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Index

Chern on Dispute Boards

Page 783 Index Index ACE 70 ad hoc adjudication board member agreement: long form 197–203; three person or more 193–6 ad hoc agreement 610–12 ad hoc dispute boards 23, 113–14, 118 ad idem 582, 584, 585 additional forms 607–660 additional payment 434, 454–6, 464, 468, 472–3, 661–2, 675–6, 679–80, 687–8, 699, 700, 703–4, 711–12, 723, 727–8, 735–6; see also extension of time adjudication 13, 62–70; construction contracts 68–9; development of non-statutory 59–62; development of statutory 62–3; dispute 65–8; mandatory provisions 63; process under Act 63–4; scheme for construction contracts 64–5; written contract 69–70 adjudication process 70–73; notice of 73; referrals 74–5 adjudicators 4, 161–3; ability to make corrections to decisions 71–2, 74; appointment 73; powers and duties 74–5; see also ‘DAB/sole-member’ advanced payment deduction 546, 568–9 advertising (of DB services) 384 affected interest 176 affirmations 317–18, 767–8 Africa 102–3; see also South Africa Agreed DAB Claims Protocol 311–13 agreement to submit to rules 123, 137, 750, 769 Air Traffic Control System 103; Akenhead J 466 Allgemeines bürgerliches Gesetzbuch (ABGB, Austria) 49 alternative dispute resolution (ADR) 11–13, 61, 68, 80–2, 375, 598, 604–50 American Arbitration Association (AAA) 411; appointment and establishment of dispute resolution boards 125–29; board selection 126–27; comparison chart 130–6; dispute resolution boards 130; list of approved dispute adjudicators 183; meeting requirement 128–29; operating rules 127–28; review of disputes 128–29; website 781 amicable settlement 368, 430–3, 490, 665, 684–5, 691, 709, 715, 732, 741 Appendix to Tender 121, 441, 476, 480, 529, 530, 536, 540, 662 appointing body 42–4, 207–8, 374, 500; administrative expenses 148–9, 779–80; arbitral awards 412, 442, 510; versus DB ‘determinations’ 749 arbitral proceedings: bifurcation 440, 442; arbitral tribunals: action 498–9; DAB decision thrown out 488, 492; versus ‘dispute boards’ 749; experience 180, jurisdiction 496, 524–8 arbitration 2, 368–9, 432, 491, 665, 685, 691, 709, 715, 732–3, 741, 744; 20.6 arbitration 368, 432, 443–5; bifurcation of proceedings 491–2; confusion 490–2; counterclaims 496–9; decision enforcement 432; definition 79; evidence 492–5; high-low 12; ‘open up, review, and revise’ authority 368, 369, 432, 440, 442, 444, 491–2, 500–1, 527; Persero vs. CRW (2009) 83, 443–5; Persero vs. CRW (2011) 443, 445–51; procedural rules 594; ‘relevance to dispute’ 501; special issues 500–17; after termination of DB 370, 499–500 arbitration enforcement proceedings: counterclaims 496–9; action by arbitral tribunal 498–9; claimant (contractor) position 497; respondent (employer) position 497; Sub-Clause. 2.5 531–41 arbitrators 669, 709, 718; non-Muslim and women 96; quasi 57–9 architects 57 artificial intelligence 604–5 Ashworth, G. 161 assumpsit 52 attack-defence routine 27 Auld LJ 69, 70 Australia 5, 80–2, 86, 462–4, 483, 575 Page 784 Baker, E. 534 ‘bare notice’ 461 Bates stamp 625 Beaton, S. 600 Beijing 109 Belgium 485 Better Contracting for Underground Construction (1974) 14 bias 169, 181, 182, 184; see also conflicts of interest bill of quantities (BoQ) 557, 563, 646–9, binding decisions 115, 367, 430, 431–2, 487–8, 595, 601, 664, 683, 707–8, 740, 751; recommendations, versus 8–11; see also decisions binding recommendation (DRB) 751 board of directors 470–1 Boswell, P. 329 ‘bottom-up’ versus ‘top-down’ selection 19, 112, 385 Bowdery, Mr 60 Bowsher J (QC) 12, 61 breach of contract 643; ‘major’ versus ‘minor’ 574 Briggs CJ 591 Brougham, Lord see also ‘Lord Brougham’ Brown (Simon) LJ61–2 Brunel, I.K. 54 Building Law Reports (BLR) 62 burden of proof 327–8 bureaucratic difficulties 548, 549 Bürgerliches Gesetzbuch (BGB, Germany) 49; business efficacy test 575 Canada 105, 578, 583 Canon X board members 384–7 case law 484 cash flow 549, 561, 642–3 Centre for Effective Dispute Resolution (CEDR) 44 Chad 645–50 chairperson 112, 115, 185, 186, 312, 662, 664, 680, 697, 704, 705, 728, 729, 738, 739, 770, 774, 777, 779; failure to agree appointment 663, 663–4, 689, 705, 713; notice of termination 395; removal of DB members 391–2; role 18–19; role (hearing process) 316–18; selection 131, 187 Champion, R. 457 Channel Tunnel 18 Chapman, P.H.J. 9 ‘characterisation’ approach 80 Chern, C. 12, 62, 427, 456, 488, 510, 593 China xv, 3, 10, 50, 101, 109 civil law 48–9, 434; countries 49–50, host-country rules 97; see also common law claims 24, 25; versus ‘disputes’ 227; by employer 468; non-admission 60–2 claims, disputes, arbitration 661–6 Código Civil (Spain) 49 Colombia 603 combined dispute board (CDB) 36–7, 403–20; contemporaneous knowledge 406; decisions 752; decisions (ICC review) 761, 765, 766; establishment at outset of contract (importance) 406; ‘recommendations’ 752 Commercial Arbitration (Mustill and Boyd) 61, 80 ‘common intent’ of parties 538, 540, 541 common law 47–8, 79, 483; countries 48; versus civil law 49; host-country rules 97; see also law common mistake 581, 585–8 Common Reference Document 624–5 Commonwealth 79, 80 communications 141–2, 167–8, 373, 756; ex parte 634; impropriety 381; mistake 587; time limits 773 company registration 548, 549 Compensation Event 451, 456, 457 completion of design-build 735 Compromissum 50 concession contracts (long-lasting) 137 conciliation 13 conclusions of dispute board 760–2; admissibility in subsequent proceedings 762; contents 761; correction and interpretation 762; issuing 761; review 761; time limit 760–1 condition precedent 57, 80, 82, 454, 461–64, 469 conditional payments 76 conditions as terms of contract 574–5; express terms 574; implied terms 574–5; terms implied in fact 575 confidentiality 181–2, 383, 754, 757, 774 conflicts of interest 770–1; ‘appearance’ rule 372; DB members 371–88; disclosure 171–8; see also impartiality Congo, Republic of 86 Page 785 construction claim financing and management 605–6 construction contracts 68–9; not required to be in writing (2009–) 76 construction disputes artificial intelligence 604–5 Construction Industry Council Model Adjudication Procedure 65 construction: multinational projects 411 consultants 324, 668, 693–4, 693–4, 770–1 Consumer Price Index (CPI) 617 contemporary records 676–7, 700–1, 724–5, 735–6 contract of assignment 87 contract conditions (harmonised) 16 contract: definition 749 ‘contracting entity’ 470 contract law 47, 89, 576 contractors 208, 227; accommodation provision 287; FIDIC definition 470; general obligations 668–9, 694, 718; referrals to DBs (elements) 245–55; role in hearing process 322; working methods 286 contractor’s claims 661–2, 676–80, 699–704, 711–12, 723, 735–7; agreement or determination of claim 678–9, 702–3, 726–7; claim arising 675, 723; claims of continuing effect 679, 703, 727; contemporary records 676–7, 700–1, 724–5, 735–6; details and particulars 736–7; engineer’s initial response 676, 700; fully detailed claim 677, 701–2, 725; general requirements 679–80, 703–4, 727–8; initial response 724; notice of claim 676, 700, 724; notices 735; payment and/or EOT 675–80, 699–704; time bar 465–70 contractor’s position 497, 543–5, 647 contractor’s representative 186 contractor’s requirements 417–8 Contractor’s Risk Event (CRE) 555, 560, 563 contractual obligations 343–7, 360–1 cooperation of parties 140–1, 772 ‘corporation’ (legal entity) 470 Corpus Juris Civilis (Justinian) 48 corruption 10, 34, 426, 602 cost compensation 545–6 costs: adjudicator’s lack of power 71–2 counterclaims in enforcement proceedings 496–9, 501 Cour d’Appel (France) 86 Cour de Cassation (France) 53 Court of Appeal 58, 60, 61, 69, 591 court organisation 485 court proceedings 126 ‘crucial factual backdrop’ 514 culture 317 currency 669, 695, 764, 774 curriculum vitae 180 daily fees 143–4, 200–1, 213, 222, 416, 421, 617, 658, 670, 671, 694–5, 718–19, 746, 748, 763, 775, 775; FIDIC rates 224–6; see also expenses damages 440, 578, 579; see also rescission data checklist 644–5 Date of Commencement 135, 236, 759 Day Zero 151 ‘death, disability, resignation, termination’ 124, 133, 218, 219, 664, 664, 680, 704, 753 decision en l’état 87 decisions: CDB 36, 236, 759; DABs 155, 235; DBs 326–7; enforcement 495; failure to reach 326; key elements 330; provision of reasons 328–9; ‘not final and binding’ 515, 517, 665, 741; see also determinations decisions: statement of dispute 335–8, 332–6; contractor’s position 333–5, 351–3; dispute 333, 350–1; employer’s position 336–8, 353–5 decision time 309–10 default appointments 218–20, 410–11 defect notification 23, 557 Defects Liability Period 213 defendant rights 485 delay 464–5; ‘prospective’ versus ‘retrospective’ 466 delay damages 499; see also liquidated damages Denning LJ 471, 472 design-build approach 107 design coordination 285–6 dessaisi 87 details construction schedule (DCS) 286 determinations 103, 104, 662, 679, 682–3, 726–7; versus ‘arbitral awards’ 749; see also dispute adjudication board decision development banks 16, 17, 32–4, 413–426; ‘other dispute board uses’ 425–6; ‘other MDBs’ 424–5; WB rules 413–424; see also multilateral development banks Page 786 Di Folco, G. 438, 440 ‘directing mind’ 471, 472 disclosure 379–80, 384–5, 668, 693, 754; conflicts of interest 171–8; continuing 163, 179 disclosure form 160 disclosure statement (including acceptance) 620–1 ‘displacement of prevention’ principle 459 Dispute Adjudication Agreement (DAA) 187–9, 45, 138–9, 517, 522–3, 774–6; all three persons signing one agreement 613–19; failure to agree establishment of dispute board 208–9; form one-person 190–1; form three person 191–3; one-person DAB (FIDIC) 607–8; three-person DAB (FIDIC) 608–10 Dispute Adjudication Agreement general conditions 663, 666–71, 703–4, 738; default of member 671, 696, 720; definitions 666–7, 682, 692; disputes 671, 696, 720; employer/contractor obligations 668–9; general provisions 667, 692–3, 616–17; payment of DAB members 669–70, 694–5, 718–19; member obligations 667; termination 671; warranties 667, 693, 717 Dispute Adjudication Agreement general obligations of DAB member 668, 693–4, 717–18; of employer and contractor 668–9, 694, 718 Dispute Avoidance/Adjudication Agreement 215–18 Dispute Avoidance and Adjudication Board (DAAB) 35–6; dispute board rules 117–18; no DAAB in place 500 dispute adjudication board (DAB) 35–6, 528–31, 600, 750, 751, 769; appointment 475–8, 662–3, 680–1, 688–9, 704–5, 712–13, 728–9, 738–9, 743; CDB decisions (draft for review for ICC) 761; composition 32; date of referral of dispute 482–3; dispute synopsis document 636–41; dispute-avoidance role 602; expenses (security) 659; expiry of appointment;(Cl. 20.8) 533, 664, 666, 681, 681, 692, 710, 710, 716, 734, 742–3; failure to appoint 208–9, 441, 479–81, 500, 517, 520–1, 530, 663–4, 681–2, 705–6, 713–14, 729–30, 739, 742–3, 743–4, 743–4; flexibility 602; forcing a DAB 479–81; formal referral of disputes for decision 776–7; formation 39–43; informal opinion/assistance 230–2, 295, 567–71; as inquisitor 483–6; international use 6, 12; jurisdiction 482, 653, 672, 697, 721; jurisdiction challenges 517–71; ‘not arbitrators’ 115, 122, 483, 486, 664, 684, 708, 740; obtaining decision 481–2, 664–5, 666, 682–4, 690–1, 706–8, 706–10, 714–15, 730–2, 739–40, 742, 745; payment (Red Book versus Yellow Book) 476–7; Persero No 1 case 507; procedural rules 198, 204–6; replacement member 738; request for informal opinion 630; sample member agreement (no monthly retainer) 657–60; site visit schedule 271–3; sole-member 117–18, 122, 124, 662, 663, 680, 681, 704–5, 738, 739, 743, 752, 757, 759, 760, 777 see also (adjudicators); subcontractor claims 25; subcontractors 23–5; temporarily binding decisions 95; termination 500; term of office (Red Book versus Yellow Book) 477; three- member 118, 219, 657, 662, 663, 664, 666, 672, 673, 680, 681, 683, 696, 697, 704–5, 720, 721, 738, 743, 769, 770, 774; see also time limit dispute adjudication board decision 523–4, 535–41, 546–66, 673, 697, 721, 731–2, 751, 769, 774; 90-day deadline 778; ‘binding but not final’ 505, 506, 511, 513; enforcement 505–6, 508, 512, 514, 602; failure to comply 495, 666, 685–6, 691–2, 710, 733–4, 741, 741; ‘held for ransom’ 477; ICC review 761, 765, 766; pitfalls 481–90; ‘reaching’ versus ‘communicating’ 479; see also dispute board decision dispute adjudication board decision case studies: Case Study No 2 546–66; Claim No 1 547–50, 555–8, 558–60, 565; Claim No 2 550–3, 558–60, 564–6; contractor’s position 555–6, 558–9; decision 565; discussion and findings 560–5; employer’s position 559–60; evidence presented 554–5; general facts 547; hearings 554, 555, 557; history 547; jurisdiction 555; procedural matters 554; site visits 555 dispute adjudication board decision sample format 655–50; contractor’s position 647; decision 650; discussion 648–50; dispute 648; employer’s position 646–7; history 646; issues for determination 648 Page 787 dispute adjudication board decision template 651–7; annexures 655–7; chronology of adjudication 655; chronology of events 654; contract and parties 652; DAB jurisdiction 653; disputes 652; decisions sought 653; decisions (summary) 654–5; documentation (relevant) summary 656; introduction 652–3; positions of parties 654; procedural aspects (assessment) 654; project 652; purpose 652; substantive aspects 654; summary background 653; table of contents 651–2 dispute adjudication board grouping of disputes 641–4; documents only 642–3; referrals with hearing 643 dispute adjudication board guidelines and operating procedures 152–8; checklist for submissions 157–8; decisions 155; referral of disputes 153–6; reporting 153; site visits 153 dispute adjudication board members 115, 662–3, 780; appointment 752–3; death, disability, resignation, termination 664, 680, 704; default 671, 696, 720; general obligations 668, 693–4, 717; independence challenged 771; invoices 775–6; payment 220–6, 669–70, 694–5, 718–19; record of claims form 258–61; replacement 664, 680, 704, 738, 770; resignation 667, 671, 696, 719, 776; see also dispute board members dispute adjudication board member’s agreement 139–40, 771–2; date of commencement 769; Gold Book (sample form) 745–7; unilateral dispute boards 211–15 dispute adjudication board rules for use in independently administered DB matters (DBF) 137–49; agreement to submit to rules 137; application of rules 149; appointing body: administrative expenses 148–9; appointment of DB members 138; conflicts of interest 138–9; cooperation of parties 140; DB activities (beginning and end) 142; DB members: payment 143–4; DB powers 142–3; decisions 147–8; exclusion of liability 149, 780; hearings (organisation and conduct 146–7; meetings and site visits 141; procedures before DB 145–6; response and additional documentation 146; written notifications or communications (time limits) 141–2 dispute advisory board 43 dispute board (DB) decision 147–8, 778–9; admissibility in subsequent proceedings 148, 779; contents 157, 778; correction and interpretation 148, 779; making 779; sent by electronic mail (receipt requested) 489; time limit 147, 778; see also final and binding decision dispute board decision non-acceptance 367; amicable settlement 388; arbitration 368–70; arbitration after termination of DB 370; notice of dissatisfaction 367–8 Dispute Board Federation (DBF, Geneva) 5, 11, 17, 122–3, 410; acknowledged 769, 780; ad hoc rules and procedures 130; approved adjudicators 114, 183, 183, 371, 770; comparison chart 130–6; Corporate Member Panel 114, 184; default appointments (to DB) 410–11; Newsletter 438, 440514; training and accreditation 371, 410; website 123, 781 dispute board 2–4 dispute board members 749; acceptance letter (upon appointment) 223–4; agreements 139–40, 607–21, 754, 771–2; appointment 131, 770; default 389; disclosure questionnaire 171–8; hearings (fair and diligent conduct) 382; independence challenged 754; invoices (failure to be paid) 764; lists 183; non- performing 391–3; obligations 755–6; party-appointed 384–8; payment 132, 143–4, 220–6, 774–6; possible sources 183; powers 757; qualification, training, certification 183–4; qualities 20; removal 133; replacement 133, 226, 753; resignation 776; resignation, death, disability, refusal to act 218; role in hearing process 318–20; termination 226, 389; training programmes 409; withdrawal 380; see also dispute adjudication board members dispute board members additional qualifications 179–3; availability 181; confidentiality 181–2; experience 180; miscellaneous attributes 182; qualifications 179–80; understanding 179 dispute board members conflicts of interest 371–88; developed during hearings 373; ethical requirements of board members 375–7; evident partiality 373–4; evident Page 788 partiality standard (interpretation) 374–5; pre-existing conflicts of interest 372; waiver 372 dispute board members notice of termination 393–5; by DB chairperson 395; by member 394–5; by parties 393–4 dispute board members removal 389–97; adding new board members during proceedings 393; clauses 391–2; consequences 392–3; contract provisions 389–90; non-voluntary removal 391; removal by chair 391–2; removal by other board members 392; voluntary mutual termination agreement 396–7; voluntary removal 390–1; voluntary resignation 396; dispute board process 377–9; dispute board rules 114–18 dispute board members selection 159–226; party approval 185–7; identifying third person 186; impartiality versus independence 169–78; independence 159–78; independence: guidance as to avoidance of bias provided by appointing bodies 163–9; lawyers as board members 187; need for continuing disclosure 178 see also (ethics); parties agree on two and those two nominate third 185–6; parties’ joint selection 185; parties select chairperson who then chooses other two members 185, 186; parties select from a range and selected two nominate third 185, 186; people skills159, 179, 187; qualifications 159–83; selecting chairperson 187 dispute board rules: custom formats 137–58; basic standards 149–50; DAB: additional guidelines and procedures 152–8; DAB rules 137–49; DB guidelines in practice 150–8; DRB: additional guidelines and procedures 150–1 dispute boards: activities (beginning and end) 756–7, 774; administrative assistance from appointing body 134; appointment and establishment 111–58; appointment and membership 19–20; appointment failure 132; versus ‘arbitral tribunals’ 749; case histories 99–110; case studies 518–41; common aspects 37–8; comparison chart 130–6; composition 111; composition and operation 17–22; concept 1–34; contemporary legal development 54–62; contractual provisions (actual practice) 517–71; costs 29–30; deadline for decision/termination 134; definition 750; determinations 760–2; dispute referral 133; early appointment and regular site visits (importance) 20–1; effect of decision/determination 135; elements (origins) 59; embedded (establishment and role) 599–603; emerging- market infrastructure projects 593–606; establishment 752–3; expense 30; failure to appoint 752; failures (perceived) 32–4; formal versus informal operations 25–8; formation 39–43; form of, and instruction for, findings and recommendations 206–7; future 34; ‘generic term’ 5; growth 16–17; hearing agenda (claim presented) 628–9; history 13–16, 44–7; host-country rules 97; incorporation into project 604; internal meetings 763; international aspects 34; international cases 79–84; legal basis 47–97; meetings (frequency) 603; miscellaneous situations 114; nature 3–5; ‘no disputes whatsoever’ 31; one-member 111, 750, 752, 760, 760; in operation (special factors) 101, 102–3, 103–4, 105; operation 756–7; origins 5; ‘other uses’ 425–6; payments 208; philosophy 6–7; post-DB matters 412; powers 757, 774; procedures 28–9, 759–60, 776–8; rebuttals 628–9; referral notice 236–7; routine operations 21–2, 26; sectors covered 5; successes 30–2; three-member 112, 750, 752–3, 761, 778; time limit for rendering decision 760–1, 778; two-member 111–12; types 35–45; USA 5; what is 4–5, written decisions 28; uniqueness 8 dispute boards use, training and current practice 399–412; DB member-training programmes 409; DBF 410; default appointments 410–11; FIDIC 409–10; ICC, ICE, WB 410; maritime industry DBs 399–409; post-DB matters 412; practice in USA 411; use of DBs in other settings 409 dispute mediation board 44–5 dispute mediation panels 114 dispute ‘panel’ 78 dispute referral procedure 422–3 Dispute Resolution Board Federation (DRBF, Seattle) xvii , 5, 184; code of ethics 163; Page 789 comparison chart 130–6; handbook (2007) 412; list of approved dispute adjudicators 183, 371; manual (no date) 130; training programmes 409; website 781; see also Dispute Review Boards dispute resolution flow chart 100 dispute review board dispute hearings: procedures 623–8; disputes involving subcontractors 627; documentation 624–5; DRB deliberations 627; DRB Report 627–8; position papers 625; presentation of dispute 626; redundant evidence and oral statements 627; statement of dispute 625 dispute review boards (DRBs) 35, 600, 750–1; advisory opinions: procedures 623; board member’s declaration of acceptance (form) 414–5; guidelines 150–1; meetings 622; meetings: agenda 623; meetings: minutes 623; operating procedures 150–1, 621–8; rebuttals 624, 626; recommendations 750; US-style 13–14 dispute review experts (DREs) 419–424; conduct of hearings 423; declaration of acceptance 424; dispute referral procedure 422–3; payment 421–2; rules and procedures 420–3; site visits 422 dispute submission timetable 631–5; day 1 (commencement of referral) 631; day 14 (referring party submits SOC) 632; day 28 (RSOC due) 632; day 42 (requests for further clarification due) 632; day 56 (responses to further requests due) 632; day 70 (hearing convenes) 633; day 84 (DB recommendation/decision published) 633–4; other matters 634–5; ‘principal presenter’ 634; see also time limit dispute synopsis document 635–41; abbreviations 640; financial disputes 637, 640; general issues 637, 640; outstanding issues and disputes 637–9; preparation of document 639–40; scope and purpose of document 636–7; submission 636; technical issues and disputes 637, 640 disputes 671, 696, 720; arising during operation service period 742, 744–5, 742, 681; avoidance 118, 730; case study 543–6; definition 750; disagreement about existence of dispute ‘in itself a dispute’ 482; existence 65–68, 427–31, 482; ‘flexible approach’ 66–7; ICC definition 228; versus ‘misunderstandings’ 227, 231; ‘narrow’ versus ‘wide’ definitions 66, 428; ‘not defined’ 482; setting out 256 dissenting opinion 207, 326, 508, 627, 673, 657, 721, 661, 778; see also unanimity Diwan Al-Mazalim : Commercial Circuit (CC) 93, 94 Docklands Light Railway 3, 17, 104 documentation 29, 30, 70–12, 75, 236, 312–13, 322–3, 364, 417–9, 624–5, 644, 672, 696–7, 720, 757; additional 146, 759, 777; core 636; summary 656 ‘documents-only’ procedure 262, 633, 642–3 drawing information ‘late’ 285 droit coutumier 49 due process 485 duty of care 580 duty of good faith 82, 83, 575 Dyson LJ 162–3 Early Case Assessment 598 Early Dispute Resolution (EDR) 598 Eastern Europe 18, 603 effet utile 540 Eisenhower Tunnel 14, 600 electronic mail 489 Employer List of Persons (ELP) 334, 344 employers 210, 334; action or inaction giving rise to contractor claims 468; general obligations 668–9, 694, 718; referrals to DBs 255, 730–1 employer’s claims 675–80, 711–12, 723, 737–8; agreement or determination of claim 678–9, 702–3, 726–7; claim arising 675, 723; claims of continuing effect 679, 703, 727; contemporary records 676–7, 700–1, 724–5; engineer’s initial response 676, 700; fully detailed claim 677, 701–2, 725; general requirements 679–80, 703–4, 727–8; initial response 724; notice of claim 676, 700, 724; payment and/or EOT 675–80, 699–704 employer’s position 545–6, 646–7 Employer’s Representative (ER) 248, 252, 260, 740 Employer’s Representative’s Response 727, 731, 732, 736–7 Employer’s Risk Event (ERE) 555, 556, 560, 563, 564 employment relationship 166–7 Page 790 enforcement issues 427–51; arbitration 432–3; decisions: when enforceable 431–2; existence of dispute to enforce 427–31; new developments 433–8; recent developments 438–42; trend 443–51 engineer 227, 233–4; arbitrator as judge 54–7; as quasi-arbitrator 57–3; role in hearing process 321 engineering design issues 284–5 Engineer’s Representative 301, 648–50 England 78, 104, 108, 112–13, 575 England and Wales 76, 660; Department of Environment 65 equipment depreciation 555 Ertan Dam 3, 9, 101 ethics 163–9, 375–7, 413–4 Etihad Rail Network 109 Eurotunnel 108 ‘event’ or ‘circumstance’ 465, 466, 467; acquisition of knowledge at contractor 470–4; see also time limit evidence 322–3, 492–5, 627 evidence list 267–8 evidence presented 554–5 evident partiality 373–5 ex bon viri Arbitrato 52 ex libero Arbitrio 52 executive tribunal 13 expenses 2143 222, 224–5, 383–4, 670, 671, 695, 695, 719, 763–4, 772, 775; see also fees experience180, 182 expert determination 12 Expert Resolution Process 81 expert witnesses 324, 495 experts 79–80, 243 express terms 574 extension of time (EOT) 301–2, 458, 461–64, 466–7, 472–3, 535, 621, 662, 699, 700, 723; see also additional payment fact 64, 68, 514, 575, 576, 580–1, 624 fair dealing (USA) 575 family 171–3 Fédération Internationale Des Ingénieurs-Conseils see FIDIC fees 214, 774–6; see also monthly retainer fee FIDIC (International Federation of Consulting Engineers, Geneva) xvii , 14, 342, 376, 409–10; acknowledged 661, 673, 697, 710, 721; DBM removal (consequences) 392–3; default appointments (to DB) 411; payments 221–2; sample forms (Gold Book) 745–7; time limit for decision 309, 325–6; website 781 FIDIC Contracts: differences from AAA procedures 126–9; dispute avoidance points 118–21 FIDIC President 189, 520–1, 524, 528–31, 536, 538–4, 541, 547, 744 FIDIC President’s List of Approved Adjudicators 114, 183–4, 371, 409–10 file transfer protocol (ftp) 314 final award 508–9, 515 final and binding decision 444, 451, 487, 515–17, 528, 531, 665, 683, 708, 709, 740; 28-day limit to contest 482; versus ‘binding but not yet final’ decision 505, 506, 511; see also ‘hearings: decisions/recommendations’ final partial award 440 financial charges 564 financial disputes 637, 640 financial interest [personal profit motive] 176, 668, 693, 717, 770 ‘financing charges’ 546, 673, 697, 721 flexibility (DRBs) 622 force majeure 519, 519, 596 France 49, 47, 86–8, 102, 108, 485, 540 France: Cour de Cassation 87 France: Tribunal de Commerce 88 fraud 79, 578 fraud in factum 576 fraud in inducement 576 fraudulent misrepresentation 577 ‘fraudulent practice’ 426 free rides 372, 373 frustration 588–91 Fry J 578 full disclosure 170–1 fumus boni juris 437 functus officio 426 Furmston, M. 590 general disputes 637, 640 General Electric (GE) Company 598 general operational procedure checklist 621–60 Germany 49, 102, 484–5; conciliation proceedings 85; dispute boards (legal basis) 85–6 Germany: Bundesgerichtshof (Federal Supreme Court) 85–6 Page 791 Germany: Tax Consultant Board 85 Gharar 96 Gibraltar 82, 465 Gould, N. 564, 488, 501 Grand Abridgement (Shepherd, 1675) 51 Greece (modern) 50, 85 Greece and Rome (ancient) 50 gross negligence 578 hearing notice 315 hearing process 309–370; additional claims 325; additional documentation requests 325–6; deliberations after hearing 326; guidelines for operation 320–1; handling and hearing evidence 322–3; hearing preparation 309–13; language 310; multinational practice 317; objections from parties 323–4; preliminary determinations 313; role of chair 316–18; role of contractor 322; role of engineer 321; role of other members 318; role of owner/employer 322; use of consultants/expert witnesses 324 hearing process: preparation process steps (parties and DB members) 313–16; claim hearing agenda 316; document receipt schedule 314–15; hearing notice 315 hearing room layout 3019–20 hearings 26–8, 155, 238–9, 242–3, 291–2, 305–6, 419, 668, 669, 671, 672–3, 694, 696, 718, 721, 753, 757, 763, 775; grouping of disputes 643; organisation and conduct 146–7, 423, 759–60, 777–8; transcript 627 hearings: decision process decision itself 329; making and writing decision 329–64; proof 327–8; provision of reasons 328–9; reaching decision 326–7; time requirements 329–64; writing decision 328–9 hearings: decisions/recommendations analysis and findings 338–41, 355–8; certification 348, 364; cover page 331; DAB decision difference 364–6; discussion 341–7, 358–63; dissenting opinions 347–8, 363; DRB recommendations 347; failure to reach 326; introduction 331–2; key elements 330; non-acceptance of DB decision 367; recommendations 363; statement of dispute 333–8, 350–5; see also interim-binding decision hearsay evidence 485 Higher Regional Court of Frankfurt/Main 86 holidays (official) 142, 756, 773 Honduras: El Cajon Dam 14 Hong Kong 482–3; disputes review group (DRG) 17, 103, 112 Hong Kong Airport (Chek Lap Kok) 3, 103, 1124, 402 hourly rates 222 house-builders 582–3, 589–90 House of Lords 59, 77, 78, 160, 161, 461 Housing Grants, Construction and Regeneration Act (HGCRA, 1996): adjudication process 70–3; changes 75–7; contract in writing within meaning of s.107 69–70; disputes under construction contracts 68–9; main areas (existence of ‘dispute’) 65–8; mandatory provisions 63; Part 8 proceedings 72; process 63–64 Hudson’s Building Contracts (HBC; 4th Edition, 1914) 58 Huggins J 591 Hyderabad Metro 109 IFCs 598 impartiality 64, 64, 379–80, 667, 672, 693, 696, 717, 720, 743, 778; appearance 160–9; versus independence 169–78; ‘latent’ versus ‘patent’ bias 159–60; ‘neutrality’ 385–8; see also independence implied terms 72, 73, 342–3, 359–60, 574–5, 588–9 impossibility 588 impropriety 167–8 inadmissibility 87 independence 159–78, 382–3, 667, 693, 717, 753–4; full disclosure 170–1; guidance as to avoidance of bias provided by appointing bodies 163–9; versus impartiality 169–78; written disclosure (ICC rules) 170; see also bias India 575 Indonesia 508 informal assistance/advice 136, 230–2, 295, 413, 567–71, 630, 758, 776 infrastructure projects (long lifespan) 593, 599, ‘innominate’ term 574 inquisitorial role 64, 71, 75, 483–6, 672, 696, 720 Institute of Chartered Accountants (Australia) 81 Institute of Chartered Arbitrators (Australia) 81 Page 792 Institution of Civil Engineers (ICE) 13, 70, 114, 220, 372, 411; list of approved dispute adjudicators 183, 411; website 781 insurance 29, 32 interest 87, 434–5, 437, 488, 505, 523, 536, 541, 546, 591, 764 interim awards 433–8, 441–51 interim-binding decision 10–11, 601, 603; see also recommendations interim claims 662, 678, 703, 726–7 ‘interim measure’ 442 Interim Partial Award 34, 451 interim payment 703 interim payment certificates (IPCs) 557, 567, 638, 642 international cases 79–84 International Centre for Settlement of Investment Disputes (ICSID, WB) 220; ICSID Administrative and Financial Regulations 416; ICSID Arbitrator’s Daily Fee 416, 421; ICSID rates 222 International Chamber of Commerce (ICC, Paris) xvii , 1–2, 410, 412, 5601; administrative expenses 765; appointment and establishment of dispute boards 123–5; comparison chart 130–6; default appointments (to DB) 410–11; does (not) maintain list of recommended arbitrators 183, 371, 410; pre-arbitral referee clause 86–7; website 781 ICC Arbitration Commission: Working Group on DBs 399 ICC DB Centre 124–5, 749, 753, 761, 765, 766 ICC International Court of Arbitration (Paris) 1–2, 412, 433, 508, 744 international competitive bidding (ICB) 600 International Federation of Consulting Engineers see FIDIC International Institute for Conflict Prevention and Resolution (CPR) 598 interpreter witnesses: oaths and affirmations 767–8 Iran 96–7 Israel 575 issue list 267 Istanbul: Marmaray Metro System 109 Italy 102 James, Sir M.W. 57 Jarrosson, C. 87–8 JCT 1988 Edition with Contractor’s Design 161 Joint Consulting Board (USA) 13 joint ventures 8, 101, 103, 193, 248, 411, 470, 611 Jones, D. 511 judicial appraisal 12 judge and counsel: role 485 judges: bouche de loi (France) 49 juge de référés 88 jurisdiction challenges: Case Study No 1 518–41; appropriate action 524; background 518–7; conflict between Sub-Cls 2.5 and 15.4 533–5; DAA 522–3; DAB 528–31; DAB decision: enforcement 541; DAB decisions 523–4; first decision 523; second decision 523–4, 528; DAB’s decisions 535–41; expiry of DAB’s appointment (Cl. 20.8) 508, 692, 734; issues 524; jurisdiction of arbitral tribunal 524–8; jurisdiction of arbitral tribunal (Sub-Cl. 2.5) 531–8; payment after termination (Sub-Cl. 15.4) 532–3; jurisdiction challenges: Case Study No 2 542–66; Claim No 1 542, 543–4; Claim No 2 542, 544–5; contractor’s position 543–5; cost compensation 545–6; DAB decision 547–66; decisions 542; disputes 543–6; employer’s position 545–6; events leading to claims 543–5; history 542–3; jurisdiction challenges: Case Study No 3 566–71; advanced payment deduction 568–9; informal opinion 567–71; informal opinion request 567–8; lack of certification by Engineer 569–71 jury trial 11, 485 Katse Dam Project (1993–7) 3, 102 knowledge of disputed facts 176 ‘knowledge of truth’ defence 576 Knutson, R. 54 Koch, C. 399 labour 333–8, 561–3 Lal, H. 459, 461, 464 Lamme, A.N. 459 land surveys 543 Länder 85 Landolt & Koch (Geneva) 399 landslide 590–1 Langelaar, A. van 651 language 665, 682, 709, 741, 744, 753, 757, 770, 774 Page 793 LAPSSET Project 109 late claims 341–2, 358–9 late decisions 478–9 Latham Report (1994) 63 law 64, 665, 682, 709, 741; ‘adversarial’ versus ‘inquisitorial systems’ 49, 483–6; case law 484; court organisation 485; defendant rights 485; examination phase 484; investigation 484; judge and counsel: role 485; juries 485; rules of evidence 485; trial 484; see also civil law Law Times 58 lawyers 172–5, 187, 625, 744; hearings, at 324–5 legal systems 47–9 Lesotho 102 Letter of Tender 470 LIBOR 764 liquidated damages 458–9, 463, 464, 639, 643; same as ‘delay damages’ 535 lis (lawsuit) 56 litigation 2 ‘little favours’ 373 Lloyd (H.) (QC) HHJ 67, 161, 488 London 482–3 London Court of International Arbitration 412 London Crossrail 109–10 Longmore LJ 60–1 Lord Advocate for Scotland 165; Lord Brougham 55 Lord Campbell 53 Lord Coke 51, 52 Lord Colman 87–8 Lord Donaldson 3 Lord Einstein 82 Lord Esher MR 58, 60 Lord Hoffmann 161 Lord Hope 161 Lord Leverhulme 586 Lord Loreburn 589 Lord Mustill 54, 78 Lord Reid [1954] 578 Lord Reid [1971] 471 Lord (Viscount) Simon 589; Lord Watson 589 Lord Woolf 17 Lord Wright MR 578 Mariam El-Awa 88 marine construction industry 399, 401–2 maritime disputes: categories 400–1 maritime industry dispute boards 399–409; DB in operation 406–9; ICC DB Rules 401–10; ICC DB Rules: sample scenario 403–4; non- binding recommendations 404; setting up DB 404–6 material fact 576 Mathews, A. 14 matters of principle 264 McBurn J 646 mediation 1; ‘facilitative’ versus ‘evaluative’ 12; non-evaluative 26; as part of DB and partnering committee 598–9; see also dispute mediation board mediation clause 81–2 Medupi Power Station 110 meetings 141, 755–6, 757–8, 772–3, 774 mega-member dispute boards 112–13 Mellish (Sir G) LJ 51 member acceptance 414–5 member payment 416–7 MFIs 425 micro dispute boards 113 MIGA [Multilateral Investment Guarantee Agency, WB]: Office of Compliance Adviser/Ombudsman 598 ‘minor adjustments during construction phase’ 552 misrepresentation 69, 573, 575–81; definition 549; distinctions 577–3; express false representations 578–9; implied misrepresentations 579–80; innocent misrepresentations 580; misstatements of law versus fact 580–1; negligent misrepresentations 580 mistake 573, 581–91; common mistake 585–8; definition 581; versus frustration and impossibility 588–91; mutual mistake 584–5, 586–7; unilateral mistake 581–4 monthly retainer fee 143–4, 200–1, 212–13, 221–2, 421–2, 616–17, 657–60, 669–70, 671, 746, 747, 754, 763, 775, 771, 774–5; FIDIC rates 224–5; phasing out 416–7; see also performance security Motiwala, K. 159 motorways 543, 547–66 multilateral development banks (MDBs) 16, 23, 121–2, 424–5; listed 425; see also World Bank mutual mistake 581, 584–5, 587 Page 794 Namibia 84, 110 Napoleonic Code 49, 53 National Committee on Tunneling Technology (USA) 11 nationality 120, 138, 753, 770 National Petroleum Company of the Congo (SNCP) 86 natural disaster 590–1 ‘natural impulse’ (Frankfurt) 86 natural justice 72, 509 natural law 49 NEC 3: eight-week deadline 456 NEC Users’ Group Newsletter 456 Neckartal Dam 110 negative liquidity 84 negligence 69, 80 negligent misrepresentation 578, 580 nemo sua judex in sua causa 56, 161 neutral fact-finder 13 New South Wales 80, 463 new trends 593–606; partnering committees and dispute boards in emerging-market infrastructure projects 593–606; partnering committees: composition and role 597–8; PPPs 593–7 Niagara Tunnel 105 nominating bodies 114 non-business days 756, 773 non-disclosure 580 non haec in foedera veni 589 Nosworthy, I.D. 81 Notice of Claim 228, 335, 430 notice of default 638, 643 notice of dispute 228, 422–3, 631–2 notice of dissatisfaction (NOD) 100, 135–6, 235, 367–8, 430–8, 440, 442–5, 448, 450, 488–90, 515–16, 523–5, 528–31, 541, 730–1, 732, 737–41, 750–1; 56-day deadline for reference to arbitration 527; 70-day limit 503; see also time limit notice of termination 535 oaths 317–18, 554, 767–8 obligation to cooperate 755–6 ‘obvious slip’ 72 officious bystander test 575 Operation Service DAB 116; member 742 Operative Service DAB Agreement (Gold Book sample form) 747–8 Operation Service Period 742, 745 oral statements 627 owner/employer: role in hearing process 322 Owner’s Representative 186, 237, 239, 276, 290 Oxford English Dictionary 482 pacta sunt servanda principle 50, 56 Panama Canal Upgrade 108 Paris 744 Parke, Baron 459 partial awards 440, 441, 442, 446, 511 partial disclosure 580 partial truth 577 partnering committees: composition and role 597–8; emerging-market infrastructure projects 593–606; incorporation into project 604 ‘pay when certified’ clauses 76 payment arrangements 764–5 Payment Certificate 662, 679, 737, 738 payment notices 77 ‘pay now, argue later’ 492 ‘pay when paid’ clauses 23, 76 PDF files 314 people skills 159, 179, 187 performance security/bond 408–9, 462, 523, 536; see also security periodical site visits (PSV) 304 Persero No 1 case Court of Appeal 507–14; judge’s decision 509–14; ‘second dispute’ (issue) 509; Sub-Cl. 20.6 error 514–15; Sub-Cl. 20.7 error 515–17 Phillips, Mr 61 Pinochet, General A. 161; precedent 48 prevention principle 462, 464 ‘primary presenter’ 624, 626 ‘principal presenter’ 634 ‘principle’ v ‘ quantum ’ separation 27 privacy and confidentiality 158, 668, 694, 718, 771 Private Finance Initiative (PFI) 18, 57 private sector 593–5 Privy Council 575 procedural aspects (assessment) 654 ‘Procurement Document for Procurement of Works and Users’ Guide’ (2004, 2010) 121 productivity 563 professional relationships 175 profit 33, 546, 560, 561, 646 programmes 301 project data 644–5 Page 795 project development committees 597 Project Engineer 629 Project Mediators (CEDR) 44 proof 327–8 provider organization 176–7 provisional awards 446, 451 provision of reasons 328–9 proximate cause 464 Public Private Partnerships (PPPs) 17, 593–7 public sector 595–7 quantum 556, 558, 564634 quantum meruit 589 question of fact 68 railways 17 rainfall 466, 467–8, 470, 486, 643 ratio decidendi 58 reasoned decision 486–7 recommendations 35–7, 101, 102, 150–1, 347; CDB 236, 759; binding decisions, and 8–11; DABs 239; DRBs 245; non-binding 9–10, 404, 601; see also binding decisions record of claims form258–61 recording (audio/video) 627 référé provision 435, 437, 448, 504 referral to dispute board 227–44; DB referral notice 236–7; duties of parties 240–2; formal 233–6; informal 230–2; notification of dispute 229–30; procedural requirements 237–40; ‘referring party’ versus ‘responding party’ 238; request for informal opinion 232; starting process (informal vs. formal) 227–9; timetable and details 237–40; witnesses and witness statements 242–44 referral to dispute board: DAB member form 258–61; elements 245–68; evidence list 267–8; issue list 267; preliminary matters and setting out dispute 256; preliminary notice 245–6; record of claims form 258–61; referral by contractors 245–55; referral by employer 255; sample referrals 247–55, 261–6; sequence of events 256–7 referral of dispute to DAB 289–90, 730–1; date of receipt 482–3; ‘must state that it is given under Cl. 20.4’ 487; procedure 303–7; referring party 632; versus ‘responding party’ 238 ‘relevant trade usages’ 494 reporting 153 requests for information (RFIs) 468 rescission 575, 576, 578, 580, 586, 591; see also damages res judicata 56, 87, 447 resources 781 responding party 632 ‘retention money’ 546, 557, 563 RIBA 70, 114, 161–2, 410 RICS 70, 114, 410, 781 ‘rules of construction’ 464 rules of evidence 29, 485 rules of law 459 Russell, V. 64 Russian Federation 85 safety 279 Salt Lake City 107 Saltend 3, 104–5, 112–13 Saudi Arabia 95–6 Scheme for Construction Contracts (England and Wales) Regulations (1998): procedures 73; adjudicators powers and duties 74–5; appointment of adjudicator 74; notice of adjudication 73; referral notice 74 Scotland 76, 463, 479 Scrutton LJ 575 Section 110A Notices (2009–) 77 security (for payments) 214, 512, 639, 669; see also daily fees separation of powers 49 Seppälä, C. R. 433, 437, 438, 461, 501, 513, 525, 534–5, 603 sequence of events 256–7 Shapiro, D. 578 sharia law 88–97; dispute review board decisions 94; dispute adjudication board decisions 95; enforcement provisions 93–4; form of dispute board decision 95; history 89–93; host-country rules 97 Shepherd, W. 51, 79 shipyards 399–400 Singapore Court of Appeal 446, 506, 508, 513 Singapore High Court 83, 443, 446, 506 site conditions 459–60 site possession 542–66 site visit agendas: establishment 273–5; first meeting 629; formats 274–5; general 275–6 site visit reports 281–308; appendices 288–5, 302–8; DB observations 287–8, 300–1; description of activities 297–9; matters of Page 796 concern 284–7, 299–300; ‘other matters’ 288, 292–3, 302; status of works 283–4, 299 site visits 141, 153, 220–1, 256–7, 269–308, 406–7, 422, 668–70, 671–2, 694, 718, 755, 757, 758, 763, 772–3; checklist for submissions 307–8; concept 269; contractual requirements 269–71; criticism by DB members 279; handling conflicts 280; handling evidence 279–80; handling hostile parties 280–1; minutes 629; practice and procedure 278; preparation 271–3; schedule (DAB) 271–3 Six Sigma Quality Initiative 598 Smith, G. 464 Smyth, T. 647 South Africa 79, 86, 110 Spencer, J.R. 485 stakeholders 593–606 ‘Standing Board’ 476 ‘standing dispute board’ 113, 593 stare decisis et non quieta movere 47 Statement of Case/Claim (SOC) 146, 154, 155, 157–8, 235, 238, 241, 294, 305, 306, 307–8, 407, 408, 632, 634, 752; contents 758–9, 776–7 Statement of Case: Response (RSOC) 146, 154, 155, 157, 236, 238, 290–1, 305–6, 407, 632, 633, 752; contents 759, 777 Statement of Case: Rebuttal to RSOC (RRSOC) 155, 238, 305–6, 633 Statement of Case: Reply to RRSOC (RRRSOC) 239, 306, 633 statement of disputes 241 ‘steering’ committee (infrastructure projects) 593, 597 subcontractors 22–5, 66, 76, 627; claims to DAB 25; FIDIC Conditions 22–25; information provision 24 subcontracts: ‘back-to-back’ basis 23 suits at common law (USA) 11 Sulser, P.O. 593 surveyors 80; see also RICS Taking-Over Certificate 213, 225, 248–55, 416–7, 422, 638, 642, 669, 775 taxes 422, 477, 670, 695, 719, 764, 775 T & C Consortium (TCC) 655–50; technical assistance contract 526; technical disputes 637, 640 Technology and Construction Bar Association (TECBAR) 70, 114, 184 Technology and Construction Court (TCC, UK) 82, 465 TeCSA 114 tender price: mathematical errors 582 tenders 29 Tercier, P. 86–7 termination 23, 415 Terms of Appointment 621–1 terms implied in fact 575 Terms of Reference (for arbitration) 514 Three-Party Agreement (TPA) 332, 348, 621, 629 Tiggeman, M. 438, 440, 442 time 141–2, 309–10, 329–30; see also extension of time time-bar clauses 453–79; amicable settlement 490; appointment of DAB: issues 475–8; binding decision 487–8; delay: impact on critical path 464–5; dissatisfaction with decision 488–90; event or circumstance (acquisition of knowledge at the contractor) 470–4; failure to agree a DAB 479–81, 689–90; FIDIC Cl. 20 454–7, 459; FIDIC Gold Book 457–64; forcing a DAB 479–81; late decisions 478–9; NEC 3 (2005) 456, 459, 462; reasoned decision 486–7 time for completion 453, 454, 458–9, 464, 472, 473 time extension see extension of time time impact analysis 542, 555 ‘time at large’ 458–9, 464 time limit: 28 days to contest ‘final and binding decision’ 482; for correction of clerical, computational, or typographical error 779; after deadline for DAB decision 481; from ‘event’ or ‘circumstance’ 335, 454, 455, 455, 465–70, 471–3, 469–70, 661, 676, 700, 724; for notice by contractor (NSW) 464; for notice of dissatisfaction with DAB’s decision 481, 488–9, 506, 664–5, 684, 708, 740; after notification of dispute for DAB appointment 476, 481–2, 680, 707, 725, 740; for notification by subcontractor to main contractor’s representative 461; for notifying a claim for EoT: commencement 465–70, 471, 473; UK 478; see also dispute submission timetable time limit: 30 days for correction of clerical, computational or typographical error 762; for ICC DB Centre to review a DB decision Page 797 761; for NOD with DAB decision 751; for NOD with DRB recommendation 750–1 time limit: 42 days to agree replacement member of DAB 664, 680, 705, 739; for DAB appointment 518, 521, 527–31, 536–8, 540; after ‘event’ or ‘circumstance’ for submission of detailed claim 498, 661, 676, 700, 725; for notice by subcontractor to main contractor’s representative 461; after notification of claim for employer to respond 662, 679, 701, 725–6 time limit: 56 days after NOD with DAB decision for commencement of arbitration proceedings 490, 495, 684 time limit: 70 days intention under Cl. 67.1 to start arbitration proceedings 503 time limit: 84 days for DAB decision 367, 430, 436, 477, 478, 479, 481, 482–3, 486, 490, 503, 504, 602, 631, 633–4, 664, 684, 707, 731–2, 740, 742, 745 time limit: 90 days for DB decision 147, 778; for DB to issue ‘determination’ 760–1 time limit: 105 days for DAB decision 740, 742, 745 time zones 482–3 tort 579, 580 Total Fina Elf E&P Congo Company 86 Totterdill, B.W. 534 trade secrets 757, 774 translations 34 travel time and expenses 222, 763–4 trial 484 tripartite agreement 210–11, 666, 692, 716, 743 trust 383 truth test 577 tunnelling 120, 179, 465, 600 Turkey 85 two-stage clause 78 Type 1 differing site condition (USA) 460 UN Commission on International Trade Law 51, 412; UNCITRAL Model Law 94, 96 UN Conference on International Commercial Arbitration 511 unanimity 673, 697, 721, 761, 778; failure to achieve 326; see also dissenting opinion uncertainty (of contract) 573–4 unilateral dispute board agreements 207–218; sample contract 211–15 unilateral mistake 581–4 United Kingdom 4–5, 62–3, 102, 478 United States 5, 13–14, 107, 411, 483, 575, 601; US Uniform Commercial Code 47 unzulässige Rechtsausübung 85 ‘value for money’ 596 variation orders (VO) 569, 639, 643 VAT 764 Wallace, I.N.D. 464 walls 542, 544 warranty 581–2, 667, 693, 717 Washington: Boundary Dam 11 water management 11 Willes, Mr Justice 56 withholding notices 77 witness statements 242–4, 554; content 243; format 243–4; guideline 242–3; importance 243; outlines 244; statements by experts 243 witnesses 317–21; oaths and affirmations 767–8 women 95–6 World Bank 14–16, 28, 32, 410, 595, 596, 598; see also development banks World Bank: Guidance Note on PPPs 600 World Bank: Inspection Panel 598 World Bank: Partial Risk Guarantees 601 World Bank: rules and procedures for dispute review boards 413–424; advice and opinions 413; board member’s declaration of acceptance (form) 414–5; contractor requirements 417–8; dispute review experts 419–424; dispute review experts: rules and procedures 420–4; ethical requirement 413–4; hearings 419; member acceptance 414–5; member payment 416–7; other board member requirements 417; procedure for dispute referral to board 418–9; termination 415 World Bank: Standard Bidding Documents for Works (SBDW, 2011) 413, 600; Procurement of Works (WB, very early 1990s) 12; Standard Bidding Document Procurement of Works (WB, 2006–7) 12; ‘Standard Bidding Documents’ (SBDs, MDBs, 2005–) 121 Wright, Lord see ‘Lord Wright MR’ written notifications 141–2, 756, 773 Yellow River 105–7 Zweigert, K. 483

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