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Index

Shipping Law


Page 437

Index

Index

A

  • accidents of the sea 117–18
  • act of God 82, 92, 118, 147, 203
  • Admiralty Court jurisdiction 356
    • Arrest Convention 1999 378–9
    • claims listed in s 20(2) 372–3
    • collisions 273, 372, 380, 381, 383
    • future 374
    • in personam 371, 374, 375, 381
      • service 379–80, 382
    • in rem 371, 372, 374
      • maritime liens 375, 377–8
      • ownership disputes 374
      • service 380–1
      • statutory liens 375–7
    • oil pollution 339, 372
      • Fund Convention (1971/1992) 342
    • prior 374
    • proceedings under s 20(1)(b) 374
    • salvage 292, 306–7, 316, 371, 372, 373
    • service of proceedings
      • in personam 379–80, 382
      • in rem 380–1
  • agency
    • Himalaya clause 35, 48, 53–7, 109, 144, 170, 175, 178
    • of necessity 306
    • partial 35, 54
    • third-party rights 34–5
    • vicarious immunity 53, 54
  • agony of the moment 282
  • aircraft: salvage 293
  • applicable law see choice of law
  • arbitration
    • appeals 398–400
    • applicable law 397–8
    • bill of lading 79, 80
    • challenges by non-participating parties 400
    • commencement of 396–7
    • competing conventions 151
    • enforcement
      • domestic awards 400–1
      • foreign awards 401–2
    • freight, non-payment of 222
    • interim relief 398
      • anti-suit injunctions 395, 398, 420, 421, 422–3, 424
      • freezing orders 398, 417
    • kompetenz-kompetenz principle 396
    • LMAA terms 402
    • Rotterdam Rules 163–4
    • security for costs 420
    • separability of agreements 395–6
    • stay of court proceedings 383, 395
    • time limits 121, 122, 381, 382, 397, 400
  • arrest 15, 410–11, 422
    • effect of stay on provision of security 412–14
    • priorities: sale proceeds 412
    • salvage 316
  • Arrest Convention 1999 378
    • claims 378
    • definition of arrest 378–9
    • jurisdiction 379
    • other provisions 379
    • re-arrest 381

B

  • bad stowage 89, 108–9, 118
  • bailment 15, 19, 33, 34, 38, 39, 62, 76, 144
    • attornment and successors in title 26–7, 49–50
    • consent 48–9
    • meaning 47
    • situations 48, 55–6, 57, 59, 311
  • banks, financing role of 5
  • bareboat or demise charters 10, 122, 191, 193, 206–7
    • salvage 297
  • berth charters 228, 232–3, 235, 236
  • bills of lading 4
    • act of God 82

    • Page 438

      banks 5
    • cargo claims see under cargo claims
    • carriage contracts 8–9, 10, 11–12, 13, 14
    • charter clauses 78–80
    • charterparties 196–8
      • apportionment of resulting cargo claims 198–205
    • combined transport 12, 13, 16, 45, 47, 170–1
      • COGSA 1992 171–2
    • common law liability 76
    • constructive possession, document
    • transferring 6–8
    • document of title 8
    • documents other than 11–12
    • electronic 25–7, 47
    • evidential hierarchy 63–4
    • exceptions clauses 76–8, 80–2, 106–9
      • unseaworthiness 84–5, 86, 88, 89
    • express contracts on loading 20–4
    • express terms 78–82
    • functions of 6–8
    • general incorporation clauses 79
    • implied contracts on loading 27, 28–9, 30–4
    • implied terms 76–8, 82–94
      • no deviation from contract voyage 90–4
      • reasonable care of cargo 89–90
      • seaworthiness 82–9
    • laytime and date of 229
    • negligence 77, 82
    • perils of the sea 77, 81–2
    • period of responsibility 12–13, 16, 62, 89
    • receipt 6
    • received for shipment 168, 170
    • statutory terms see Hague/Hague-Visby Rules
    • statutory transfers see separate entry
    • straight bills 25, 40, 45, 98, 140, 145, 159
    • trans-shipment: through 168–70
  • Bolero Registry 25–6, 27
  • breach of warranty of authority 73–4
  • Brexit 357–8, xv
  • Bunker Oil Pollution Convention 2001 343–4, 350
  • burden of proof 76, 77
    • bailment 49, 50
    • forum non conveniens 369, 389
    • Hague/Hague-Visby Rules 134, 141
      • duty ‘properly and carefully’ 113, 114–15, 120
      • seaworthiness: due diligence 111, 112
    • Hamburg Rules
      • fire 137
      • live animals 137
    • laytime 237
    • limitation of liability 429
    • misrepresentation 72
    • negligence 49
    • off-hire events 253
    • permission application procedure 369
    • road carriage 184, 189
    • Rotterdam Rules 147–8, 149, 150
    • salvage
      • misconduct 314
    • short loading 67
    • unseaworthiness 84

C

  • cargo
    • deck see separate entry
    • general average 320, 321, 322, 323, 324, 326, 327–8, 328–9, 332
    • salvage 293, 305–6, 310–11, 312, 313, 316, 317, 323
  • cargo claims
  • cargo lien 89, 158, 183, 191, 192, 222–3, 310–11, 330–1
    • exercising 224–5
  • carriage contracts
    • bills of lading 8–9
    • containers 13–14
    • expansion from pure sea carriage 12–13
    • modifications 10–14
    • time charters 10
    • voyage charters 9–10
  • causation 85–6, 195
    • collisions 282–4
    • damages 211, 261, 267–8, 269
  • charterparties 191
    • anticipatory breach 193–4, 242, 258
    • bill of lading
      • apportionment of resulting cargo claims 198–205
      • dealings with 196–8
    • cargo claims
      • apportionment 198–205
      • clause paramount 198–200, 201, 203, 204
      • deck cargo 204–5
      • due diligence 203
      • exceptions clauses 203–4
      • indemnity actions 205
      • Inter-Club Agreement 200–2
      • no special clauses 202–3
    • causation 195, 211
    • charterers’ orders 193–4, 256–7
      • bill of lading 196–205
      • causation 195
      • employment v navigational matters 194–5
      • permitted ports 206–11
      • relationship with other provisions 195–6
      • type of cargo to be loaded 205–6
    • clause paramount 198–200, 201, 203, 204
    • damages 212, 266–70
      • mitigation 267–9
      • unsafe port 210–11
    • deck cargo 204–5, 257
    • exceptions clauses 203–4, 212, 214, 237, 242
      • time charters 252, 256
      • voyage charters 237, 238, 239–40, 242, 243
    • indemnities 204, 211
      • actions 205
      • bills of lading 196–8
      • causation 195
      • employment v navigational matters 194–5
      • other charter provisions 195–6
    • Inter-Club Agreement 200–2
    • interest conferred by 193
    • permitted ports 206–11
      • breach of warranty 210–11
      • express warranty of safety 206–7
      • implied warranty of safety 207
      • nature of warranty 209–10
      • right to nominate 206
      • unsafety 207–9
    • shipowners’ obligations: load to port
      • cancellation clause 213–14
      • readiness and fitness to load 214
      • reasonable dispatch 211–12
      • statements: vessel’s position/expected readiness 212–13
      • time charters see separate entry
    • trip charters 10, 20, 89, 192–3, 194
    • frustration 272–3
    • voyage charters/charterparties see separate entry
  • choice of law
    • bill of lading 48, 56–7, 79, 104
    • clauses 15, 48, 56–7, 79, 103, 104
    • competing conventions 151
    • contract 402–6
      • pre-1 April 1991 contracts 403
      • Rome I Regulation 403–6
    • tort 406–8
      • committed after 1 Nov 1996 407
      • committed before 1 Nov 1996 406–7
      • Rome II Regulation 408

  • Page 440

    circular indemnity clause 57–8, 170, 175
  • clause paramount 198–200, 201, 203, 204, 243, 256, 397
    • Bolero Rules 27
    • Hague/Hague-Visby Rules 96, 102, 103, 122, 199
    • Hamburg Rules 134
  • CLC (marine pollution convention) 334, 350
    • channelling of liability 337–8
    • compulsory insurance 339
    • defences 337
    • geographical ambit 336–7
    • joint liability 337
    • jurisdiction 339–40
    • limitation of liability 338–9
    • strict liability 334–6
    • time limits 339
  • CMR see road carriage
  • collisions
    • agony of the moment 282
    • apportionment of liability 284–5
    • basic issues 278
    • causation 282–4
    • damages 285–7
      • pure economic loss 286
      • remoteness 285–6
      • restitutio in integrum 286–7
    • habours, docks and piers 287
    • jurisdiction 288–9, 367, 380, 383
    • last opportunity rule 283–4
    • novus actus interveniens 282–3, 284
    • standard of care 280–2
    • statutory liability 287
    • time limits 278, 288, 381
    • vicarious liability 278–9
      • pilots 279–80
      • tugs and tows 279
  • combined transport 170
    • bills of lading 12, 13, 16, 45, 47, 170–1
    • COGSA 1992 171–2
    • competing conventions 150–1, 165–6, 172–3
    • containers 14
    • document of title 170–1
    • multimodal transport operator 174
    • network and uniform solutions 173–5
  • consignment note
    • contractual status 182
    • duty to check 181–2
    • information 181
    • non-compliance 182
  • constructive trusts 195
  • containers 170, 173
    • carriage contracts 13–14
    • Hague Rules 127–8
    • Hague-Visby Rules 126–7, 128–9
    • misdescription 152
    • package limitation 127–9
  • contempt of court 420
  • contracts
    • carriage 8–14
    • choice of law see separate entry
    • construing
      • exception clauses 80–1
      • typed clauses 33, 81, 103, 199, 204
    • express contracts on loading 19–27
    • frustration see separate entry
    • illegal 68–9
    • implied contract and third-party rights 34–8
    • implied contracts on loading 12, 19, 27–34
    • international sales of goods 4–5
    • road carriage 182–7
  • contractual salvage 294
  • conversion 7, 15, 50, 58–9, 192, 373
  • crew negligence or unseaworthiness 86–8

D

E

  • ejusdem generis rule 80–1, 254–5
  • electronic documentation 25–7, 47, 141
    • Judgments Regulation (EU 1215/2012) 363
    • Rotterdam Rules 141, 143, 145
      • delivery of goods 156–7
      • transport records 150, 151, 152–6, 159
  • electronic release system 59
  • environmental
    • costs: general average 324
    • salvage 301–4
  • Environmental Liability Directive 2004 349–50
  • equity
    • proceeds traceable in 5
  • estoppel 64–6, 73, 118, 119, 156, 221, 223
    • promissory 210
    • statutory 66, 70
  • evidential hierarchy of bills of lading 63–4
  • express contracts on loading 19–27
    • bill of lading 21–4
      • changing contractual status 20–1
    • electronic documentation 25–7
    • sea waybills 24
    • straight bills 25
    • voyage charterparty 19–21

F

G

  • general average
    • basic principles 320–1
    • common safety 327–8
    • contributory values: assessment 328, 329–30
    • extraordinary expenses 321
      • environmental costs 324
      • port of refuge costs 323–4
      • salvage 322–3
      • substituted expenses 324–6
    • extraordinary sacrifices 321
      • cargo 321
      • freight 322
      • ship 322
    • fault 328
    • losses: valuation
      • cargo 323, 328–9
      • expenditure 329
      • freight 329
      • sacrifices 328–9
      • ship 323, 329
    • rights and remedies of interests inter se 330–1
    • salvage 322–3, 331, 332
    • time of peril 327
    • voluntariness 326–7
    • York Antwerp Rules
      • 2004 331–2
      • 2016 332

H

I

J

  • Judgments Regulation (EU 1215/2012) 357–68, 380
    • assignment of jurisdiction 358
    • co-defendants and third parties 361
    • contract/tort/salvage claims
      • against freight and cargo 359–61
    • domicile of defendant 358–9
      • corporation 358–9
    • forum non conveniens 387–9, 393, 394
    • internal hierarchy of competing grounds 364
    • jurisdiction clauses 362–3
    • limitation actions 362
    • lis alibi pendens 383–7
      • first seised 384–5, 386, 387
      • related actions 386–7
      • same claims 385–6
    • non-Regulation basis 364–8, 387
      • defendant not domiciled in Member State 364–5
      • Hague Convention 368
      • other conventions 365–6
      • service by arrest 366–7
      • service without arrest 367
    • submission 363–4
  • jurisdiction 356
    • Admiralty Court see separate entry
    • anti-suit injunctions 420–1, 424
    • basic issues 356
    • bill of lading 48, 56–7, 79, 80, 104
    • clauses 15, 48, 56–7, 79, 80, 104
    • CLC (marine pollution convention) 339–40
    • collisions 288–9, 367, 380, 381
    • competing conventions 151
    • Hamburg Rules 139
    • High Court see separate entry
    • HNS Pollution Convention 347
    • limitation of liability 362, 379, 392–3, 434–5
    • road carriage 188–9
    • Rotterdam Rules 162–3
    • subsequent challenge by defendant 382–94
      • arbitration agreement 383, 395
      • forum non conveniens see separate entry
      • lis alibi pendens 383–7

K

  • kompetenz-kompetenz principle 396

L

M

  • management systems 87–8, 116
  • Mareva injunctions see freezing orders
  • marine pollution
    • basic issues/responses 334
    • CLC (marine pollution convention) see separate entry
    • Environmental Liability Directive 2004 349–50
    • Fund Convention (1971/1992) see separate entry
    • Hazardous and Noxious Substances (HNS) Pollution Convention see separate entry
    • non-tanker oil spills 342–3
      • 2001 Bunker Oil Pollution Convention 343–4, 350
    • oil rigs 348–9
    • salvage 291, 301–2
    • wreck removal 351–2
  • maritime lien 292, 294, 301, 316, 374, 375, 377–8
    • priorities 412
  • marks, insufficiency or inadequacy of 119
  • merger doctrine 394
  • misdelivery 7, 11, 55, 58–60, 123, 147, 197, 198
  • misrepresentation 72
    • negligent 74
    • salvage 307
  • mistake
    • salvage 307
  • multimodal transport see combined transport

N

  • Nairobi Convention 351–2
  • negligence 15, 33, 49, 50–8, 76
    • agency and Himalaya clause 53–7
    • charterparties: deck cargo 204, 205
    • circular indemnity clause 57–8
    • collisions see separate entry
    • damages 261–2, 285–7
    • duty of care 50–1, 52–3
    • exceptions clauses 77, 82
    • Hague-Visby Rules 52, 53, 115, 116, 134, 136
    • Hamburg Rules 136, 137
    • marine pollution 334, 341
    • ownership 51
    • possession 51–2
    • pure economic loss 51–2, 286, 334
    • salvage 307–9, 372
    • unlimited liability 52
    • vicarious liability 90
      • collisions 278–80
    • volenti non fit injuria 53, 54
  • negligent misstatement 72, 74
  • net clauses 255–6
  • no cure, no pay 291, 299–301, 308
  • novation 27
  • nuisance 334

O

P

  • package limitation
    • Hague Rules 124–5, 127–8, 129
    • Hague-Visby Rules 125–6, 129–30, 174
      • calculation of limitation 125
      • gross weight alternative 126
    • Hamburg Rules 138
    • loss of right to limit 129–30
    • multimodal transport 174, 175
    • road carriage 174, 187–8
    • Rotterdam Rules 161
  • packing, insufficiency of 119
  • parol evidence rule 23
  • period clauses 255
  • pilots
    • act/neglect/default 115–16, 174, 285
    • vicarious liability 279–80
  • piracy 147, 254
  • port charters 228, 232–4, 235, 236, 238
  • ports
    • permitted see under charterparties
    • port of refuge costs: general average 323–4
  • priorities
    • sale of arrested vessel 412
  • privity of contract 8, 34, 35
  • pure economic loss 51–2, 286, 334

Q

  • quarantine restrictions 118

R

S

T

U

  • UCP 500 33
  • UCP 600 5, 11, 13, 170
  • unimodal sea carriage
    • received for shipment bills of lading 168
    • trans-shipment: through bills of lading 168–70
  • unseaworthiness see seaworthiness

V

W

  • waivers 93, 210, 212, 214, 244–5
    • general average 330
    • limitation of liability 430
    • notice of readiness 231–2
    • salvage 316
    • time charters 258
      • late payment 249
      • underpayment 251
  • waybills see sea waybills
  • weather permitting 239
  • weather working day 238
  • Wibon and lost time clauses 234–6
  • wrecks
    • removal of 298, 351–2
    • salvage principles 317–18

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