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Index

Shipping Law

Page 437 Index Index A accidents of the sea 117–18 act of God 82, 92, 118, 147, 203 Admiralty Court jurisdiction 356 Arrest Convention 1999 378–9 claims listed in s 20(2) 372–3 collisions 273, 372, 380, 381, 383 future 374 in personam 371, 374, 375, 381 service 379–80, 382 in rem 371, 372, 374 maritime liens 375, 377–8 ownership disputes 374 service 380–1 statutory liens 375–7 oil pollution 339, 372 Fund Convention (1971/1992) 342 prior 374 proceedings under s 20(1)(b) 374 salvage 292, 306–7, 316, 371, 372, 373 service of proceedings in personam 379–80, 382 in rem 380–1 agency Himalaya clause 35, 48, 53–7, 109, 144, 170, 175, 178 of necessity 306 partial 35, 54 third-party rights 34–5 vicarious immunity 53, 54 agony of the moment 282 aircraft: salvage 293 applicable law see choice of law arbitration appeals 398–400 applicable law 397–8 bill of lading 79, 80 challenges by non-participating parties 400 commencement of 396–7 competing conventions 151 enforcement domestic awards 400–1 foreign awards 401–2 freight, non-payment of 222 interim relief 398 anti-suit injunctions 395, 398, 420, 421, 422–3, 424 freezing orders 398, 417 kompetenz-kompetenz principle 396 LMAA terms 402 Rotterdam Rules 163–4 security for costs 420 separability of agreements 395–6 stay of court proceedings 383, 395 time limits 121, 122, 381, 382, 397, 400 arrest 15, 410–11, 422 effect of stay on provision of security 412–14 priorities: sale proceeds 412 salvage 316 Arrest Convention 1999 378 claims 378 definition of arrest 378–9 jurisdiction 379 other provisions 379 re-arrest 381 B bad stowage 89, 108–9, 118 bailment 15, 19, 33, 34, 38, 39, 62, 76, 144 attornment and successors in title 26–7, 49–50 consent 48–9 meaning 47 situations 48, 55–6, 57, 59, 311 banks, financing role of 5 bareboat or demise charters 10, 122, 191, 193, 206–7 salvage 297 berth charters 228, 232–3, 235, 236 bills of lading 4 act of God 82 Page 438 banks 5 cargo claims see under cargo claims carriage contracts 8–9, 10, 11–12, 13, 14 charter clauses 78–80 charterparties 196–8 apportionment of resulting cargo claims 198–205 combined transport 12, 13, 16, 45, 47, 170–1 COGSA 1992 171–2 common law liability 76 constructive possession, document transferring 6–8 document of title 8 documents other than 11–12 electronic 25–7, 47 evidential hierarchy 63–4 exceptions clauses 76–8, 80–2, 106–9 unseaworthiness 84–5, 86, 88, 89 express contracts on loading 20–4 express terms 78–82 functions of 6–8 general incorporation clauses 79 implied contracts on loading 27, 28–9, 30–4 implied terms 76–8, 82–94 no deviation from contract voyage 90–4 reasonable care of cargo 89–90 seaworthiness 82–9 laytime and date of 229 negligence 77, 82 perils of the sea 77, 81–2 period of responsibility 12–13, 16, 62, 89 receipt 6 received for shipment 168, 170 statutory terms see Hague/Hague-Visby Rules statutory transfers see separate entry straight bills 25, 40, 45, 98, 140, 145, 159 trans-shipment: through 168–70 Bolero Registry 25–6, 27 breach of warranty of authority 73–4 Brexit 357–8, xv Bunker Oil Pollution Convention 2001 343–4, 350 burden of proof 76, 77 bailment 49, 50 forum non conveniens 369, 389 Hague/Hague-Visby Rules 134, 141 duty ‘properly and carefully’ 113, 114–15, 120 seaworthiness: due diligence 111, 112 Hamburg Rules fire 137 live animals 137 laytime 237 limitation of liability 429 misrepresentation 72 negligence 49 off-hire events 253 permission application procedure 369 road carriage 184, 189 Rotterdam Rules 147–8, 149, 150 salvage misconduct 314 short loading 67 unseaworthiness 84 C cargo deck see separate entry general average 320, 321, 322, 323, 324, 326, 327–8, 328–9, 332 salvage 293, 305–6, 310–11, 312, 313, 316, 317, 323 cargo claims apparent order and condition 62, 65, 67–8, 69, 70 bills of lading 74 claused 64, 65, 67–9 common law position 64–9 evidential hierarchy 63–4 shipper’s right to demand unclaused 69–70 statutory modifications 69–72 charterparties see under charterparties conclusive evidence 64–6 damages 287 assessment 17 contractual rules on remoteness 262–6 defendant’s responsibility 16–17 English courts, actions in 16 enquiry 14–17 estoppel 64–6, 73, 118, 119, 156, 221, 223 statutory 66, 70 leading marks 66, 70 loss/damage in transit, proving 62–3 Page 439 actions against actual signee of bill of lading 73–4 contractual actions against carrier 64–72 evidential hierarchy 63–4 tort actions against carrier 72–3 misrepresentation 72, 74 mitigation of losses 72–3 period of responsibility 16 prima facie evidence 66–7 quality marks 66 shipper’s indemnities 68–9 title to sue see separate entry tort actions 16, 19, 38, 47, 62, 63, 72–3 vicarious liability 58–9, 73, 74, 90 cargo lien 89, 158, 183, 191, 192, 222–3, 310–11, 330–1 exercising 224–5 carriage contracts bills of lading 8–9 containers 13–14 expansion from pure sea carriage 12–13 modifications 10–14 time charters 10 voyage charters 9–10 causation 85–6, 195 collisions 282–4 damages 211, 261, 267–8, 269 charterparties 191 anticipatory breach 193–4, 242, 258 bill of lading apportionment of resulting cargo claims 198–205 dealings with 196–8 cargo claims apportionment 198–205 clause paramount 198–200, 201, 203, 204 deck cargo 204–5 due diligence 203 exceptions clauses 203–4 indemnity actions 205 Inter-Club Agreement 200–2 no special clauses 202–3 causation 195, 211 charterers’ orders 193–4, 256–7 bill of lading 196–205 causation 195 employment v navigational matters 194–5 permitted ports 206–11 relationship with other provisions 195–6 type of cargo to be loaded 205–6 clause paramount 198–200, 201, 203, 204 damages 212, 266–70 mitigation 267–9 unsafe port 210–11 deck cargo 204–5, 257 exceptions clauses 203–4, 212, 214, 237, 242 time charters 252, 256 voyage charters 237, 238, 239–40, 242, 243 indemnities 204, 211 actions 205 bills of lading 196–8 causation 195 employment v navigational matters 194–5 other charter provisions 195–6 Inter-Club Agreement 200–2 interest conferred by 193 permitted ports 206–11 breach of warranty 210–11 express warranty of safety 206–7 implied warranty of safety 207 nature of warranty 209–10 right to nominate 206 unsafety 207–9 shipowners’ obligations: load to port cancellation clause 213–14 readiness and fitness to load 214 reasonable dispatch 211–12 statements: vessel’s position/expected readiness 212–13 time charters see separate entry trip charters 10, 20, 89, 192–3, 194 frustration 272–3 voyage charters/charterparties see separate entry choice of law bill of lading 48, 56–7, 79, 104 clauses 15, 48, 56–7, 79, 103, 104 competing conventions 151 contract 402–6 pre-1 April 1991 contracts 403 Rome I Regulation 403–6 tort 406–8 committed after 1 Nov 1996 407 committed before 1 Nov 1996 406–7 Rome II Regulation 408 Page 440 circular indemnity clause 57–8, 170, 175 clause paramount 198–200, 201, 203, 204, 243, 256, 397 Bolero Rules 27 Hague/Hague-Visby Rules 96, 102, 103, 122, 199 Hamburg Rules 134 CLC (marine pollution convention) 334, 350 channelling of liability 337–8 compulsory insurance 339 defences 337 geographical ambit 336–7 joint liability 337 jurisdiction 339–40 limitation of liability 338–9 strict liability 334–6 time limits 339 CMR see road carriage collisions agony of the moment 282 apportionment of liability 284–5 basic issues 278 causation 282–4 damages 285–7 pure economic loss 286 remoteness 285–6 restitutio in integrum 286–7 habours, docks and piers 287 jurisdiction 288–9, 367, 380, 383 last opportunity rule 283–4 novus actus interveniens 282–3, 284 standard of care 280–2 statutory liability 287 time limits 278, 288, 381 vicarious liability 278–9 pilots 279–80 tugs and tows 279 combined transport 170 bills of lading 12, 13, 16, 45, 47, 170–1 COGSA 1992 171–2 competing conventions 150–1, 165–6, 172–3 containers 14 document of title 170–1 multimodal transport operator 174 network and uniform solutions 173–5 consignment note contractual status 182 duty to check 181–2 information 181 non-compliance 182 constructive trusts 195 containers 170, 173 carriage contracts 13–14 Hague Rules 127–8 Hague-Visby Rules 126–7, 128–9 misdescription 152 package limitation 127–9 contempt of court 420 contracts carriage 8–14 choice of law see separate entry construing exception clauses 80–1 typed clauses 33, 81, 103, 199, 204 express contracts on loading 19–27 frustration see separate entry illegal 68–9 implied contract and third-party rights 34–8 implied contracts on loading 12, 19, 27–34 international sales of goods 4–5 road carriage 182–7 contractual salvage 294 conversion 7, 15, 50, 58–9, 192, 373 crew negligence or unseaworthiness 86–8 D damages 34 assessment 17 basic principles 261 cargo claims: contractual rules on remoteness 262–6 claimant resells goods 262–3 claimant uses goods itself 263–5 Hague and Hague-Visby Rules 263, 265–6 causation 211, 261, 267–8, 269 charterparty claims 212, 266–70 mitigation 267–9 unsafe port 210–11 collisions 285–7 contract and tort compared 261–2 contractual measure of 262 conversion 58 jurisdiction 421, 423 liquidated demurrage see under voyage charters/ charterparties Page 441 nominal 214 penalty 258, 262 remoteness 261–2 collisions 285–6 contractual rules: cargo claims 262–6 tort and contract compared 261–2 wrongful arrest 422 deceit 15, 72, 73 deck cargo charterparties 204–5, 257 general average 321 Hague/Hague-Visby Rules 105–6 Hamburg Rules 137 Rotterdam Rules 149–50 delivery orders 11–12, 44, 72 negligence 51 demise charters 10, 122, 191, 193, 206–7 salvage 297 demise clauses 28, 31–3, 107 demurrage see under voyage charters/ charterparties deviation consequences of modified doctrine 93 pure doctrine 92 definition 90 Hague/Hague-Visby Rules 91–2, 93–4, 120–1 Hamburg Rules 137 liberty clauses 91–2 quasi 91, 93, 123 Rotterdam Rules 149 documents bills of lading see separate entry electronic see electronic documentation international sales 4–5 road carriage 181–2 Rotterdam Rules: transport 143, 151, 152–7, 159, 160 due diligence charterparties 199, 200, 203 safe port 210 Hague/Hague-Visby Rules seaworthiness 109–10, 111–12, 114, 200 E ejusdem generis rule 80–1, 254–5 electronic documentation 25–7, 47, 141 Judgments Regulation (EU 1215/2012) 363 Rotterdam Rules 141, 143, 145 delivery of goods 156–7 transport records 150, 151, 152–6, 159 electronic release system 59 environmental costs: general average 324 salvage 301–4 Environmental Liability Directive 2004 349–50 equity proceeds traceable in 5 estoppel 64–6, 73, 118, 119, 156, 221, 223 promissory 210 statutory 66, 70 evidential hierarchy of bills of lading 63–4 express contracts on loading 19–27 bill of lading 21–4 changing contractual status 20–1 electronic documentation 25–7 sea waybills 24 straight bills 25 voyage charterparty 19–21 F fire 322, 326, 328 Hague/Hague-Visby Rules 116, 174 Hamburg Rules 137 Rotterdam Rules 147 forum non conveniens 289, 356, 367, 379, 383, 387–94 appropriate forum 389–90 foreign jurisdiction clauses and 390–2 burden of proof 369, 389 general principles 389–94 substantial injustice to claimant 392–4 ‘four corners’ rule 80–1, 94 free in/free out 78, 89, 90, 107, 120, 146 freezing orders 222, 358, 378, 384, 398, 410, 414–15 elements of domestic 415–17 arbitration or foreign proceedings 417 jurisdiction 370 worldwide 417–19 freight payment of see freight under voyage charters/ charterparties frustration consequences of 272–3 effect of breach 272 facts available at time of event 271 what amounts to 270–1 Page 442 Fund Convention (1971/1992) 334, 340, 350 defences 341 jurisdiction 342 liability 340, 349 limitation 341–2 subrogation 342 time limits 342 G general average basic principles 320–1 common safety 327–8 contributory values: assessment 328, 329–30 extraordinary expenses 321 environmental costs 324 port of refuge costs 323–4 salvage 322–3 substituted expenses 324–6 extraordinary sacrifices 321 cargo 321 freight 322 ship 322 fault 328 losses: valuation cargo 323, 328–9 expenditure 329 freight 329 sacrifices 328–9 ship 323, 329 rights and remedies of interests inter se 330–1 salvage 322–3, 331, 332 time of peril 327 voluntariness 326–7 York Antwerp Rules 2004 331–2 2016 332 H Hague/Hague-Visby Rules 16–17, 134, 172–3, 174 act of God/war/public enemies 118 ambit 96–7 contracting out 103–9 mandatory 97–103 third-party reliance 109 voluntary incorporation 103 arrest or restraint of princes, rulers or people 118 background 96 bad stowage 89, 108–9, 118 cargo claims 78 Art III(3) 69–70 Art III(4) 70–1 carrier’s defences (Art IV) 52, 109–10, 114–21, 134, 175 act/omission of shipper or owner of goods 118 fire 116, 174 general exception 120 inherent defect, quality or vice of the goods 118–19 latent defects 119–20 management act/neglect/default 115–16, 285 navigation act/neglect/default 115, 116, 174, 285 packing, insufficiency of 119 perils, dangers and accidents of sea 117–18 carrier’s duties (Art III) 109–14, 116, 120 choice of law clauses 104 containers 126–9 contracting out 103–9 choice of law clause 104 deck cargo and livestock 105–6 jurisdiction clause 104 obligations and exceptions clauses 106–9 damages 263, 265–6 deck cargo 105–6 deviation 91–2, 93–4, 120–1 doctrine of stages 110, 112 due diligence 109–10, 111–12, 114, 119–20 duty ‘carefully and properly’ 109–10, 112–14 inherent defect, quality or vice of the goods 118–19 jurisdiction clauses 104 latent defects 119–20 mandatory application 97–103 bills of lading 97–100 other documents 100–2 scope of contractual services subject to Rules 102–3 marks, insufficiency or inadequacy of 119 negligence 52, 53, 115, 116, 134 package limitation 127 Page 443 Hague Rules 124–5, 127–8, 129 Hague-Visby Rules 125–6, 129–30, 174 packing, insufficiency of 119 quarantine restrictions 118 riots/civil commotions 118 saving life/property at sea 118, 120 seaworthiness 109–12, 113–14 due diligence 109–10, 111–12, 114 shipper’s liability 130–2 strikes/lockouts/stoppage/restraint of labour 118 time limits 43, 96, 121–4, 131, 175, 200, 331, 381, 397 Hamburg Rules 140–1, 173 ambit of operation 134–5 background 134 contracting out bar 138 deck cargo 137 deviation 137 evidential status of shipping documents 139–40 fire 137 jurisdiction 139 liability basis of 136–7 who is liable 135–6 live animals 137 negligence 136, 137 package limitation 138 period of responsibility 136 saving life/property at sea 137 time bar 138 who is liable contractual claims 135 non-contractual claims 135–6 Hazardous and Noxious Substances (HNS) Pollution Convention 344 2010 Protocol 347–8 compulsory liability insurance 346–7 geographical ambit 345 HNS Fund 347 2010 Protocol to 347–8 jurisdiction 347 liability 344–5 limitation 346 shipowners’ defences 345–6 time bars 347 hazardous and noxious substances pollution limitation 436 High Court jurisdiction Admiralty Court jurisdiction see separate entry ancillary claims 371 arbitration 395 background 356–8 contractual claims 370–1 enforcement of judgments or arbitral awards 371 general grounds 369–70 in personam proceedings in Commercial Court without permission of Court 368 interim remedy claims 370 Judgments Regulation (EU 1215/2012) see separate entry with permission 369 permission application procedure 369 subsequent challenge by defendant 382–94 arbitration agreement 383, 395 forum non conveniens see separate entry lis alibi pendens 383–7 merger 394 time limits commencing proceedings 381–2 service of proceedings 382 tort claims 371, 381 Himalaya clause 35, 48, 53–7, 109, 144, 170, 175, 178 human rights anti-suit injunctions 420 fair trial 399 I identity of carrier clauses 28, 31–3, 107 implied contract and third-party rights 34–8 implied contracts on loading 12, 19, 27–34 identity of carrier clauses 28, 31–3 shipowner’s position when charterer’s bill is issued 33–4 shipowner’s bill or charterer’s bill 30–1 time charter: contractual network 29 indemnities 70, 342 charterparties 194–8, 204, 205, 211 circular indemnity clause 57–8, 170, 175 road carriage 183, 189 shippers 68–9, 140 time limit 121–2 injunctions 193, 369 anti-suit 369, 395, 398, 420–4 Mareva see freezing orders Page 444 innominate terms 89, 212, 241, 248, 270 insurance 15–16, 206–7, 320, 350 anti-suit injunctions 421 compulsory 339, 343, 346–7, 435 wreck removal 352 interest general average 332 salvage 315 interim relief 370, 410 anti-suit injunctions 369, 395, 398, 420–4 contempt of court 420 EU 422–3, 424 unconscionability 421 arrest 410–14, 422 freezing orders see separate entry inspection of property 420 security for defendant’s costs 419–20 international sales of goods basic provisions 4 financing role of banks 5 payment against documents 4 transfer of risk on loading 5 J Judgments Regulation (EU 1215/2012) 357–68, 380 assignment of jurisdiction 358 co-defendants and third parties 361 contract/tort/salvage claims against freight and cargo 359–61 domicile of defendant 358–9 corporation 358–9 forum non conveniens 387–9, 393, 394 internal hierarchy of competing grounds 364 jurisdiction clauses 362–3 limitation actions 362 lis alibi pendens 383–7 first seised 384–5, 386, 387 related actions 386–7 same claims 385–6 non-Regulation basis 364–8, 387 defendant not domiciled in Member State 364–5 Hague Convention 368 other conventions 365–6 service by arrest 366–7 service without arrest 367 submission 363–4 jurisdiction 356 Admiralty Court see separate entry anti-suit injunctions 420–1, 424 basic issues 356 bill of lading 48, 56–7, 79, 80, 104 clauses 15, 48, 56–7, 79, 80, 104 CLC (marine pollution convention) 339–40 collisions 288–9, 367, 380, 381 competing conventions 151 Hamburg Rules 139 High Court see separate entry HNS Pollution Convention 347 limitation of liability 362, 379, 392–3, 434–5 road carriage 188–9 Rotterdam Rules 162–3 subsequent challenge by defendant 382–94 arbitration agreement 383, 395 forum non conveniens see separate entry lis alibi pendens 383–7 K kompetenz-kompetenz principle 396 L last opportunity rule 283–4 laytime see under voyage charters/charterparties legal aid 393 letters of credit 5, 6, 11, 13, 38 liberty clauses 91–2 lien cargo 89, 158, 183, 191, 192, 222–3, 310–11, 330–1 exercising 224–5 maritime 292, 294, 301, 316, 374, 375, 377–8 priorities 412 possessory 311, 330–1, 412 statutory 331, 375–7 different effects of maritime and 377–8 priorities 412 subfreights 191, 192, 223 exercising 225–6 life salvage 294, 311 limitation of liability 350 basic issues 426 claims subject to/not subject to 427–9 CLC (marine pollution convention) 338–9 Page 445 compulsory insurance 435 fund calculation 430–3 establishing 433–4 relevant tonnage 430 Fund Convention (1971/1992) 341–2 HNS Pollution Convention 346, 436 jurisdiction 362, 379, 434–5 forum non conveniens 392–3 loss of right to 429–30 non-tanker oil spills 343 oil rigs, pollution from 349 other regimes 435–6 hazardous and noxious substances 346, 436 oil pollution 338–9, 341–2, 436 package limitation see separate entry Rotterdam Rules 149, 161–2 who can limit 426–7 lis alibi pendens 383–7 live animals 105, 137, 165 livestock 85, 105–6, 186, 321 Lloyd’s Open Form (LOF) 291–2, 317 loading implied contracts on 12, 19, 27–34 transfer of risk on 5 lost time and Wibon clauses 234–6 M management systems 87–8, 116 Mareva injunctions see freezing orders marine pollution basic issues/responses 334 CLC (marine pollution convention) see separate entry Environmental Liability Directive 2004 349–50 Fund Convention (1971/1992) see separate entry Hazardous and Noxious Substances (HNS) Pollution Convention see separate entry non-tanker oil spills 342–3 2001 Bunker Oil Pollution Convention 343–4, 350 oil rigs 348–9 salvage 291, 301–2 wreck removal 351–2 maritime lien 292, 294, 301, 316, 374, 375, 377–8 priorities 412 marks, insufficiency or inadequacy of 119 merger doctrine 394 misdelivery 7, 11, 55, 58–60, 123, 147, 197, 198 misrepresentation 72 negligent 74 salvage 307 mistake salvage 307 multimodal transport see combined transport N Nairobi Convention 351–2 negligence 15, 33, 49, 50–8, 76 agency and Himalaya clause 53–7 charterparties: deck cargo 204, 205 circular indemnity clause 57–8 collisions see separate entry damages 261–2, 285–7 duty of care 50–1, 52–3 exceptions clauses 77, 82 Hague-Visby Rules 52, 53, 115, 116, 134, 136 Hamburg Rules 136, 137 marine pollution 334, 341 ownership 51 possession 51–2 pure economic loss 51–2, 286, 334 salvage 307–9, 372 unlimited liability 52 vicarious liability 90 collisions 278–80 volenti non fit injuria 53, 54 negligent misstatement 72, 74 net clauses 255–6 no cure, no pay 291, 299–301, 308 novation 27 nuisance 334 O oil pollution 334, 350 CLC (marine pollution convention) see separate entry Fund Convention (1971/1992) see separate entry non-tanker oil spills 342–3 2001 Bunker Oil Pollution Convention 343–4 oil rigs 348–9 salvage 291, 301–2, 341 Page 446 Offshore Pollution Liability Agreement (OPOL) 348 Offshore Safety Directive 350 P package limitation Hague Rules 124–5, 127–8, 129 Hague-Visby Rules 125–6, 129–30, 174 calculation of limitation 125 gross weight alternative 126 Hamburg Rules 138 loss of right to limit 129–30 multimodal transport 174, 175 road carriage 174, 187–8 Rotterdam Rules 161 packing, insufficiency of 119 parol evidence rule 23 period clauses 255 pilots act/neglect/default 115–16, 174, 285 vicarious liability 279–80 piracy 147, 254 port charters 228, 232–4, 235, 236, 238 ports permitted see under charterparties port of refuge costs: general average 323–4 priorities sale of arrested vessel 412 privity of contract 8, 34, 35 pure economic loss 51–2, 286, 334 Q quarantine restrictions 118 R reachable on arrival clauses 236–7, 243 redelivery 257–9 res ipsa loquitur 76 riots/civil commotions 118 road carriage 172 absolute liability for defects in vehicle 186 apportionment of liability 186 carriers 179–80 defences 184–7 duty to check consignment note 181–2 liability for loss/damage/delay 183–4 successive 180–1 competing conventions 150–1, 165–6, 172–3 consignee 179 consignment note contractual status 182 duty to check 181–2 information 181 non-compliance 182 contract documents 181–2 contracting out 182–4 damages, measure of 187 package limitation 174, 187–8 defences 184 primary 184–5 secondary 184, 185–6 jurisdiction 188–9 mandatory application of CMR 177–9 package limitation 174 sender 179 terms of contract 182–7 theft 187 time limits 189 wilful misconduct 186–7 Rotterdam Rules arbitration 163–4 background 140–1 calculation of loss 149 carriage contract 142, 144–5 variations 160 carrier 142 competing conventions 150–1 defences 147, 150 delay 149 liability 146–8, 149, 161 non-contractual actions 143–4 obligations 146 competing conventions 150–1, 165–6 contractual terms, validity of 164–5 controlling party, rights of 158–60 deck cargo 149–50 definitions 142–3 delivery of goods 156–8 deviation 149 electronic communication 141, 143, 145 delivery of goods 156–7 transport records 150, 151, 152–6, 159 formalities 143 international character 143 joint and several liability 149 jurisdiction 162–3 limits of liability 149, 161–2 Page 447 maritime performing parties definition 142 liabilities 148–9 matters not covered 165–6 non-contractual actions 143–4 notice of loss 149 scope of application 144–5 shipper 162 controlling party 158–9 definition 143 delay 149, 152 non-contractual actions 144 obligations 151–2 signature/ratification 166 time for suit 162 transfer of rights 160–1 transport documents 151, 152–6, 159, 160 definition 143 delivery of goods 156–7 validity of contractual terms 164–5 S safety management systems 87–8, 116 salvage abandonment 297 agreement parties bound by signing of 305–6 setting aside 306–7 aircraft 293 basic issues 291 calculation of award apportioning between salvors 315–16 cargo’s value 313, 323 fixing award 314–15 freight’s value 313 misconduct 294, 309, 314, 315 salved values 311–13 ship’s value 312, 323 contractual 294 contractual duties crew 297, 299 towage 297–8 danger requirement 294–6 enhanced award 301–2 environmental salvage 301–4 general average 322–3, 331, 332 geographical limits of 296 interest 315 jurisdiction 371 life 294, 311 limitation of liability 426, 427, 428, 431, 434 Lloyd’s Open Form (LOF) 291–2, 317 maritime property 292–4 aircraft 293 ship, cargo and freight 292–3 negligence 307–9 no cure, no pay 291, 299–301, 308 non-maritime property: contractual 294 oil pollution 291, 301–2, 341 post-termination services 310–11 public duties 298 qualifying services environmental salvage 301–4 no cure, no pay 291, 299–301, 308 SCOPIC clause 304–5 safety net 301–2 salvor 296–7 contractual duties 297–8 public duties 298 self-interest 299 salvor/salvee relationship 305 negligence 307–9 parties bound by signing of agreement 305–6 post-termination services 310–11 setting aside agreement 306–7 termination of services 309–10 salvors’ remedies LOF 2011 317 security for claim 316 time bar 317 SCOPIC clause 304–5 self-interest 299 ship, cargo and freight 292–3 ship’s value 312, 323 sources of law on 291–2 special compensation 302, 303, 309, 431 P&I Club (SCOPIC) clause 304–5 termination of services 309–10 volunteer 297 wrecks 317–18 saving life/property at sea 118, 120, 137, 147 sea waybills 11, 14, 17, 40, 72, 77 combined transport 171–2 express contracts on loading 24 Hague-Visby Rules 100–2, 134 Hamburg Rules 140 Inter-Club Agreement 201 Page 448 Rotterdam Rules 145 statutory transfers 44–5 seaworthiness 82–9 absolute nature of duty 84–5 bad stowage 88–9, 202–3 burden of proof 84 causation 85–6 charterparties 202–3, 204 Inter-Club Agreement 201 consequences of unseaworthiness 89 crew negligence 86–8 doctrine of stages 85, 110, 112 Hague/Hague-Visby Rules 109–12, 113–14 due diligence 109–10, 111–12, 114, 200 innominate term 89 Rotterdam Rules 148 unsafety cargo 83–4 vessel 82–3 set-off 162 freight 191, 216–17 hire 192, 250–1 ship general average 322, 323, 324, 326, 329, 330 repairers 111, 435 salvage 292–3, 312, 323 shipper Hague/Hague-Visby Rules carrier defence: act/omission of shipper 118 liability of shipper 130–2 Hamburg Rules 140 Rotterdam Rules carrier defence: act/omission of shipper 147 obligations 151–2 slot charters 9 specific performance 198 standard of proof road carriage 184 salvage 314 statutory lien 331, 375–8 priorities 412 statutory transfers 38–47 bills of lading 39–40 charterer holder 43 definition 40 holder categories 40–2 recovery of third-party losses 43–4 spent 42–3 contractual liabilities 45–6 delivery orders 44 outside statute 46–7 third-party losses, recovery of 43–5 waybills 44–5 straight bills 25, 40, 45, 98, 140, 145, 159 subrogation 15, 342, 346, 434 T third parties and combined transport 172 third-party losses: recovery under COGSA 1992 43–5 third-party reliance on Hague-Visby Rules 109 third-party rights under initial carriage contract 34–8 agency 34–5 assignment 37 implied contract 37–8 statutory provision 35–6 suit by shipper 36–7 trust 36 time charters 193, 194 basic features 191–2, 247 bills of lading 78–9, 192, 196, 197, 200, 202 carriage contracts 10 charterers’ orders 193, 194–5 detention by average accidents 254 equitable set-off 192, 250–1 freight 220, 222, 223 frustration 192, 193 implied contracts 12 on loading 29 implied terms 77, 89, 192 indemnity, right of 205 inefficiency of vessel 252–3 Inter-Club Agreement 200 late payment 249 anti-technicality clause 249–50 net clauses 255–6 off-hire 10, 192, 252 events 253–5 inefficiency of vessel 252–3 time deductible 255–7 period clauses 255 permitted ports 206, 211 redelivery 257–9 Page 449 set-off 192, 250–1 shipowners’ obligations reasonable despatch 211–12 underpayment 250–1 withdrawal, shipowner’s right of 247–9 time limits arbitration 121, 122, 381, 382, 397 challenging an award 400 Bunker Oil Pollution Convention 2001 344 CLC (marine pollution convention) 339 collisions 278, 288, 381 demurrage 245 Fund Convention (1971/1992) 342 general average 331, 332 Hague/Hague-Visby 43, 96, 121–4, 131, 175, 200, 331, 381, 397 Hamburg Rules 138 High Court commencing proceedings 381–2 service of proceedings 382 HNS Pollution Convention 347 lien registration of 226 multimodal transport 174–5 road carriage 189 Rotterdam Rules 162 notice of loss 149 salvage 317 time charters anti-technicality clause 249–50 wrecks 318 removal of 351, 352 title to sue 14–16, 19 express contracts on loading 19–27 implied contracts on loading 27–34 non-contractual actions bailment 19, 26–7, 33, 34, 38, 47–50, 59 carrier’s delivery obligation 58–60 negligence 33, 49, 50–8 statutory transfers 38–47 third-party rights under initial carriage contract 34–8 tort 16, 19, 37, 38, 47, 62, 63, 72–3, 349 choice of law 406–8 conversion 7, 15, 50, 58–9, 192, 373 damages negligence 261–2, 285–7 tort and contract compared 261–2 Hague-Visby Rules 109 inducing or procuring breach of contract 193, 360, 422 jurisdiction 371 negligence see separate entry nuisance 334 time limits 381 trans-shipment clauses 106–7 costs: general average 326 through bills of lading 168–70 trip charters 10, 20, 89, 192–3, 194 frustration 272–3 trust 36 constructive 193 U UCP 500 33 UCP 600 5, 11, 13, 170 unimodal sea carriage received for shipment bills of lading 168 trans-shipment: through bills of lading 168–70 unseaworthiness see seaworthiness V vicarious immunity 53, 54 vicarious liability 58–9, 73, 74, 90 collisions 278–9 pilots 279–80 tugs and tows 279 volenti non fit injuria 53, 54 voyage charters/charterparties 193 basic features 191 berth charters 228, 232–3, 235, 236 bills of lading 78, 79, 191 carriage contracts 9–10 deemed earned clause 218–19 demurrage 9, 80, 191, 228, 262 anticipatory breach 242 basic issues 241–2 fault of shipowner 243 laytime provisions 242–3 other breaches of charter 243–5 removal of vessel for shipowner’s purposes 241 time bars 245 express contracts on loading 19–21 free pratique 231, 245 freight 191, 216 by whom payable 220–2 Page 450 condition precedent 217 deemed earned clause 218–19 general average 322, 329 joint liability 220 lien 223–6 near clause 219–20, 242 remedies for non-payment 222–6 salvage 313 set-off 191, 216–17 special clauses 218–20 when and where payable 217–18 implied terms 77, 89 indemnities 194 Inter-Club Agreement 201 laytime 9, 191 approach/carrying voyages: termination point 232–3 basic provisions 228 berth charters 235 calculation 228–30 exceptions clauses 237, 238, 239–40, 242 fault of shipowner 240–1 notice of readiness 230–2 port charters 233–4 reachable on arrival clauses 236–7, 243 removal of vessel for shipowner’s purposes 241 suspension 237–41 weather permitting 239 weather working day 238 Wibon and lost time clauses 234–6 near clause 219–20, 242 notice of readiness 230–2 permitted ports 206 port charters 228, 232–4, 235, 236, 238 reachable on arrival clauses 236–7, 243 repudiation 268 shipowner, fault of 240–1, 243 shipowners’ obligations reaonable despatch 211–12 shipowner’s purposes, removal of vessel for 241 termination point: approach/carrying voyages 232–3 see also lien W waivers 93, 210, 212, 214, 244–5 general average 330 limitation of liability 430 notice of readiness 231–2 salvage 316 time charters 258 late payment 249 underpayment 251 waybills see sea waybills weather permitting 239 weather working day 238 Wibon and lost time clauses 234–6 wrecks removal of 298, 351–2 salvage principles 317–18

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