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Index

Shipbroking and Chartering Practice


Page 729

Index

Index

  • BAF 49
  • Baltic Code of Ethics 276278
  • Baltic Exchange 9394
  • bareboat charter 230, 389400
    • claims against third parties 399
    • cost allocation 399400
    • definition 389391
    • delivery of cargo 397
    • hire 397398
    • lien and indemnity 39899
    • loading and discharging operation 396397
    • salvage and towage 399
    • vessel 391396
      • assignment of charter 396
      • commercial operation and management 393
      • delivery 392
      • description 391392
      • equipment and provisions 394
      • insurances 394396
      • maintenance and repair 396
      • manning 394
      • navigation 394
      • redelivery 393
      • sale 396
      • seaworthiness and condition 392393
      • sub-demise 396
  • Barecon 2001 95, 661673
  • barges 42
  • BDI 81
  • BFI 82
  • bibliography 719725
  • BIFFEX 82
  • bill of lading 189202
    • bankability 198199
    • bulk/tramp shipping 92
    • carrier’s relationship with shipper and consignee 193
    • clean 196197
    • confirmation of receipt of goods for transport 194196
    • contents 190
    • destination 201
    • document of title, as 194
    • evidence of contract of carriage, as 197198
    • issue 189
    • liner shipping 192
    • negotiable 201
    • non-negotiable 201202
    • purposes 190
    • received for shipment 200
    • standard forms 193
    • terms and conditions 193
    • types 200202
  • BIMCO 9495
  • BIMCO approved documents 235
  • broker 102
  • bulk cargoes 1112
  • bulk carriers 1620
    • sub-segments 1720
  • bulk shipping v liner shipping 711
    • charter types and contracts 8
    • employment of ships 78
    • freight 89
    • kind of carriage 8
    • seeking of cargo 910
    • type of cargo 8

    • Page 730

      type of market 9
    • type of ownership/management 10
    • type of vessels 8
  • bunkers clauses 314
  • CAF 49
  • calculation of income 446449
  • calculation of costs 437446
  • can 307308
  • capesize 5254
  • car carriers 3940
  • cargo liability 308309
  • cargoes 1116
    • factors affecting suitability for bulk or liner shipment 1314
    • loading factors for dry and liquid bulks 1416
  • carriage of goods by sea 186189
    • international conventions 186188
    • relationship with other means of transportation 188189
  • carrier’s liability 205215
    • cargo claims and time limits 212213
    • date of bill of lading 214215
    • Hamburg rules 215
    • liability for cargo under charterparties 205206
    • liability for inspection and description of goods 214
    • liability rules 208209
    • liability system 210212
    • limitation 213
    • scope of application of international cargo conventions 209210
    • sea carrier’s liability statutory regime 206208
  • CD 448449
  • cesser and lien 34345
    • exercising lien 344345
    • justification and validity of cesser clause 344
    • owners collecting from receivers or shippers 345
  • CFR 180
  • charter chains 243245
  • charter contract 299324
  • charter forms 219245
  • charter market 142
    • bulk shipping v liner shipping 711
    • chartering definitions 13
    • segmentation 111, 7
  • charter rates 4383
  • charter types and documents 239
  • charterer’s requirements in dry bulk market 138139
  • charterer’s requirements in liquid bulk (tanker) market 131138
  • chartering documents 233239
  • chartering information 85110
  • chartering negotiation 247275
  • chartering policy of charterers and shippers 131146
  • chartering policy of shipowners 146154
    • bulk and liner markets 146148
    • commercial risks 148151
      • bunkers risk 150
      • chartering oriented, operational, navigational and geographical 149
      • chartering strategy and policy risk 150
      • credit risk 151
      • currency risk 150
      • ethical 149
      • financial 148149
      • freight risk 151
      • inflation risk 151
      • interest risk 151
      • legal 149
      • market risk 149
      • opportunity cost risk 151
      • risk of damage 151
      • risk of death or injury 151
      • risk of delay 151
      • risk of loss 150
      • risk of timing at decision-making 149150
    • factors affecting 151154
    • geographical and trading limits of ships employment 153
    • policy of shipowners as approved by investors/shareholders 153
    • quality of fleet 153
    • relationship and experience with certain charterers/shippers 153
    • state of freight market and expectations 151
    • state of world economy and seaborne trade 152
    • sub-contract 152153

    • Page 731

      type of cargo and trade 153154
    • type of vessels 153
    • voyage estimations 152
  • chartering routines 247278
  • charterparty broker 102
  • chemical tankers 23, 65, 66
  • CIF 180
  • CIP 180
  • civil law 280
  • CoA 2, 223, 232, 254257, 266, 400416, 455456
  • collision 321323
  • combined carriers 32
  • commencement of time counting 487489
  • commercial management 124129
    • chartering alternatives 126127
    • decision-making 124125
    • highlights from chartering business perspective 127129
    • importance 124129
    • ship’s alternative types of deployment 126
    • vessel routing 126127
  • common charterparty clauses and concepts 299324
  • common law 279280
  • competitive broker 101, 102, 103
  • Congenbill 2016 689690
  • Conlinebill 2016 691
  • Conlinebooking 2016 685686
  • consecutive voyage charter 231
  • consignment note 191
  • construction and interpretation of charter agreements 274, 289298
    • rules for charter documents 295298
  • containerships market 7079
    • demand factors 74
    • intermediary and old panamax market 73
    • neo-panamax 7172
    • post-panamax 71
    • small containerships 7374
    • state of 7579
    • supply factors 7475
  • containerships 3235
    • most important features of market 3435
    • Panama Canal restrictions 3334
    • size and speed 34
  • containerships indicative types of employment 71
  • contract law 281283
  • contract of affreightment (CoA) 2, 232, 400416
    • cargo 410413
    • characteristics, terms and examples 403405
    • cost allocation
    • definitions 400406
    • documents 405406
    • individual clauses 415
    • need 401
    • nomination procedure 414415
    • period 406410
      • alternative ways to define 407
      • commencement and terminations 407408
      • early termination of contract 408410
      • interruptions of operations 408410
    • programme of shipments 414415
    • scope and benefit 401403
    • shipbroker’s role 415416
    • terminology 403
    • vessels 413414
  • contract of carriage
    • sales of cargo, interface with 199
  • contracting parties 283284
  • COP 499
  • cost allocation 51, 242, 314, 399
  • cost allocation per charter type 242243
  • cost variations
    • clauses dealing with cost allocation 314315
    • effect on contractual relationship 311315
      • bunkers clauses 314
      • currency clauses 312313
      • escalation clauses 313314
    • frustration of charter contract 315316
  • court proceedings 285286
  • counter-offers 91
  • CPT 180
  • CQD 499
  • currency clauses 312313
  • FAC 499
  • FAK 49
  • FAS 179
  • FCA 179
  • FFA 8283
  • FOB 179180
  • follow-up stage 272275
  • FONASBA 9697
  • FONASBA Time Charter Interpretation Code 2000 657660
  • forwarding agent 108
  • freight broker 102
  • freight calculations 417476

  • Page 733

    freight derivatives 8183
  • freight forwarder 108
  • freight indices 8081
    • Baltic Exchange 8081
    • BDI 81
    • weighted calculation system 80
  • freight market 4383
  • freight market analysis 51
    • containers market see containerships market
    • dry bulk market 5260 see also dry bulk market
    • gas carrier market see also gas carrier market
    • tanker market see tanker market
  • freight market mechanism 4348
    • new builds, and 47
    • demand for tonnage 4647
    • forecasting 46
  • frustration of charter contract 315316
  • further research 727730
  • Hamburg rules
    • basic features 215
  • handymax market 5556
  • handysize market 5657
  • heavy-lift carriers 4142
  • hire 367371
    • deductions from 371
    • fixing 368
    • late payment 369370
    • owners’ security 369370
    • payment 368
    • payment of last instalment 371
  • ice clause 330
  • ICS 97
  • in-house broker 102
  • Incoterms 2010® rules 177182
  • Incoterms® rules 173182
    • risk, cost and liability distribution 174177
  • indication 91, 261266
  • information centres 9397
  • information coverage 9899
  • information handlers 99108
  • information network 98
  • insurance matters 216217
    • cargo insurance 217
    • liability against third parties 216217
    • P & I cover 217
  • INTERCARGO 95
  • Inter-Club NYPE Agreement 383
  • internet sources 727730
  • INTERTANKO 9596
  • ISM 323324
  • lay 306307
  • lay/can 306308
  • laydays 492495
  • laytime 340,595598
  • laytime allowance 489499
    • available hatch 490
    • calculable laytime 498
    • definite laytime 492498
    • indefinite laytime 499
    • workable hatch 490
  • laytime calculations 477526
    • comparison of normal, reversible and average laytime 520524
    • comparison of weather working days of 24 consecutive hours (or working days weather permitting) with weather working days 524
    • comparison of Laytime Definitions 2013 with Voylayrules ’93 516517
    • demurrage and damages for detention 502506
    • despatch 503, 506
    • final analysis and result 501507
    • importance of all charterparty provisions 516
    • more than one charterer for specific voyage 516
    • NOR 507508
    • practical examples 517526
    • purposes 478
    • SOF (statement of facts) 508
    • stages and documents 507509
    • time sheets 508509
    • voyage charterparty 507
  • laytime counting and exceptions 500501

  • Page 734

    Laytime Definition for Charter Parties 2013 595598
  • letter of credit 171, 172, 173, 176, 182186, 195, 196, 198, 550, 687
  • liability rules 208209
  • liner agents 106108
  • liner freight market 44
  • liner pricing 4850
    • contract-based 49
    • deferred rebate schemes 49
    • tariff-based 49
  • liner shipping 711
  • liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) 2628
  • liquid and dry cargo laytime 509516
  • litigation 287288
  • LNGVOY 95
  • load lines 428431
  • local charterers 103
  • LPG 2628, 6970, 77, 552
    • market sub-segments 2728
  • management agreement 240242
  • management of shipping companies 241
  • maritime lien 318319
  • market reports 8586
  • marketing of shipping companies 154156
  • marketing strategy 158169
    • differentiation and positioning strategies 167169
    • geographical differentiation 167168
    • image differentiation 168
    • paperless trade 165166
    • people 163
    • personnel and crew differentiation 168
    • physical evidence-ship 165
    • place-ports 163164
    • positioning strategy 168
    • price-freight 161
    • process 161162
    • product-service 159161
    • promotion 164165
    • qualitative differentiation 167
    • shipping marketing mix 159166
    • tools of shipping marketing mix 166
  • mate’s receipt 189
  • measurement of cargo 431437
    • capacity of vessel 431432
    • cubic capacity 432
    • deadweight tonnage capacity 432
    • displacement tonnage 435437
    • registered tonnage 432
  • measurements 715718
  • multi-purpose vessels 3536
  • near clause 329330
  • neo-panamax 7172
  • notice time 485486
    • laytime counting during 486
    • length 485486
    • time before first layday 486
  • notice of vessel’s arrival and readiness 483485
    • lay/can 485
    • NOR in each port 485
    • sea notice 484
    • time of NOR provisions 483484
    • written notice 483
  • NYPE 2015 625656
  • ocean currents 427
  • off-hire 371375
    • claim 372373
    • grounds for 373
    • importance 371372
    • insurance for loss of hire 375
    • loss of money: deduction of off-hire 375
    • loss of time 374
    • obligations during off-hire periods 375
    • threshold rule 373374
  • offer 91, 290292
  • offshore vessels 2932
    • buoy loader 29
    • drilling rig 29
    • drilling vessel 29
    • FPSO/FSO unit 2930
    • general characteristics of market 3132
    • oil platform 29
    • shuttle tanker 29
  • open freight market 44
  • order 8691
  • panamax
  • Papadopoulos, Mr Anthony xxv–xxvi
  • paramount clause 308309
  • parties to contract 300302
    • identity 301
    • substitution of owner or charterer 301302
  • passenger vessels 3839
  • piracy 324
  • Plomaritou, Dr Evi xxv
  • pontoon 42
  • port agent 105106
  • position list 91
  • post-panamax market 71
  • reachable on arrival 480481
  • reefer vessels 3638
    • general characteristics of market 3738
  • risks
    • bunkers risk 150
    • chartering oriented, operational, navigational and geographical 149
    • chartering strategy and policy risk 150
    • credit risk 151
    • currency risk 150
    • ethical 149
    • financial 148149
    • freight risk 151
    • inflation risk 151
    • interest risk 151
    • legal 149
    • market risk 149
    • opportunity cost risk 151
    • risk of damage 151
    • risk of death or injury 151
    • risk of delay 151
    • risk of loss 150
    • risk of timing at decision-making 149150
  • ro-ro vessels 3839
    • general characteristics of market 39
  • rules of chartering negotiations 276278
  • sales contract
    • basic agreement in export transaction 172173
    • contractual relations under 177
  • sea voyage 331
  • sea waybill 191
  • seaworthiness 305306
  • Shelltime 4 609623
  • Shellvoy 6 573594
  • shipbroker (chartering broker) 99105
    • address commission 104
    • brokerage 104
    • commission 104
    • committed 103
    • exclusive 103
    • fix best possible 103
    • functions 101102
    • printed contract term 104
    • remuneration 104
    • specialisation 100
  • Shipman 2009 693
  • ship management 115124
    • agreement 116
    • ancillary services 120
    • commercial and operational services 119120
    • commercial, importance of 124129 see also commercial management
    • crew management services 118119
    • definition 115116
    • fixture services 119
    • management fee 115
    • marketing services 120
    • models 120124
    • operational (post-fixture) services 119120
    • pre-fixture services 119
    • professional supply 115
    • separate from vessel’s ownership 116
    • services 116120
    • technical management services 117118
    • third-party companies 115116
  • ship ownership 111115
    • fleet diversification 111
    • fleet specialisation 111
    • private bulk shipping group 112113
    • public diversified shipping group 114
    • semi-public shipping group 114115
    • shipping corporate 113
    • shipping division 113114
  • shippers’ requirements in liner market 139143
    • co-operation with carrier 141142

    • Page 736

      information systems 142143
    • low cost 141
    • quality of transport services 139140
    • reputation and image of liner operator 141
    • safety management 140141
  • shipping marketing with customer orientation 156158
  • signing of agreement 302
  • SIRE programme 132133
  • small containerships market 7374
  • small vessels 41
  • space (slot) charter 232233
  • special chartering routine 275276
  • special estimations 455458
  • specialised vessels 4142
  • specific gravity 17
  • spot charter 2
  • spot market 44, 45
  • spot trades 53
  • stage of investigation 248
    • cargo order 248
    • cargo order at a bareboat charter 256257
    • cargo order at a CoA charter 245255
    • cargo order at a round voyage time charter 253254
    • cargo order at a time charter 252253
    • cargo order at a voyage charter 250252
    • position list 248, 257258
  • stage of negotiation 258272
  • standard charterparties 681683
  • stowage factor 1416, 716717
  • strike clause 342
  • subject provisions 268269, 292295
  • suezmax 6162
  • supramax 5556
  • tanker estimations 458476
  • tanker market 6069
    • aframax market 6264
    • chemical tankers 6566
    • chemical tankers indicative spot trades 6667
    • demand factors 66
    • product tankers: panamax and handy market 6465
    • state of 6869
    • suezmax market 6162
    • supply factors 6768
    • VLCC market 6061
  • tanker market report 88
  • tankers 2025
    • aframax 21
    • characteristics of market 2425
    • chemical 23
    • crude 22
    • handysize 22
    • panamax 2122
    • product 22
    • small 22
    • specialised 23
    • suezmax 21
    • ULCC 21
    • VLCC 21
  • time charter 2, 227230, 351387
    • allocation of costs 376379, 379
    • cargo 361362
      • excluded 362
      • specification 361
    • cargo liability 380384
      • allocation of cargo liability 382384
      • liability to cargo owners 380382
    • customary assistance and overtime 378
    • damage to vessel 384387
      • bad weather, collision and grounding 384
      • cargo, from 385
      • causes 386
      • fuel oil, from 384385
      • protective clauses 387
      • repair 386387
    • damages and pre-termination of charter 375376
    • definition 351352
    • directions and instructions to vessel 376377
    • hire 367371 see also hire
    • information 379
    • Inter-Club NYPE Agreement 383
    • master’s position 377378
    • off-hire see off-hire
    • period 362

      • Page 737

        allocation of costs at delivery and redelivery 366367
      • condition of vessel on delivery and redelivery 365366
      • delivery and redelivery of vessel 363364
      • extension due to off-hire periods 363
      • length of 362
      • overlap/underlap – last voyage 362363
      • place of vessel’s delivery and redelivery 365
      • time of vessel’s delivery and redelivery 365
    • routines 376379
    • trade 357361
      • ballast bonus 360361
      • breaking of limits 359
      • geographical limits 357358
      • non-geographical limits 358359
      • requirements 359
      • trip time charter 359360
    • time charter rates of major ship types 78
    • vessel 352357
      • cargo capacity 354
      • description 352354
      • seaworthiness and maintenance 356357
      • speed and bunker consumption 355356
  • time limits 316317
  • time risk during sea voyage 478
  • TMSA 133
  • transport chain 175
  • transport documents 238
  • trip time charter 359360
  • tugs 42
  • ULCC 21
  • ultramax market 5556

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