signatures 39, 44 company seals 39, 44 Company Security Officers (CSO) 79–80 condition of goods 149, 156 congestion 70 consignees 7, 28, 33, 49–50, 51, 54, 122 container transport autonomous ships 69 digitisation of documentation 118 dockers 101 multimodal contracts 26–27 port-to-port basis 26 Rotterdam Rules 29 stowage 156 transport sharing devices/apps 10 continuously unmanned ships (CUS) 68, 74, 83 contract of carriage 26, 27, 28, 31, 34, 51, 62, 124, 140, 144, 154 control of goods in transit 34, 52, 53–56 corruption 95 counterfeiting 9 criminal law and the master 140 Crown immunity 69 cryptocurrencies 3, 17, 40 cryptology 38 custody of goods 52 customary trade practices 26 Customs 103 C-WORKER 7 (ASV Global) 69, 79, 84 cyber insurance 184, 187 cyber resilience 86 cybercrime 101, 147 cybersecurity 77, 86, 111, 115, 122, 147, 154, 180, 184, 186, 187 damage to cargo 123–124, 140 damages 8, 125, 184 data connectivity 111, 115, 129 data management 98, 102–103 data protection 12, 180, 181 Data Sampling 168 data security 12, 18, 44, 45, 60, 103 data sharing 103, 166 decentralized networks 18 decryption keys 37–38, 45 defences 43–45, 46, 49–50, 120, 155 delivery of goods bills of lading 33–34, 48, 49, 56–57, 118 carrier’s obligation 33–34 definition of ‘delivery’ 53–56 delivery terms 49, 50, 52–53, 56–60, 61, 62 misdelivery 29, 61–62, 122 symbolic delivery 49, 53, 56 delivery orders 56–60, 61–62 Page 193 deployed over side equipment 67 digital currencies 17, 40 digital payments 95 digital signatures 36–46 digitisation Insurtech 178–190 legal technology 165–177 and product liability 116–120 smart ports 102–103 disabling want of knowledge 151 disclosure in shipping litigation 165–177 disposal of cargo in transit 29–30, 157, 158 dispute resolution 15–17, 165–177, 185–186 distress signals 136 distributed ledger technology (DLT) 5–7, 8, 9, 12, 18, 41, 117, 122 distrust, mutual 17 DNV GL 70 dockers 101–102 document, definition of 167–168, 173 document of title function 29, 31, 32, 117 door-to-door transactions 25, 33 double-spending 40–41 drones 14, 72, 94, 100, 101, 105, 180 drugs trade 101 due despatch 141 due diligence 42, 113, 149, 153, 154–155, 160 dumping (waste) at sea 81 duty of care 84, 121, 124, 128 duty to provide assistance 74, 135–137, 144 ECDIS (Electronic Chart Display and Information System) 98, 176 e-commerce 14, 16, 29 e-contracts 16 e-disclosure databases 167–168 e-documentation 117, 122, 165–177 e-freight forwarding 100 electronic certificates 43, 137, 146 Electronic Data Interchange (EDI) 29–30, 103, 117, 176 electronic disclosure 167–173 electronic messages 11 electronic monitoring systems 124 electronic release systems (ERS) 48, 49–50, 51 electronic signatures 7, 36–46 electronically stored information (ESI) 26, 27, 171 emails 48, 57, 60, 166, 169, 171, 172, 177 e-malfunctions 122 emergency situations 68, 92, 98, 110, 129, 153 e-navigation 98 encryption 11, 37–38, 41, 45, 122 enforceability of international contracts 15–17 entitlement to the cargo 40 environmental issues 86, 130 environmental standards 7 ESSDOCS 117 estoppel 49, 60–61 ethical dilemmas 108n15 evidential value of automatic detection systems 96 facilitation payments 95 facsimiles of signatures 36 fault liability 108, 109, 111, 119, 122, 160 ferries, autonomous 106 fines 137 Finferries 105–106 fireboats 69, 93 flag state jurisdiction 73–74, 79, 131–132 forgeries 44, 46 fraud 9, 185 freedom of contract 100 freight forwarders 100 functional equivalence 31 Fundamental Rights Agency (FRA) 187 gamification 178, 180, 181 GENCON 19, 143–144 genetic data 180, 181–182 geographical information systems (GIS) 182 Germany 71, 190 GIANO 69 giving way 134 global marketplace 17 global standardization 19 good faith defences 44 GPS (Global Positioning System) 86, 176 Greenhouse gas emissions 9, 70 hacking 60, 111, 122, 129, 145, 147, 154, 186 Hamburg 101 Harbour masters 94, 96-97 hardware failure 121, 127 hauliers 48 hazardous/toxic materials 82, 109, 125, 158 health insurance 180–181, 182 Himalaya clauses 8, 140 hold harmless provisions 85 holders of electronic records 33 holograms 105 Hull Fouling Clause 141 human error 86, 115, 116, 129, 150, 160, 189 hybrid autonomous-manned vessels 68, 74, 106, 149 hybrid blockchain 12, 15 hyperloops 101 Page 194 IBM 183 ice risk areas 143 IDEA 20 identity verification 36, 39, 41, 43, 45 ILO (International Labour Organization) 102, 138 IMDG Code 142 IMO (International Maritime Organization) 78, 87–88, 89, 91, 97, 98, 106, 113, 130, 132, 146, 147 imputation 50, 51 IMSBC Code 142 indemnity clauses 85 India 73 information asymmetries 9 infrastructure digital signatures 41–42 electronic signatures 42–43 smart ports 94–95 inland destinations, carriage to 27 inland waterways 94, 129 insolvency 84 inspection regimes 96–97, 112, 113 insurance and artificial intelligence 178–190 and autonomous ships 75, 83, 85–86, 137, 146 claims handling 184–185 document disclosure 167 fraud 185 Insurtech 178–190 product liability 118, 123 third-party liabilities 111, 112, 115 underwriting 178–184 Usage Based Insurance (UBI) 179–181 Inter-Club Agreement 120, 142 Interfishmarket 10 intermediaries avoiding use of with blockchain 10 avoiding use of with smart contracts 13 in global marketplace 17 lawyers 13–14 internal waters 73 International Association of Marine Aids to Navigation and Lighthouse Authorities (IALA) 98, 99 international contracts, enforceability 15–17 international conventions autonomous shipping 73–84, 130 carriage of goods by sea 23–25 definition of ‘ship’ 71 other modes of carriage 26–28 ports 91 International Group of P&I Clubs 85–86 International Monetary Fund (IMF) 75 International Ship and Port Facility Security (ISPS) Code 79–80 International Transport Forum, OECD 3 international waters 88 International Working Group for Maritime Law and Unmanned Craft (IWG) 87–88 Internet of Things (IoT) 9, 181, 182, 184 interoperability issues 18, 41–42 ISM (International Safety Management) Code 79 ISPS Code 79–80 IT managers and smart contracts 13 see also software producers and liability; voyage programmers Japan 183 jettison 143–144, 157, 158 job losses 74, 101 jurisdiction issues 15, 16, 73, 85, 140 keys (physical) 54–55 knock-for-knock provisions 85 knowledge imputed 50, 51 Kongsberg 69, 129 KOTUG 69 labour laws 102, 138–139 lack of authority defence 44, 46 large vendors 14 legal technology, disclosure in shipping litigation 165–177 Lemonade Inc 184, 187 less container load (LCL) transport 10 liability after discharge, before delivery 50 and artificial intelligence 188–189 and autonomous shipping 74–76, 88 blockchain 8 carrier liability 24, 50, 124, 148–161 channelling liability 112, 125–126 electronic signatures 42–43, 45 fault-based liability 108, 109, 111, 119, 122, 160 limited liability 74–75, 113–114, 119, 120, 124, 140 in the maritime transport industry generally 8 Nairobi Convention (Nairobi wreck removal convention 2007) 82–83 online intermediaries 100 pollution liability 125 product liability 116–128 Rotterdam Rules 28–29, 31 several liability 119 smart ports 95, 96 software producers and liability 155 strict liability 84, 88, 107–110, 121, 125, 126–128, 189 terminal operators 101 lie detector technology 185 limitation of liability 74–75, 113–114, 119, 120, 124, 140 liner transportation 10 linesmen 100 liquidation 54 Lloyd’s Emerging Risks and Research 85 Lloyd’s Open Form (LOF) 85 logistics sector 3 logs 141 Page 195 look out, requirements for 76, 134 see also watch keeping requirements loss of cargo 23–25, 28–29, 47–63, 123–124, 140 MAchine eXecutable Collision regulations for Marine Autonomous Systems research project (MAXCMAS) 77n21 machine learning 182, 187, 188 Maersk Line 147 maintenance 68, 70, 87, 113, 130, 141, 146–147, 158 malware 147, 184, 185 manning requirements 131–132 manoeuvring rules 76, 89, 93, 134–135 manufacturer, channelling liability to 112, 113, 117 marine diesel oil (MDO) 130 marine fuel purchasing 21 marine gas oil (MGO) 130 marine hull insurance 183 Marine Industries Alliance 88 Maritime and Coastguard Agency (MCA) 88 Maritime Autonomous Surface Ships (MASS) 67–89, 106, 130 Maritime Law Association 131, 132 maritime performing parties 101 Maritime Safety Committee (MSC) 87, 106, 130, 147 Maritime Single Windows 103 maritime tracking 103 maritime zones 73 Marsh 183 MASRWG Voluntary Code of Practice 84, 85, 88 master care of cargo 157 MASRWG Voluntary Code of Practice 89 ship’s delivery orders 58 smart contracts 21 UNCLOS 74 and unmanned vessels 74, 88, 129–147 mates’ receipts 142 metadata 166, 169, 171 MIB (Motor Insurers’ Bureau) 190 middlemen see intermediaries misappropriation of cargo 47–49 misdelivery 29, 61–62, 122 mitigation 45, 181 monitoring systems 69, 86, 118, 124, 129, 133, 146, 158, 176 mooring men 100 mortgage 84 multimodal transactions 8, 25, 26–27 Mummery LJ 176n38 MUNIN (Maritime Unmanned Navigation through Intelligence Networks) 105, 109, 149 nationality of ships 73 native format documents 169–170, 175 nautical fault exception 158–161 navigation and autonomous ships 76, 83, 86, 107, 110–111, 133 in the definition of a ‘ship’ 70 digitisation 118–119 e-navigation 98 nautical fault exception 160 navigation rights 73 navigation systems and document disclosure 176 product liability 124–126 role of the master 141 smart ports 92, 98 software producers and liability 141 negligence and autonomous ships 76, 84, 107, 113, 134 electronic signatures 45 master 143, 144 nautical fault exception 159 product liability 116–117, 119, 121, 124–125 seaworthiness 150 and software 122–123 negotiability 29, 33, 50 neutral platforms 10 NKK 120 non-discrimination principle 91 non-permissioned DLT 6–7 non-vessel-operating carriers (NVOC) 27n28 Norway 39, 42, 44, 45, 71, 106 Norwegian Forum for Autonomous Ships (NFAS) 68n1 Norwegian Maritime Law Commission 42 Norwich Union 179 notify parties 48 NxtPort 103 NYPE (New York Produce Exchange Form) 141–143 off-hire 142 offshore sector 112 oil and gas contracts 85 oil pollution 82, 125, 137, 140 oil record books 137, 140 Optical Character Recognition (OCR) technology 101, 170, 175 oracles 7 original documents 39 owners see shipowners P&I 49, 85, 118, 119, 123, 125, 128 paper documentation audit trails on 19–20 benefits of pen-and-ink signatures 41–42 costs of 23, 34 e-documents with same Page 196 legal force as 11 holders of 33 security of 60 substitutability with electronic 32 paperless offices 165 paramount clauses 8 passphrases, security of 44, 45 patent applications 4n11 , 6n16 pay as you drive (PAYD) insurance 179 pay how you drive (PHYD) insurance 179 PDF Advanced Electronic Signatures (PAdES) 39 peer-to-peer systems 9, 17 periodically unmanned bridge (PUB) 68, 74 periodically unmanned ships (PUS) 68, 74, 83 permissioned ledgers 7–8, 12, 15, 18 personal data 12, 180, 181, 182, 186 personal injury claims 75, 125, 127, 139, 184 pilotage assistance 99, 145–146 pilots 93, 99, 139, 143, 145–146 PIN codes 47–63, 101, 118, 122, 123 piracy 86, 142, 145, 157–158 pledges 55 pollution detection 94 pollution liability 125 pollution prevention 79, 80, 82, 108 ‘pooling’ cargo 10 port agents 130, 141, 142, 147 port of refuge 143–144 port security officers 97 Port State Control 93, 96–97 Portable Pilot Units (PPUs) 99 ports autonomous ships coming into 68, 73, 91, 99, 130, 145 crew’s cargo duties 158 port management 94–96 port states 91, 131 security 96, 97 smart ports 90–104 port-to-port basis 33 port-to-port transactions 25, 26, 27 possession of goods 53–56 powers of attorney 45 powers of control 52 predictive coding 173 privacy issues 179–180, 185 product liability 116–128 property damage insurance 85 public blockchains 18 public keys 37, 38, 45–46 Purple Water 69 qualified signatures 40 radar 98, 103 radio communications 67, 74, 92, 98, 103, 129 real-time characteristics of smart contracts 14 real-time data and autonomous ships 77 real-time demand and supply matching 9 real-time tracking and insurance 180 reasonable care 113, 156 reasonableness test 73 reasonably suited standard 154 receipt for goods 31 recklessness 88, 114, 139 recourse action 113 reefers 118 registered owner, channelling liability to 112 reinsurance 183 release notes 48, 49, 50, 51, 52–53, 56–57, 62 relevance tests 166 Remote Operated Vehicles (ROVs) 67 remote operation of ships 67, 89, 99, 105, 106, 110, 130, 145, 149, 152–153, 159 rendering assistance to other ships 74, 135–137, 144 Report of the Working Group on International Legislation on Shipping 149n8 reverse engineering 15 revocations 52 right to be forgotten 12 right to demand delivery 33–34 right of disposal 29 risk profiles 86 robotic process automation (RPA) 182 robotics 101, 178, 182 Rolls Royce 69, 105, 118n18 , 145 Rosetti Marino 69 Rotterdam 69, 90, 94, 100–101 routing recommendations 141 safe manning documents 138 sale and charter of vessel 7 sale of goods 44, 121 sale of services 121, 127 salvage 83, 85, 144 sandboxes, regulatory 190 SARUMS 149 satellite coverage 77 scrapping and recycling 7 seafaring 92, 138–139, 152 seals 39 seamanship 76–77, 78, 134 search, document 166–173, 174–175 search and rescue (SAR) 87 sea waybills 31, 32, 142, 144 seaworthiness 119, 141, 149–155 security, port 96, 97 Page 197 security alert systems 79 security risks 79–80, 110 self-mooring systems 100 sensitive data 12 sensors 77, 96, 97, 99, 112, 126, 127, 129, 182 servants of the carrier 144, 159, 160 several liability 119 ship to shore interfaces 86 shipowners channelling liability to 112, 114 due diligence 153 in-house software development 160 insurance 137 product liability 117 and the role of the master 139, 143, 147 Shipowners’ Club 86 ships, legal definition of 70–72, 73–84, 131n5 ship’s delivery orders 50, 57–60, 144 ship’s papers orders 167 shipwrecks 83 shopping agents 100 shore-based controllers and autonomous ships 78, 92, 96, 97, 98 bills of lading 142, 143, 147 functional equivalent of master 140, 143, 144, 146 as master 133 multiple vessels at once 153 nautical fault exception 159 product liability 120 and proper manning requirements 152 and the role of the master 129, 130, 132, 138–140, 141–145 salvage 144 seaworthiness 143 and shipowners 153 training and certification 152–153 signatures 36–46 Singapore 100 slow steaming 141 smart cargo transportation 118, 158 smart containers 100–101, 158 smart contracts 4, 10, 12–15, 16, 18, 21, 178 smart ports 90–104 smart shipping 94 see autonomous shipping smart stowage 101 smart surveillance cameras 96 smart thermostats 182 SmartCon 20 smuggling 143 software maintenance standards 146 software malfunctions 109–110, 116, 119, 122, 126, 154–155, 185, 189 software producers and liability 108–109, 119, 121–122, 126, 127, 141, 160 sound systems 156, 158, 161 special trade passenger ship instruments 87 spoofing 86 standard disclosure 167 standard terms and conditions 47, 50, 100 standardized contracts 19–20, 85 states as trusted managers of blockchains 12 stevedores 142, 161 storage facilities 53 stowage 101, 118, 122, 156 streaming of data 77 strict liability 84, 88, 107–110, 121, 125, 126–128, 189 strike action 93, 143 sub-bailees 54, 55 sub-contracting 27 submarines 67, 105 submersibles 70 supercargo 143 supply chains 13, 14, 18, 181 surveillance 96, 105, 129 tackle-to-tackle basis 25, 33 tallymen 101 telematics 178, 179, 180–181, 182 temperature monitoring 118, 157 terminal operators 100–101 terms of carriage 49–50 terrorism 79, 81, 97 theft of cargo 48–49, 123 third parties, transfer of rights to 23, 34 third party authority 5 third party damage 85 third party losses 43 third-party liabilities 105–115, 120, 122, 125 third-party repairmen 154 tort 44–45, 76, 84, 107, 109–110, 113, 117, 139 towage 93 transfer of goods 53–56 transport sharing devices/apps 9 trigger events 18 trolley problem 108n15 , 190 true records, establishing 5 trust electronic versus pen-and-ink signatures 36 importance of 17 in the Internet 37 trusted actors 7, 12, 16 trusted clients 7 trusted managers 15 tube transportation 101 tugs, remote-controlled 69, 93–94, 118 UK Ship Register 69, 79, 83–84 ultra slow steaming 141 uncertainty 17, 20 UNCITRAL (UN Commission on International Trade Law) 29–34, 41 underwater vehicles 67, 70, 105 underwriting 178–184, 187 unmanned ships 14, 67–89 see also autonomous shipping unpermissioned ledgers 6 Page 198 unseaworthiness 119–120, 124, 143, 150–151, 153, 154–155 Usage Based Insurance (UBI) 179–181 user-points 41–42 variation of contract 61 verification 37 Vessel Traffic Service (VTS) 96, 97–99, 103 vessels not under command 134–135 virtual bridges 133 virtual watchkeeping 138 voice recognition 105 Voyage Data Recorders (VDRs) 103, 176 voyage programmers 130, 133, 142, 149–150, 160–161 waivers 62 walled gardens 20 war risk areas 142, 143 warehouses 101 warranties 141n31 , 143 warships 82 waste management 81 watch keeping requirements 78, 137–138, 150 weight limits 80 wrecks 83 Yara Birkeland 69, 72–73, 92, 106, 129, 132

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