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Index

Chern on Dispute Boards


Page 783

Index

Index

  • ACE 70
  • ad hoc adjudication board member agreement: long form 197–203;
    • three person or more 193–6
  • ad hoc agreement 610–12
  • ad hoc dispute boards 23, 113–14, 118
  • ad idem 582, 584, 585
  • additional forms 607–660
  • additional payment 434, 454–6, 464, 468, 472–3, 661–2, 675–6, 679–80, 687–8, 699, 700, 703–4, 711–12, 723, 727–8, 735–6; see also extension of time
  • adjudication 13, 62–70;
    • construction contracts 68–9;
    • development of non-statutory 59–62;
    • development of statutory 62–3;
    • dispute 65–8;
    • mandatory provisions 63;
    • process under Act 63–4;
    • scheme for construction contracts 64–5;
    • written contract 69–70
  • adjudication process 70–73;
    • notice of 73;
    • referrals 74–5
  • adjudicators 4, 161–3;
    • ability to make corrections to decisions 71–2, 74;
    • appointment 73;
    • powers and duties 74–5; see also ‘DAB/sole-member’
  • advanced payment deduction 546, 568–9
  • advertising (of DB services) 384
  • affected interest 176
  • affirmations 317–18, 767–8
  • Africa 102–3; see also South Africa
  • Agreed DAB Claims Protocol 311–13
  • agreement to submit to rules 123, 137, 750, 769
  • Air Traffic Control System 103;
    • Akenhead J 466
  • Allgemeines bürgerliches Gesetzbuch (ABGB, Austria) 49
  • alternative dispute resolution (ADR) 11–13, 61, 68, 80–2, 375, 598, 604–50
  • American Arbitration Association (AAA) 411;
    • appointment and establishment of dispute resolution boards 125–29;
    • board selection 126–27;
    • comparison chart 130–6;
    • dispute resolution boards 130;
    • list of approved dispute adjudicators 183;
    • meeting requirement 128–29;
    • operating rules 127–28;
    • review of disputes 128–29;
    • website 781
  • amicable settlement 368, 430–3, 490, 665, 684–5, 691, 709, 715, 732, 741
  • Appendix to Tender 121, 441, 476, 480, 529, 530, 536, 540, 662
  • appointing body 42–4, 207–8, 374, 500;
    • administrative expenses 148–9, 779–80;
    • arbitral awards 412, 442, 510;
    • versus DB ‘determinations’ 749
  • arbitral proceedings: bifurcation 440, 442;
    • arbitral tribunals: action 498–9;
    • DAB decision thrown out 488, 492;
    • versus ‘dispute boards’ 749;
    • experience 180,
    • jurisdiction 496, 524–8
  • arbitration 2, 368–9, 432, 491, 665, 685, 691, 709, 715, 732–3, 741, 744;
    • 20.6 arbitration 368, 432, 443–5;
    • bifurcation of proceedings 491–2;
    • confusion 490–2;
    • counterclaims 496–9;
    • decision enforcement 432;
    • definition 79;
    • evidence 492–5;
    • high-low 12;
    • ‘open up, review, and revise’ authority 368, 369, 432, 440, 442, 444, 491–2, 500–1, 527;
    • Persero vs. CRW (2009) 83, 443–5;
    • Persero vs. CRW (2011) 443, 445–51;
    • procedural rules 594;
    • ‘relevance to dispute’ 501;
    • special issues 500–17;
    • after termination of DB 370, 499–500
  • arbitration enforcement proceedings: counterclaims 496–9;
    • action by arbitral tribunal 498–9;
    • claimant (contractor) position 497;
    • respondent (employer) position 497;
    • Sub-Clause. 2.5 531–41
  • arbitrators 669, 709, 718;
    • non-Muslim and women 96;
    • quasi 57–9
  • architects 57
  • artificial intelligence 604–5
  • Ashworth, G. 161
  • assumpsit 52
  • attack-defence routine 27
  • Auld LJ 69, 70
  • Australia 5, 80–2, 86, 462–4, 483, 575

  • Page 784

    Baker, E. 534
  • ‘bare notice’ 461
  • Bates stamp 625
  • Beaton, S. 600
  • Beijing 109
  • Belgium 485
  • Better Contracting for Underground Construction (1974) 14
  • bias 169, 181, 182, 184; see also conflicts of interest
  • bill of quantities (BoQ) 557, 563, 646–9,
  • binding decisions 115, 367, 430, 431–2, 487–8, 595, 601, 664, 683, 707–8, 740, 751;
    • recommendations, versus 8–11; see also decisions
  • binding recommendation (DRB) 751
  • board of directors 470–1
  • Boswell, P. 329
  • ‘bottom-up’ versus ‘top-down’ selection 19, 112, 385
  • Bowdery, Mr 60
  • Bowsher J (QC) 12, 61
  • breach of contract 643;
    • ‘major’ versus ‘minor’ 574
  • Briggs CJ 591
  • Brougham, Lord see also ‘Lord Brougham’ Brown (Simon) LJ61–2
  • Brunel, I.K. 54
  • Building Law Reports (BLR) 62
  • burden of proof 327–8
  • bureaucratic difficulties 548, 549
  • Bürgerliches Gesetzbuch (BGB, Germany) 49;
    • business efficacy test 575
  • Canada 105, 578, 583
  • Canon X board members 384–7
  • case law 484
  • cash flow 549, 561, 642–3
  • Centre for Effective Dispute Resolution (CEDR) 44
  • Chad 645–50
  • chairperson 112, 115, 185, 186, 312, 662, 664, 680, 697, 704, 705, 728, 729, 738, 739, 770, 774, 777, 779;
    • failure to agree appointment 663, 663–4, 689, 705, 713;
    • notice of termination 395;
    • removal of DB members 391–2;
    • role 18–19;
    • role (hearing process) 316–18;
    • selection 131, 187
  • Champion, R. 457
  • Channel Tunnel 18
  • Chapman, P.H.J. 9
  • ‘characterisation’ approach 80
  • Chern, C. 12, 62, 427, 456, 488, 510, 593
  • China xv, 3, 10, 50, 101, 109
  • civil law 48–9, 434;
    • countries 49–50,
    • host-country rules 97; see also common law
  • claims 24, 25;
    • versus ‘disputes’ 227;
    • by employer 468;
    • non-admission 60–2
  • claims, disputes, arbitration 661–6
  • Código Civil (Spain) 49
  • Colombia 603
  • combined dispute board (CDB) 36–7, 403–20;
    • contemporaneous knowledge 406;
    • decisions 752;
    • decisions (ICC review) 761, 765, 766;
    • establishment at outset of contract (importance) 406;
    • ‘recommendations’ 752
  • Commercial Arbitration (Mustill and Boyd) 61, 80
  • ‘common intent’ of parties 538, 540, 541
  • common law 47–8, 79, 483;
    • countries 48;
    • versus civil law 49;
    • host-country rules 97; see also law
  • common mistake 581, 585–8
  • Common Reference Document 624–5
  • Commonwealth 79, 80
  • communications 141–2, 167–8, 373, 756;
    • ex parte 634;
    • impropriety 381;
    • mistake 587;
    • time limits 773
  • company registration 548, 549
  • Compensation Event 451, 456, 457
  • completion of design-build 735
  • Compromissum 50
  • concession contracts (long-lasting) 137
  • conciliation 13
  • conclusions of dispute board 760–2;
    • admissibility in subsequent proceedings 762;
    • contents 761;
    • correction and interpretation 762;
    • issuing 761;
    • review 761;
    • time limit 760–1
  • condition precedent 57, 80, 82, 454, 461–64, 469
  • conditional payments 76
  • conditions as terms of contract 574–5;
    • express terms 574;
    • implied terms 574–5;
    • terms implied in fact 575
  • confidentiality 181–2, 383, 754, 757, 774
  • conflicts of interest 770–1;
    • ‘appearance’ rule 372;
    • DB members 371–88;
    • disclosure 171–8; see also impartiality
  • Congo, Republic of 86

  • Page 785

    construction claim financing and management 605–6
  • construction contracts 68–9;
    • not required to be in writing (2009–) 76
  • construction disputes artificial intelligence 604–5
  • Construction Industry Council Model Adjudication Procedure 65
  • construction: multinational projects 411
  • consultants 324, 668, 693–4, 693–4, 770–1
  • Consumer Price Index (CPI) 617
  • contemporary records 676–7, 700–1, 724–5, 735–6
  • contract of assignment 87
  • contract conditions (harmonised) 16
  • contract: definition 749
  • ‘contracting entity’ 470
  • contract law 47, 89, 576
  • contractors 208, 227;
    • accommodation provision 287;
    • FIDIC definition 470;
    • general obligations 668–9, 694, 718;
    • referrals to DBs (elements) 245–55;
    • role in hearing process 322;
    • working methods 286
  • contractor’s claims 661–2, 676–80, 699–704, 711–12, 723, 735–7;
    • agreement or determination of claim 678–9, 702–3, 726–7;
    • claim arising 675, 723;
    • claims of continuing effect 679, 703, 727;
    • contemporary records 676–7, 700–1, 724–5, 735–6;
    • details and particulars 736–7;
    • engineer’s initial response 676, 700;
    • fully detailed claim 677, 701–2, 725;
    • general requirements 679–80, 703–4, 727–8;
    • initial response 724;
    • notice of claim 676, 700, 724;
    • notices 735;
    • payment and/or EOT 675–80, 699–704;
    • time bar 465–70
  • contractor’s position 497, 543–5, 647
  • contractor’s representative 186
  • contractor’s requirements 417–8
  • Contractor’s Risk Event (CRE) 555, 560, 563
  • contractual obligations 343–7, 360–1
  • cooperation of parties 140–1, 772
  • ‘corporation’ (legal entity) 470
  • Corpus Juris Civilis (Justinian) 48
  • corruption 10, 34, 426, 602
  • cost compensation 545–6
  • costs: adjudicator’s lack of power 71–2
  • counterclaims in enforcement proceedings 496–9, 501
  • Cour d’Appel (France) 86
  • Cour de Cassation (France) 53
  • Court of Appeal 58, 60, 61, 69, 591
  • court organisation 485
  • court proceedings 126
  • ‘crucial factual backdrop’ 514
  • culture 317
  • currency 669, 695, 764, 774
  • curriculum vitae 180
  • daily fees 143–4, 200–1, 213, 222, 416, 421, 617, 658, 670, 671, 694–5, 718–19, 746, 748, 763, 775, 775;
    • FIDIC rates 224–6; see also expenses
  • damages 440, 578, 579; see also rescission
  • data checklist 644–5
  • Date of Commencement 135, 236, 759
  • Day Zero 151
  • ‘death, disability, resignation, termination’ 124, 133, 218, 219, 664, 664, 680, 704, 753
  • decision en l’état 87
  • decisions: CDB 36, 236, 759;
    • DABs 155, 235;
    • DBs 326–7;
    • enforcement 495;
    • failure to reach 326;
    • key elements 330;
    • provision of reasons 328–9;
    • ‘not final and binding’ 515, 517, 665, 741; see also determinations
  • decisions: statement of dispute 335–8, 332–6;
    • contractor’s position 333–5, 351–3;
    • dispute 333, 350–1;
    • employer’s position 336–8, 353–5
  • decision time 309–10
  • default appointments 218–20, 410–11
  • defect notification 23, 557
  • Defects Liability Period 213
  • defendant rights 485
  • delay 464–5;
    • ‘prospective’ versus ‘retrospective’ 466
  • delay damages 499; see also liquidated damages
  • Denning LJ 471, 472
  • design-build approach 107
  • design coordination 285–6
  • dessaisi 87
  • details construction schedule (DCS) 286
  • determinations 103, 104, 662, 679, 682–3, 726–7;
    • versus ‘arbitral awards’ 749; see also dispute adjudication board decision
  • development banks 16, 17, 32–4, 413–426;
    • ‘other dispute board uses’ 425–6;
    • ‘other MDBs’ 424–5;
    • WB rules 413–424; see also multilateral development banks

  • Page 786

    Di Folco, G. 438, 440
  • ‘directing mind’ 471, 472
  • disclosure 379–80, 384–5, 668, 693, 754;
    • conflicts of interest 171–8;
    • continuing 163, 179
  • disclosure form 160
  • disclosure statement (including acceptance) 620–1
  • ‘displacement of prevention’ principle 459
  • Dispute Adjudication Agreement (DAA) 187–9, 45, 138–9, 517, 522–3, 774–6;
    • all three persons signing one agreement 613–19;
    • failure to agree establishment of dispute board 208–9;
    • form one-person 190–1;
    • form three person 191–3;
    • one-person DAB (FIDIC) 607–8;
    • three-person DAB (FIDIC) 608–10
  • Dispute Adjudication Agreement general conditions 663, 666–71, 703–4, 738;
    • default of member 671, 696, 720;
    • definitions 666–7, 682, 692;
    • disputes 671, 696, 720;
    • employer/contractor obligations 668–9;
    • general provisions 667, 692–3, 616–17;
    • payment of DAB members 669–70, 694–5, 718–19;
    • member obligations 667;
    • termination 671;
    • warranties 667, 693, 717
  • Dispute Adjudication Agreement general obligations of DAB member 668, 693–4, 717–18;
    • of employer and contractor 668–9, 694, 718
  • Dispute Avoidance/Adjudication Agreement 215–18
  • Dispute Avoidance and Adjudication Board (DAAB) 35–6;
    • dispute board rules 117–18;
    • no DAAB in place 500
  • dispute adjudication board (DAB) 35–6, 528–31, 600, 750, 751, 769;
    • appointment 475–8, 662–3, 680–1, 688–9, 704–5, 712–13, 728–9, 738–9, 743;
    • CDB decisions (draft for review for ICC) 761;
    • composition 32;
    • date of referral of dispute 482–3;
    • dispute synopsis document 636–41;
    • dispute-avoidance role 602;
    • expenses (security) 659;
    • expiry of appointment;(Cl. 20.8) 533, 664, 666, 681, 681, 692, 710, 710, 716, 734, 742–3;
    • failure to appoint 208–9, 441, 479–81, 500, 517, 520–1, 530, 663–4, 681–2, 705–6, 713–14, 729–30, 739, 742–3, 743–4, 743–4;
    • flexibility 602;
    • forcing a DAB 479–81;
    • formal referral of disputes for decision 776–7;
    • formation 39–43;
    • informal opinion/assistance 230–2, 295, 567–71;
    • as inquisitor 483–6;
    • international use 6, 12;
    • jurisdiction 482, 653, 672, 697, 721;
    • jurisdiction challenges 517–71;
    • ‘not arbitrators’ 115, 122, 483, 486, 664, 684, 708, 740;
    • obtaining decision 481–2, 664–5, 666, 682–4, 690–1, 706–8, 706–10, 714–15, 730–2, 739–40, 742, 745;
    • payment (Red Book versus Yellow Book) 476–7;
    • Persero No 1 case 507;
    • procedural rules 198, 204–6;
    • replacement member 738;
    • request for informal opinion 630;
    • sample member agreement (no monthly retainer) 657–60;
    • site visit schedule 271–3;
    • sole-member 117–18, 122, 124, 662, 663, 680, 681, 704–5, 738, 739, 743, 752, 757, 759, 760, 777 see also (adjudicators);
    • subcontractor claims 25;
    • subcontractors 23–5;
    • temporarily binding decisions 95;
    • termination 500;
    • term of office (Red Book versus Yellow Book) 477;
    • three- member 118, 219, 657, 662, 663, 664, 666, 672, 673, 680, 681, 683, 696, 697, 704–5, 720, 721, 738, 743, 769, 770, 774; see also time limit
  • dispute adjudication board decision 523–4, 535–41, 546–66, 673, 697, 721, 731–2, 751, 769, 774;
    • 90-day deadline 778;
    • ‘binding but not final’ 505, 506, 511, 513;
    • enforcement 505–6, 508, 512, 514, 602;
    • failure to comply 495, 666, 685–6, 691–2, 710, 733–4, 741, 741;
    • ‘held for ransom’ 477;
    • ICC review 761, 765, 766;
    • pitfalls 481–90;
    • ‘reaching’ versus ‘communicating’ 479; see also dispute board decision
  • dispute adjudication board decision case studies: Case Study No 2 546–66;
    • Claim No 1 547–50, 555–8, 558–60, 565;
    • Claim No 2 550–3, 558–60, 564–6;
    • contractor’s position 555–6, 558–9;
    • decision 565;
    • discussion and findings 560–5;
    • employer’s position 559–60;
    • evidence presented 554–5;
    • general facts 547;
    • hearings 554, 555, 557;
    • history 547;
    • jurisdiction 555;
    • procedural matters 554;
    • site visits 555
  • dispute adjudication board decision sample format 655–50;
    • contractor’s position 647;
    • decision 650;
    • discussion 648–50;
    • dispute 648;
    • employer’s position 646–7;
    • history 646;
    • issues for determination 648

  • Page 787

    dispute adjudication board decision template 651–7;
    • annexures 655–7;
    • chronology of adjudication 655;
    • chronology of events 654;
    • contract and parties 652;
    • DAB jurisdiction 653;
    • disputes 652;
    • decisions sought 653;
    • decisions (summary) 654–5;
    • documentation (relevant) summary 656;
    • introduction 652–3;
    • positions of parties 654;
    • procedural aspects (assessment) 654;
    • project 652;
    • purpose 652;
    • substantive aspects 654;
    • summary background 653;
    • table of contents 651–2
  • dispute adjudication board grouping of disputes 641–4;
    • documents only 642–3;
    • referrals with hearing 643
  • dispute adjudication board guidelines and operating procedures 152–8;
    • checklist for submissions 157–8;
    • decisions 155;
    • referral of disputes 153–6;
    • reporting 153;
    • site visits 153
  • dispute adjudication board members 115, 662–3, 780;
    • appointment 752–3;
    • death, disability, resignation, termination 664, 680, 704;
    • default 671, 696, 720;
    • general obligations 668, 693–4, 717;
    • independence challenged 771;
    • invoices 775–6;
    • payment 220–6, 669–70, 694–5, 718–19;
    • record of claims form 258–61;
    • replacement 664, 680, 704, 738, 770;
    • resignation 667, 671, 696, 719, 776; see also dispute board members
  • dispute adjudication board member’s agreement 139–40, 771–2;
    • date of commencement 769;
    • Gold Book (sample form) 745–7;
    • unilateral dispute boards 211–15
  • dispute adjudication board rules for use in independently administered DB matters (DBF) 137–49;
    • agreement to submit to rules 137;
    • application of rules 149;
    • appointing body: administrative expenses 148–9;
    • appointment of DB members 138;
    • conflicts of interest 138–9;
    • cooperation of parties 140;
    • DB activities (beginning and end) 142;
    • DB members: payment 143–4;
    • DB powers 142–3;
    • decisions 147–8;
    • exclusion of liability 149, 780;
    • hearings (organisation and conduct 146–7;
    • meetings and site visits 141;
    • procedures before DB 145–6;
    • response and additional documentation 146;
    • written notifications or communications (time limits) 141–2
  • dispute advisory board 43
  • dispute board (DB) decision 147–8, 778–9;
    • admissibility in subsequent proceedings 148, 779;
    • contents 157, 778;
    • correction and interpretation 148, 779;
    • making 779;
    • sent by electronic mail (receipt requested) 489;
    • time limit 147, 778; see also final and binding decision
  • dispute board decision non-acceptance 367;
    • amicable settlement 388;
    • arbitration 368–70;
    • arbitration after termination of DB 370;
    • notice of dissatisfaction 367–8
  • Dispute Board Federation (DBF, Geneva) 5, 11, 17, 122–3, 410;
    • acknowledged 769, 780;
    • ad hoc rules and procedures 130;
    • approved adjudicators 114, 183, 183, 371, 770;
    • comparison chart 130–6;
    • Corporate Member Panel 114, 184;
    • default appointments (to DB) 410–11;
    • Newsletter 438, 440514;
    • training and accreditation 371, 410;
    • website 123, 781
  • dispute board 2–4
  • dispute board members 749;
    • acceptance letter (upon appointment) 223–4;
    • agreements 139–40, 607–21, 754, 771–2;
    • appointment 131, 770;
    • default 389;
    • disclosure questionnaire 171–8;
    • hearings (fair and diligent conduct) 382;
    • independence challenged 754;
    • invoices (failure to be paid) 764;
    • lists 183;
    • non- performing 391–3;
    • obligations 755–6;
    • party-appointed 384–8;
    • payment 132, 143–4, 220–6, 774–6;
    • possible sources 183;
    • powers 757;
    • qualification, training, certification 183–4;
    • qualities 20;
    • removal 133;
    • replacement 133, 226, 753;
    • resignation 776;
    • resignation, death, disability, refusal to act 218;
    • role in hearing process 318–20;
    • termination 226, 389;
    • training programmes 409;
    • withdrawal 380; see also dispute adjudication board members
  • dispute board members additional qualifications 179–3;
    • availability 181;
    • confidentiality 181–2;
    • experience 180;
    • miscellaneous attributes 182;
    • qualifications 179–80;
    • understanding 179
  • dispute board members conflicts of interest 371–88;
    • developed during hearings 373;
    • ethical requirements of board members 375–7;
    • evident partiality 373–4;
    • evident

      Page 788

      partiality standard (interpretation) 374–5;
    • pre-existing conflicts of interest 372;
    • waiver 372
  • dispute board members notice of termination 393–5;
    • by DB chairperson 395;
    • by member 394–5;
    • by parties 393–4
  • dispute board members removal 389–97;
    • adding new board members during proceedings 393;
    • clauses 391–2;
    • consequences 392–3;
    • contract provisions 389–90;
    • non-voluntary removal 391;
    • removal by chair 391–2;
    • removal by other board members 392;
    • voluntary mutual termination agreement 396–7;
    • voluntary removal 390–1;
    • voluntary resignation 396;
    • dispute board process 377–9;
    • dispute board rules 114–18
  • dispute board members selection 159–226;
    • party approval 185–7;
    • identifying third person 186;
    • impartiality versus independence 169–78;
    • independence 159–78;
    • independence: guidance as to avoidance of bias provided by appointing bodies 163–9;
    • lawyers as board members 187;
    • need for continuing disclosure 178 see also (ethics);
    • parties agree on two and those two nominate third 185–6;
    • parties’ joint selection 185;
    • parties select chairperson who then chooses other two members 185, 186;
    • parties select from a range and selected two nominate third 185, 186;
    • people skills159, 179, 187;
    • qualifications 159–83;
    • selecting chairperson 187
  • dispute board rules: custom formats 137–58;
    • basic standards 149–50;
    • DAB: additional guidelines and procedures 152–8;
    • DAB rules 137–49;
    • DB guidelines in practice 150–8;
    • DRB: additional guidelines and procedures 150–1
  • dispute boards: activities (beginning and end) 756–7, 774;
    • administrative assistance from appointing body 134;
    • appointment and establishment 111–58;
    • appointment and membership 19–20;
    • appointment failure 132;
    • versus ‘arbitral tribunals’ 749;
    • case histories 99–110;
    • case studies 518–41;
    • common aspects 37–8;
    • comparison chart 130–6;
    • composition 111;
    • composition and operation 17–22;
    • concept 1–34;
    • contemporary legal development 54–62;
    • contractual provisions (actual practice) 517–71;
    • costs 29–30;
    • deadline for decision/termination 134;
    • definition 750;
    • determinations 760–2;
    • dispute referral 133;
    • early appointment and regular site visits (importance) 20–1;
    • effect of decision/determination 135;
    • elements (origins) 59;
    • embedded (establishment and role) 599–603;
    • emerging- market infrastructure projects 593–606;
    • establishment 752–3;
    • expense 30;
    • failure to appoint 752;
    • failures (perceived) 32–4;
    • formal versus informal operations 25–8;
    • formation 39–43;
    • form of, and instruction for, findings and recommendations 206–7;
    • future 34;
    • ‘generic term’ 5;
    • growth 16–17;
    • hearing agenda (claim presented) 628–9;
    • history 13–16, 44–7;
    • host-country rules 97;
    • incorporation into project 604;
    • internal meetings 763;
    • international aspects 34;
    • international cases 79–84;
    • legal basis 47–97;
    • meetings (frequency) 603;
    • miscellaneous situations 114;
    • nature 3–5;
    • ‘no disputes whatsoever’ 31;
    • one-member 111, 750, 752, 760, 760;
    • in operation (special factors) 101, 102–3, 103–4, 105;
    • operation 756–7;
    • origins 5;
    • ‘other uses’ 425–6;
    • payments 208;
    • philosophy 6–7;
    • post-DB matters 412;
    • powers 757, 774;
    • procedures 28–9, 759–60, 776–8;
    • rebuttals 628–9;
    • referral notice 236–7;
    • routine operations 21–2, 26;
    • sectors covered 5;
    • successes 30–2;
    • three-member 112, 750, 752–3, 761, 778;
    • time limit for rendering decision 760–1, 778;
    • two-member 111–12;
    • types 35–45;
    • USA 5;
    • what is 4–5,
    • written decisions 28;
    • uniqueness 8
  • dispute boards use, training and current practice 399–412;
    • DB member-training programmes 409;
    • DBF 410;
    • default appointments 410–11;
    • FIDIC 409–10;
    • ICC, ICE, WB 410;
    • maritime industry DBs 399–409;
    • post-DB matters 412;
    • practice in USA 411;
    • use of DBs in other settings 409
  • dispute mediation board 44–5
  • dispute mediation panels 114
  • dispute ‘panel’ 78
  • dispute referral procedure 422–3
  • Dispute Resolution Board Federation (DRBF, Seattle) xvii, 5, 184;
    • code of ethics 163;

    • Page 789

      comparison chart 130–6;
    • handbook (2007) 412;
    • list of approved dispute adjudicators 183, 371;
    • manual (no date) 130;
    • training programmes 409;
    • website 781; see also Dispute Review Boards
  • dispute resolution flow chart 100
  • dispute review board dispute hearings: procedures 623–8;
    • disputes involving subcontractors 627;
    • documentation 624–5;
    • DRB deliberations 627;
    • DRB Report 627–8;
    • position papers 625;
    • presentation of dispute 626;
    • redundant evidence and oral statements 627;
    • statement of dispute 625
  • dispute review boards (DRBs) 35, 600, 750–1;
    • advisory opinions: procedures 623;
    • board member’s declaration of acceptance (form) 414–5;
    • guidelines 150–1;
    • meetings 622;
    • meetings: agenda 623;
    • meetings: minutes 623;
    • operating procedures 150–1, 621–8;
    • rebuttals 624, 626;
    • recommendations 750;
    • US-style 13–14
  • dispute review experts (DREs) 419–424;
    • conduct of hearings 423;
    • declaration of acceptance 424;
    • dispute referral procedure 422–3;
    • payment 421–2;
    • rules and procedures 420–3;
    • site visits 422
  • dispute submission timetable 631–5;
    • day 1 (commencement of referral) 631;
    • day 14 (referring party submits SOC) 632;
    • day 28 (RSOC due) 632;
    • day 42 (requests for further clarification due) 632;
    • day 56 (responses to further requests due) 632;
    • day 70 (hearing convenes) 633;
    • day 84 (DB recommendation/decision published) 633–4;
    • other matters 634–5;
    • ‘principal presenter’ 634; see also time limit
  • dispute synopsis document 635–41;
    • abbreviations 640;
    • financial disputes 637, 640;
    • general issues 637, 640;
    • outstanding issues and disputes 637–9;
    • preparation of document 639–40;
    • scope and purpose of document 636–7;
    • submission 636;
    • technical issues and disputes 637, 640
  • disputes 671, 696, 720;
    • arising during operation service period 742, 744–5, 742, 681;
    • avoidance 118, 730;
    • case study 543–6;
    • definition 750;
    • disagreement about existence of dispute ‘in itself a dispute’ 482;
    • existence 65–68, 427–31, 482;
    • ‘flexible approach’ 66–7;
    • ICC definition 228;
    • versus ‘misunderstandings’ 227, 231;
    • ‘narrow’ versus ‘wide’ definitions 66, 428;
    • ‘not defined’ 482;
    • setting out 256
  • dissenting opinion 207, 326, 508, 627, 673, 657, 721, 661, 778; see also unanimity
  • Diwan Al-Mazalim: Commercial Circuit (CC) 93, 94
  • Docklands Light Railway 3, 17, 104
  • documentation 29, 30, 70–12, 75, 236, 312–13, 322–3, 364, 417–9, 624–5, 644, 672, 696–7, 720, 757;
    • additional 146, 759, 777;
    • core 636;
    • summary 656
  • ‘documents-only’ procedure 262, 633, 642–3
  • drawing information ‘late’ 285
  • droit coutumier 49
  • due process 485
  • duty of care 580
  • duty of good faith 82, 83, 575
  • Dyson LJ 162–3
  • Early Case Assessment 598
  • Early Dispute Resolution (EDR) 598
  • Eastern Europe 18, 603
  • effet utile 540
  • Eisenhower Tunnel 14, 600
  • electronic mail 489
  • Employer List of Persons (ELP) 334, 344
  • employers 210, 334;
    • action or inaction giving rise to contractor claims 468;
    • general obligations 668–9, 694, 718;
    • referrals to DBs 255, 730–1
  • employer’s claims 675–80, 711–12, 723, 737–8;
    • agreement or determination of claim 678–9, 702–3, 726–7;
    • claim arising 675, 723;
    • claims of continuing effect 679, 703, 727;
    • contemporary records 676–7, 700–1, 724–5;
    • engineer’s initial response 676, 700;
    • fully detailed claim 677, 701–2, 725;
    • general requirements 679–80, 703–4, 727–8;
    • initial response 724;
    • notice of claim 676, 700, 724;
    • payment and/or EOT 675–80, 699–704
  • employer’s position 545–6, 646–7
  • Employer’s Representative (ER) 248, 252, 260, 740
  • Employer’s Representative’s Response 727, 731, 732, 736–7
  • Employer’s Risk Event (ERE) 555, 556, 560, 563, 564
  • employment relationship 166–7

  • Page 790

    enforcement issues 427–51;
    • arbitration 432–3;
    • decisions: when enforceable 431–2;
    • existence of dispute to enforce 427–31;
    • new developments 433–8;
    • recent developments 438–42;
    • trend 443–51
  • engineer 227, 233–4;
    • arbitrator as judge 54–7;
    • as quasi-arbitrator 57–3;
    • role in hearing process 321
  • engineering design issues 284–5
  • Engineer’s Representative 301, 648–50
  • England 78, 104, 108, 112–13, 575
  • England and Wales 76, 660;
    • Department of Environment 65
  • equipment depreciation 555
  • Ertan Dam 3, 9, 101
  • ethics 163–9, 375–7, 413–4
  • Etihad Rail Network 109
  • Eurotunnel 108
  • ‘event’ or ‘circumstance’ 465, 466, 467;
    • acquisition of knowledge at contractor 470–4; see also time limit
  • evidence 322–3, 492–5, 627
  • evidence list 267–8
  • evidence presented 554–5
  • evident partiality 373–5
  • ex bon viri Arbitrato 52
  • ex libero Arbitrio 52
  • executive tribunal 13
  • expenses 2143 222, 224–5, 383–4, 670, 671, 695, 695, 719, 763–4, 772, 775; see also fees experience180, 182
  • expert determination 12
  • Expert Resolution Process 81
  • expert witnesses 324, 495
  • experts 79–80, 243
  • express terms 574
  • extension of time (EOT) 301–2, 458, 461–64, 466–7, 472–3, 535, 621, 662, 699, 700, 723; see also additional payment
  • fact 64, 68, 514, 575, 576, 580–1, 624
  • fair dealing (USA) 575
  • family 171–3
  • Fédération Internationale Des Ingénieurs-Conseils see FIDIC
  • fees 214, 774–6; see also monthly retainer fee
  • FIDIC (International Federation of Consulting Engineers, Geneva) xvii, 14, 342, 376, 409–10;
    • acknowledged 661, 673, 697, 710, 721;
    • DBM removal (consequences) 392–3;
    • default appointments (to DB) 411;
    • payments 221–2;
    • sample forms (Gold Book) 745–7;
    • time limit for decision 309, 325–6;
    • website 781
  • FIDIC Contracts: differences from AAA procedures 126–9;
    • dispute avoidance points 118–21
  • FIDIC President 189, 520–1, 524, 528–31, 536, 538–4, 541, 547, 744
  • FIDIC President’s List of Approved Adjudicators 114, 183–4, 371, 409–10
  • file transfer protocol (ftp) 314
  • final award 508–9, 515
  • final and binding decision 444, 451, 487, 515–17, 528, 531, 665, 683, 708, 709, 740;
    • 28-day limit to contest 482;
    • versus ‘binding but not yet final’ decision 505, 506, 511; see also ‘hearings: decisions/recommendations’
  • final partial award 440
  • financial charges 564
  • financial disputes 637, 640
  • financial interest [personal profit motive] 176, 668, 693, 717, 770
  • ‘financing charges’ 546, 673, 697, 721
  • flexibility (DRBs) 622
  • force majeure 519, 519, 596
  • France 49, 47, 86–8, 102, 108, 485, 540
  • France: Cour de Cassation 87
  • France: Tribunal de Commerce 88
  • fraud 79, 578
  • fraud in factum 576
  • fraud in inducement 576
  • fraudulent misrepresentation 577
  • ‘fraudulent practice’ 426
  • free rides 372, 373
  • frustration 588–91
  • Fry J 578
  • full disclosure 170–1
  • fumus boni juris 437
  • functus officio 426
  • Furmston, M. 590
  • general disputes 637, 640
  • General Electric (GE) Company 598
  • general operational procedure checklist 621–60
  • Germany 49, 102, 484–5;
    • conciliation proceedings 85;
    • dispute boards (legal basis) 85–6
  • Germany: Bundesgerichtshof (Federal Supreme Court) 85–6

  • Page 791

    Germany: Tax Consultant Board 85
  • Gharar 96
  • Gibraltar 82, 465
  • Gould, N. 564, 488, 501
  • Grand Abridgement (Shepherd, 1675) 51
  • Greece (modern) 50, 85
  • Greece and Rome (ancient) 50
  • gross negligence 578
  • hearing notice 315
  • hearing process 309–370;
    • additional claims 325;
    • additional documentation requests 325–6;
    • deliberations after hearing 326;
    • guidelines for operation 320–1;
    • handling and hearing evidence 322–3;
    • hearing preparation 309–13;
    • language 310;
    • multinational practice 317;
    • objections from parties 323–4;
    • preliminary determinations 313;
    • role of chair 316–18;
    • role of contractor 322;
    • role of engineer 321;
    • role of other members 318;
    • role of owner/employer 322;
    • use of consultants/expert witnesses 324
  • hearing process: preparation process steps (parties and DB members) 313–16;
    • claim hearing agenda 316;
    • document receipt schedule 314–15;
    • hearing notice 315
  • hearing room layout 3019–20
  • hearings 26–8, 155, 238–9, 242–3, 291–2, 305–6, 419, 668, 669, 671, 672–3, 694, 696, 718, 721, 753, 757, 763, 775;
    • grouping of disputes 643;
    • organisation and conduct 146–7, 423, 759–60, 777–8;
    • transcript 627
  • hearings: decision process decision itself 329;
    • making and writing decision 329–64;
    • proof 327–8;
    • provision of reasons 328–9;
    • reaching decision 326–7;
    • time requirements 329–64;
    • writing decision 328–9
  • hearings: decisions/recommendations analysis and findings 338–41, 355–8;
    • certification 348, 364;
    • cover page 331;
    • DAB decision difference 364–6;
    • discussion 341–7, 358–63;
    • dissenting opinions 347–8, 363;
    • DRB recommendations 347;
    • failure to reach 326;
    • introduction 331–2;
    • key elements 330;
    • non-acceptance of DB decision 367;
    • recommendations 363;
    • statement of dispute 333–8, 350–5; see also interim-binding decision
  • hearsay evidence 485
  • Higher Regional Court of Frankfurt/Main 86
  • holidays (official) 142, 756, 773
  • Honduras: El Cajon Dam 14
  • Hong Kong 482–3;
    • disputes review group (DRG) 17, 103, 112
  • Hong Kong Airport (Chek Lap Kok) 3, 103, 1124, 402
  • hourly rates 222
  • house-builders 582–3, 589–90
  • House of Lords 59, 77, 78, 160, 161, 461
  • Housing Grants, Construction and Regeneration Act (HGCRA, 1996): adjudication process 70–3;
    • changes 75–7;
    • contract in writing within meaning of s.107 69–70;
    • disputes under construction contracts 68–9;
    • main areas (existence of ‘dispute’) 65–8;
    • mandatory provisions 63;
    • Part 8
  • proceedings 72;
    • process 63–64
  • Hudson’s Building Contracts (HBC; 4th Edition, 1914) 58
  • Huggins J 591
  • Hyderabad Metro 109
  • IFCs 598
  • impartiality 64, 64, 379–80, 667, 672, 693, 696, 717, 720, 743, 778;
    • appearance 160–9;
    • versus
  • independence 169–78;
    • ‘latent’ versus ‘patent’ bias 159–60;
    • ‘neutrality’ 385–8; see also independence
  • implied terms 72, 73, 342–3, 359–60, 574–5, 588–9
  • impossibility 588
  • impropriety 167–8
  • inadmissibility 87
  • independence 159–78, 382–3, 667, 693, 717, 753–4;
    • full disclosure 170–1;
    • guidance as to avoidance of bias provided by appointing bodies 163–9;
    • versus impartiality 169–78;
    • written disclosure (ICC rules) 170; see also bias
  • India 575
  • Indonesia 508
  • informal assistance/advice 136, 230–2, 295, 413, 567–71, 630, 758, 776
  • infrastructure projects (long lifespan) 593, 599,
  • ‘innominate’ term 574
  • inquisitorial role 64, 71, 75, 483–6, 672, 696, 720
  • Institute of Chartered Accountants (Australia) 81
  • Institute of Chartered Arbitrators (Australia) 81

  • Page 792

    Institution of Civil Engineers (ICE) 13, 70, 114, 220, 372, 411;
    • list of approved dispute adjudicators 183, 411;
    • website 781
  • insurance 29, 32
  • interest 87, 434–5, 437, 488, 505, 523, 536, 541, 546, 591, 764
  • interim awards 433–8, 441–51
  • interim-binding decision 10–11, 601, 603; see also recommendations
  • interim claims 662, 678, 703, 726–7
  • ‘interim measure’ 442
  • Interim Partial Award 34, 451
  • interim payment 703
  • interim payment certificates (IPCs) 557, 567, 638, 642
  • international cases 79–84
  • International Centre for Settlement of Investment Disputes (ICSID, WB) 220;
    • ICSID Administrative and Financial Regulations 416;
    • ICSID Arbitrator’s Daily Fee 416, 421;
    • ICSID rates 222
  • International Chamber of Commerce (ICC, Paris) xvii, 1–2, 410, 412, 5601;
    • administrative expenses 765;
    • appointment and establishment of dispute boards 123–5;
    • comparison chart 130–6;
    • default appointments (to DB) 410–11;
    • does (not) maintain list of recommended arbitrators 183, 371, 410;
    • pre-arbitral referee clause 86–7;
    • website 781
  • ICC Arbitration Commission: Working Group on DBs 399
  • ICC DB Centre 124–5, 749, 753, 761, 765, 766
  • ICC International Court of Arbitration (Paris) 1–2, 412, 433, 508, 744
  • international competitive bidding (ICB) 600
  • International Federation of Consulting Engineers see FIDIC
  • International Institute for Conflict Prevention and Resolution (CPR) 598
  • interpreter witnesses: oaths and affirmations 767–8
  • Iran 96–7
  • Israel 575
  • issue list 267
  • Istanbul: Marmaray Metro System 109
  • Italy 102
  • James, Sir M.W. 57
  • Jarrosson, C. 87–8
  • JCT 1988 Edition with Contractor’s Design 161
  • Joint Consulting Board (USA) 13
  • joint ventures 8, 101, 103, 193, 248, 411, 470, 611
  • Jones, D. 511
  • judicial appraisal 12
  • judge and counsel: role 485
  • judges: bouche de loi (France) 49
  • juge de référés 88
  • jurisdiction challenges: Case Study No 1 518–41;
    • appropriate action 524;
    • background 518–7;
    • conflict between Sub-Cls 2.5 and 15.4 533–5;
    • DAA 522–3;
    • DAB 528–31;
    • DAB decision: enforcement 541;
    • DAB decisions 523–4;
    • first decision 523;
    • second decision 523–4, 528;
    • DAB’s decisions 535–41;
    • expiry of DAB’s appointment (Cl. 20.8) 508, 692, 734;
    • issues 524;
    • jurisdiction of arbitral tribunal 524–8;
    • jurisdiction of arbitral tribunal (Sub-Cl. 2.5) 531–8;
    • payment after termination (Sub-Cl. 15.4) 532–3;
    • jurisdiction challenges: Case Study No 2 542–66;
    • Claim No 1 542, 543–4;
    • Claim No 2 542, 544–5;
    • contractor’s position 543–5;
    • cost compensation 545–6;
    • DAB decision 547–66;
    • decisions 542;
    • disputes 543–6;
    • employer’s position 545–6;
    • events leading to claims 543–5;
    • history 542–3;
    • jurisdiction challenges: Case Study No 3 566–71;
    • advanced payment deduction 568–9;
    • informal opinion 567–71;
    • informal opinion request 567–8;
    • lack of certification by Engineer 569–71
  • jury trial 11, 485
  • Katse Dam Project (1993–7) 3, 102
  • knowledge of disputed facts 176
  • ‘knowledge of truth’ defence 576
  • Knutson, R. 54
  • Koch, C. 399
  • labour 333–8, 561–3
  • Lal, H. 459, 461, 464
  • Lamme, A.N. 459
  • land surveys 543
  • Länder 85
  • Landolt & Koch (Geneva) 399
  • landslide 590–1
  • Langelaar, A. van 651
  • language 665, 682, 709, 741, 744, 753, 757, 770, 774

  • Page 793

    LAPSSET Project 109
  • late claims 341–2, 358–9
  • late decisions 478–9
  • Latham Report (1994) 63
  • law 64, 665, 682, 709, 741;
    • ‘adversarial’ versus ‘inquisitorial systems’ 49, 483–6;
    • case law 484;
    • court organisation 485;
    • defendant rights 485;
    • examination phase 484;
    • investigation 484;
    • judge and counsel: role 485;
    • juries 485;
    • rules of evidence 485;
    • trial 484; see also civil law
  • Law Times 58
  • lawyers 172–5, 187, 625, 744;
    • hearings, at 324–5
  • legal systems 47–9
  • Lesotho 102
  • Letter of Tender 470
  • LIBOR 764
  • liquidated damages 458–9, 463, 464, 639, 643;
    • same as ‘delay damages’ 535
  • lis (lawsuit) 56
  • litigation 2
  • ‘little favours’ 373
  • Lloyd (H.) (QC) HHJ 67, 161, 488
  • London 482–3
  • London Court of International Arbitration 412
  • London Crossrail 109–10
  • Longmore LJ 60–1
  • Lord Advocate for Scotland 165;
    • Lord Brougham 55
  • Lord Campbell 53
  • Lord Coke 51, 52
  • Lord Colman 87–8
  • Lord Donaldson 3
  • Lord Einstein 82
  • Lord Esher MR 58, 60
  • Lord Hoffmann 161
  • Lord Hope 161
  • Lord Leverhulme 586
  • Lord Loreburn 589
  • Lord Mustill 54, 78
  • Lord Reid [1954] 578
  • Lord Reid [1971] 471
  • Lord (Viscount) Simon 589;
    • Lord Watson 589
  • Lord Woolf 17
  • Lord Wright MR 578
  • Mariam El-Awa 88
  • marine construction industry 399, 401–2
  • maritime disputes: categories 400–1
  • maritime industry dispute boards 399–409;
    • DB in operation 406–9;
    • ICC DB Rules 401–10;
    • ICC DB Rules: sample scenario 403–4;
    • non- binding recommendations 404;
    • setting up DB 404–6
  • material fact 576
  • Mathews, A. 14
  • matters of principle 264
  • McBurn J 646
  • mediation 1;
    • ‘facilitative’ versus ‘evaluative’ 12;
    • non-evaluative 26;
    • as part of DB and partnering committee 598–9; see also dispute mediation board
  • mediation clause 81–2
  • Medupi Power Station 110
  • meetings 141, 755–6, 757–8, 772–3, 774
  • mega-member dispute boards 112–13
  • Mellish (Sir G) LJ 51
  • member acceptance 414–5
  • member payment 416–7
  • MFIs 425
  • micro dispute boards 113
  • MIGA [Multilateral Investment Guarantee Agency, WB]: Office of Compliance Adviser/Ombudsman 598
  • ‘minor adjustments during construction phase’ 552
  • misrepresentation 69, 573, 575–81;
    • definition 549;
    • distinctions 577–3;
    • express false representations 578–9;
    • implied misrepresentations 579–80;
    • innocent misrepresentations 580;
    • misstatements of law versus fact 580–1;
    • negligent misrepresentations 580
  • mistake 573, 581–91;
    • common mistake 585–8;
    • definition 581;
    • versus frustration and impossibility 588–91;
    • mutual mistake 584–5, 586–7;
    • unilateral mistake 581–4
  • monthly retainer fee 143–4, 200–1, 212–13, 221–2, 421–2, 616–17, 657–60, 669–70, 671, 746, 747, 754, 763, 775, 771, 774–5;
    • FIDIC rates 224–5;
    • phasing out 416–7; see also performance security
  • Motiwala, K. 159
  • motorways 543, 547–66
  • multilateral development banks (MDBs) 16, 23, 121–2, 424–5;
    • listed 425; see also World Bank
  • mutual mistake 581, 584–5, 587

  • Page 794

    Namibia 84, 110
  • Napoleonic Code 49, 53
  • National Committee on Tunneling Technology (USA) 11
  • nationality 120, 138, 753, 770
  • National Petroleum Company of the Congo (SNCP) 86
  • natural disaster 590–1
  • ‘natural impulse’ (Frankfurt) 86
  • natural justice 72, 509
  • natural law 49
  • NEC 3: eight-week deadline 456
  • NEC Users’ Group Newsletter 456
  • Neckartal Dam 110
  • negative liquidity 84
  • negligence 69, 80
  • negligent misrepresentation 578, 580
  • nemo sua judex in sua causa 56, 161
  • neutral fact-finder 13
  • New South Wales 80, 463
  • new trends 593–606;
    • partnering committees and dispute boards in emerging-market infrastructure projects 593–606;
    • partnering committees: composition and role 597–8;
    • PPPs 593–7
  • Niagara Tunnel 105
  • nominating bodies 114
  • non-business days 756, 773
  • non-disclosure 580
  • non haec in foedera veni 589
  • Nosworthy, I.D. 81
  • Notice of Claim 228, 335, 430
  • notice of default 638, 643
  • notice of dispute 228, 422–3, 631–2
  • notice of dissatisfaction (NOD) 100, 135–6, 235, 367–8, 430–8, 440, 442–5, 448, 450, 488–90, 515–16, 523–5, 528–31, 541, 730–1, 732, 737–41, 750–1;
    • 56-day deadline for reference to arbitration 527;
    • 70-day limit 503; see also time limit
  • notice of termination 535
  • oaths 317–18, 554, 767–8
  • obligation to cooperate 755–6
  • ‘obvious slip’ 72
  • officious bystander test 575
  • Operation Service DAB 116;
    • member 742
  • Operative Service DAB Agreement (Gold Book sample form) 747–8
  • Operation Service Period 742, 745
  • oral statements 627
  • owner/employer: role in hearing process 322
  • Owner’s Representative 186, 237, 239, 276, 290
  • Oxford English Dictionary 482
  • pacta sunt servanda principle 50, 56
  • Panama Canal Upgrade 108
  • Paris 744
  • Parke, Baron 459
  • partial awards 440, 441, 442, 446, 511
  • partial disclosure 580
  • partial truth 577
  • partnering committees: composition and role 597–8;
    • emerging-market infrastructure projects 593–606;
    • incorporation into project 604
  • ‘pay when certified’ clauses 76
  • payment arrangements 764–5
  • Payment Certificate 662, 679, 737, 738
  • payment notices 77
  • ‘pay now, argue later’ 492
  • ‘pay when paid’ clauses 23, 76
  • PDF files 314
  • people skills 159, 179, 187
  • performance security/bond 408–9, 462, 523, 536; see also security
  • periodical site visits (PSV) 304
  • Persero No 1 case Court of Appeal 507–14;
    • judge’s decision 509–14;
    • ‘second dispute’ (issue) 509;
    • Sub-Cl. 20.6 error 514–15;
    • Sub-Cl. 20.7 error 515–17
  • Phillips, Mr 61
  • Pinochet, General A. 161;
    • precedent 48
  • prevention principle 462, 464
  • ‘primary presenter’ 624, 626
  • ‘principal presenter’ 634
  • ‘principle’ v ‘quantum’ separation 27
  • privacy and confidentiality 158, 668, 694, 718, 771
  • Private Finance Initiative (PFI) 18, 57
  • private sector 593–5
  • Privy Council 575
  • procedural aspects (assessment) 654
  • ‘Procurement Document for Procurement of Works and Users’ Guide’ (2004, 2010) 121
  • productivity 563
  • professional relationships 175
  • profit 33, 546, 560, 561, 646
  • programmes 301
  • project data 644–5

  • Page 795

    project development committees 597
  • Project Engineer 629
  • Project Mediators (CEDR) 44
  • proof 327–8
  • provider organization 176–7
  • provisional awards 446, 451
  • provision of reasons 328–9
  • proximate cause 464
  • Public Private Partnerships (PPPs) 17, 593–7
  • public sector 595–7
  • quantum 556, 558, 564634
  • quantum meruit 589
  • question of fact 68
  • railways 17
  • rainfall 466, 467–8, 470, 486, 643
  • ratio decidendi 58
  • reasoned decision 486–7
  • recommendations 35–7, 101, 102, 150–1, 347;
    • CDB 236, 759;
    • binding decisions, and 8–11;
    • DABs 239;
    • DRBs 245;
    • non-binding 9–10, 404, 601; see also binding decisions record of claims form258–61
  • recording (audio/video) 627
  • référé provision 435, 437, 448, 504
  • referral to dispute board 227–44;
    • DB referral notice 236–7;
    • duties of parties 240–2;
    • formal 233–6;
    • informal 230–2;
    • notification of dispute 229–30;
    • procedural requirements 237–40;
    • ‘referring party’ versus ‘responding party’ 238;
    • request for informal opinion 232;
    • starting process (informal vs. formal) 227–9;
    • timetable and details 237–40;
    • witnesses and witness statements 242–44
  • referral to dispute board: DAB member form 258–61;
    • elements 245–68;
    • evidence list 267–8;
    • issue list 267;
    • preliminary matters and setting out dispute 256;
    • preliminary notice 245–6;
    • record of claims form 258–61;
    • referral by contractors 245–55;
    • referral by employer 255;
    • sample referrals 247–55, 261–6;
    • sequence of events 256–7
  • referral of dispute to DAB 289–90, 730–1;
    • date of receipt 482–3;
    • ‘must state that it is given under Cl. 20.4’ 487;
    • procedure 303–7;
    • referring party 632;
    • versus ‘responding party’ 238
  • ‘relevant trade usages’ 494
  • reporting 153
  • requests for information (RFIs) 468
  • rescission 575, 576, 578, 580, 586, 591; see also damages
  • res judicata 56, 87, 447
  • resources 781
  • responding party 632
  • ‘retention money’ 546, 557, 563
  • RIBA 70, 114, 161–2, 410
  • RICS 70, 114, 410, 781
  • ‘rules of construction’ 464
  • rules of evidence 29, 485
  • rules of law 459
  • Russell, V. 64
  • Russian Federation 85
  • safety 279
  • Salt Lake City 107
  • Saltend 3, 104–5, 112–13
  • Saudi Arabia 95–6
  • Scheme for Construction Contracts (England and Wales) Regulations (1998): procedures 73;
    • adjudicators powers and duties 74–5;
    • appointment of adjudicator 74;
    • notice of adjudication 73;
    • referral notice 74
  • Scotland 76, 463, 479
  • Scrutton LJ 575
  • Section 110A Notices (2009–) 77
  • security (for payments) 214, 512, 639, 669; see also daily fees
  • separation of powers 49
  • Seppälä, C. R. 433, 437, 438, 461, 501, 513, 525, 534–5, 603
  • sequence of events 256–7
  • Shapiro, D. 578
  • sharia law 88–97;
    • dispute review board decisions 94;
    • dispute adjudication board decisions 95;
    • enforcement provisions 93–4;
    • form of dispute board decision 95;
    • history 89–93;
    • host-country rules 97
  • Shepherd, W. 51, 79
  • shipyards 399–400
  • Singapore Court of Appeal 446, 506, 508, 513
  • Singapore High Court 83, 443, 446, 506
  • site conditions 459–60
  • site possession 542–66
  • site visit agendas: establishment 273–5;
    • first meeting 629;
    • formats 274–5;
    • general 275–6
  • site visit reports 281–308;
    • appendices 288–5, 302–8;
    • DB observations 287–8, 300–1;
    • description of activities 297–9;
    • matters of

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      concern 284–7, 299–300;
    • ‘other matters’ 288, 292–3, 302;
    • status of works 283–4, 299
  • site visits 141, 153, 220–1, 256–7, 269–308, 406–7, 422, 668–70, 671–2, 694, 718, 755, 757, 758, 763, 772–3;
    • checklist for submissions 307–8;
    • concept 269;
    • contractual requirements 269–71;
    • criticism by DB members 279;
    • handling conflicts 280;
    • handling evidence 279–80;
    • handling hostile parties 280–1;
    • minutes 629;
    • practice and procedure 278;
    • preparation 271–3;
    • schedule (DAB) 271–3
  • Six Sigma Quality Initiative 598
  • Smith, G. 464
  • Smyth, T. 647
  • South Africa 79, 86, 110
  • Spencer, J.R. 485
  • stakeholders 593–606
  • ‘Standing Board’ 476
  • ‘standing dispute board’ 113, 593
  • stare decisis et non quieta movere 47
  • Statement of Case/Claim (SOC) 146, 154, 155, 157–8, 235, 238, 241, 294, 305, 306, 307–8, 407, 408, 632, 634, 752;
    • contents 758–9, 776–7
  • Statement of Case: Response (RSOC) 146, 154, 155, 157, 236, 238, 290–1, 305–6, 407, 632, 633, 752;
    • contents 759, 777
  • Statement of Case: Rebuttal to RSOC (RRSOC) 155, 238, 305–6, 633
  • Statement of Case: Reply to RRSOC (RRRSOC) 239, 306, 633
  • statement of disputes 241
  • ‘steering’ committee (infrastructure projects) 593, 597
  • subcontractors 22–5, 66, 76, 627;
    • claims to DAB 25;
    • FIDIC Conditions 22–25;
    • information provision 24 subcontracts: ‘back-to-back’ basis 23 suits at common law (USA) 11
  • Sulser, P.O. 593
  • surveyors 80; see also RICS
  • Taking-Over Certificate 213, 225, 248–55, 416–7, 422, 638, 642, 669, 775
  • taxes 422, 477, 670, 695, 719, 764, 775
  • T & C Consortium (TCC) 655–50;
    • technical assistance contract 526;
    • technical disputes 637, 640
  • Technology and Construction Bar Association (TECBAR) 70, 114, 184
  • Technology and Construction Court (TCC, UK) 82, 465
  • TeCSA 114
  • tender price: mathematical errors 582
  • tenders 29
  • Tercier, P. 86–7
  • termination 23, 415
  • Terms of Appointment 621–1
  • terms implied in fact 575
  • Terms of Reference (for arbitration) 514
  • Three-Party Agreement (TPA) 332, 348, 621, 629
  • Tiggeman, M. 438, 440, 442
  • time 141–2, 309–10, 329–30; see also extension of time
  • time-bar clauses 453–79;
    • amicable settlement 490;
    • appointment of DAB: issues 475–8;
    • binding decision 487–8;
    • delay: impact on critical path 464–5;
    • dissatisfaction with decision 488–90;
    • event or circumstance (acquisition of knowledge at the contractor) 470–4;
    • failure to agree a DAB 479–81, 689–90;
    • FIDIC Cl. 20 454–7, 459;
    • FIDIC Gold Book 457–64;
    • forcing a DAB 479–81;
    • late decisions 478–9;
    • NEC 3 (2005) 456, 459, 462;
    • reasoned decision 486–7
  • time for completion 453, 454, 458–9, 464, 472, 473
  • time extension see extension of time
  • time impact analysis 542, 555
  • ‘time at large’ 458–9, 464
  • time limit: 28 days to contest ‘final and binding decision’ 482;
    • for correction of clerical, computational, or typographical error 779;
    • after deadline for DAB decision 481;
    • from ‘event’ or ‘circumstance’ 335, 454, 455, 455, 465–70, 471–3, 469–70, 661, 676, 700, 724;
    • for notice by contractor (NSW) 464;
    • for notice of dissatisfaction with DAB’s decision 481, 488–9, 506, 664–5, 684, 708, 740;
    • after notification of dispute for DAB appointment 476, 481–2, 680, 707, 725, 740;
    • for notification by subcontractor to main contractor’s representative 461;
    • for notifying a claim for EoT: commencement 465–70, 471, 473;
    • UK 478; see also dispute submission timetable
  • time limit: 30 days for correction of clerical, computational or typographical error 762;
    • for ICC DB Centre to review a DB decision

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      761;
    • for NOD with DAB decision 751;
    • for NOD with DRB recommendation 750–1
  • time limit: 42 days to agree replacement member of DAB 664, 680, 705, 739;
    • for DAB appointment 518, 521, 527–31, 536–8, 540;
    • after ‘event’ or ‘circumstance’ for submission of detailed claim 498, 661, 676, 700, 725;
    • for notice by subcontractor to main contractor’s representative 461;
    • after notification of claim for employer to respond 662, 679, 701, 725–6
  • time limit: 56 days after NOD with DAB decision for commencement of arbitration proceedings 490, 495, 684
  • time limit: 70 days intention under Cl. 67.1 to start arbitration proceedings 503
  • time limit: 84 days for DAB decision 367, 430, 436, 477, 478, 479, 481, 482–3, 486, 490, 503, 504, 602, 631, 633–4, 664, 684, 707, 731–2, 740, 742, 745
  • time limit: 90 days for DB decision 147, 778;
    • for DB to issue ‘determination’ 760–1
  • time limit: 105 days for DAB decision 740, 742, 745
  • time zones 482–3
  • tort 579, 580
  • Total Fina Elf E&P Congo Company 86
  • Totterdill, B.W. 534
  • trade secrets 757, 774
  • translations 34
  • travel time and expenses 222, 763–4
  • trial 484
  • tripartite agreement 210–11, 666, 692, 716, 743
  • trust 383
  • truth test 577
  • tunnelling 120, 179, 465, 600
  • Turkey 85
  • two-stage clause 78
  • Type 1 differing site condition (USA) 460
  • UN Commission on International Trade Law 51, 412;
    • UNCITRAL Model Law 94, 96
  • UN Conference on International Commercial Arbitration 511
  • unanimity 673, 697, 721, 761, 778;
    • failure to achieve 326; see also dissenting opinion
  • uncertainty (of contract) 573–4
  • unilateral dispute board agreements 207–218;
    • sample contract 211–15
  • unilateral mistake 581–4
  • United Kingdom 4–5, 62–3, 102, 478
  • United States 5, 13–14, 107, 411, 483, 575, 601;
    • US Uniform Commercial Code 47
  • unzulässige Rechtsausübung 85
  • ‘value for money’ 596
  • variation orders (VO) 569, 639, 643
  • VAT 764
  • Wallace, I.N.D. 464
  • walls 542, 544
  • warranty 581–2, 667, 693, 717
  • Washington: Boundary Dam 11
  • water management 11
  • Willes, Mr Justice 56
  • withholding notices 77
  • witness statements 242–4, 554;
    • content 243;
    • format 243–4;
    • guideline 242–3;
    • importance 243;
    • outlines 244;
    • statements by experts 243
  • witnesses 317–21;
    • oaths and affirmations 767–8
  • women 95–6
  • World Bank 14–16, 28, 32, 410, 595, 596, 598; see also development banks
  • World Bank: Guidance Note on PPPs 600
  • World Bank: Inspection Panel 598
  • World Bank: Partial Risk Guarantees 601
  • World Bank: rules and procedures for dispute review boards 413–424;
    • advice and opinions 413;
    • board member’s declaration of acceptance (form) 414–5;
    • contractor requirements 417–8;
    • dispute review experts 419–424;
    • dispute review experts: rules and procedures 420–4;
    • ethical requirement 413–4;
    • hearings 419;
    • member acceptance 414–5;
    • member payment 416–7;
    • other board member requirements 417;
    • procedure for dispute referral to board 418–9;
    • termination 415
  • World Bank: Standard Bidding Documents for Works (SBDW, 2011) 413, 600;
    • Procurement of Works (WB, very early 1990s) 12;
    • Standard Bidding Document Procurement of Works (WB, 2006–7) 12;
    • ‘Standard Bidding Documents’ (SBDs, MDBs, 2005–) 121
  • Wright, Lord see ‘Lord Wright MR’
  • written notifications 141–2, 756, 773
  • Yellow River 105–7
  • Zweigert, K. 483

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