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Index

Maritime Cabotage Law

Page 297 Index Index A Africa 10 , 40 , 60 , 271 Maritime Transport Charter (1994) 215 , 216 , 269 see also individual countries African Union 2 , 30 , 35 , 59 air transport 4 – 5 , 84 , 93 , 110 , 253 Alaska 114 , 247 American Maritime Partnership (AMP) 19 analytic jurisprudence 14 APEC (Asia Pacific Economic Corporation) 50n38 Arctic region 242 – 8 , 264 Arctic Council 242 – 3 , 246 , 247 categories of commercial ship traffic 245 ASEAN (Association of Southeast Asian Nations) 2 , 50n38 , 160 , 171 , 269 Asia 24 – 5 , 30 , 46 – 8 , 60 – 1 crisis (1997/8) 47 , 48 , 49 – 50 , 78 – 9 Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific (ESCAP) region 84 hazardous waste 266 shipbuilding 15 , 41 , 118 , 127 , 166 , 253 see also individual countries Australia 82 analysis of new regime 237 – 9 Australian International Shipping Register (AISR) 231 , 237 – 8 , 256 – 7 Coastal Trading (Revitalising Australian Shipping) Act 2012 228 – 39 CSL Australia Pty Ltd v. Minister for Infrastructure & Transport and Braemar Seascope Pty Ltd 235 – 7 CSL Australia Pty Ltd v. Minister for Infrastructure & Transport and Rio Tinto Pty Ltd 233 – 5 emergency licence 232 Fair Work Act 2009 229 – 30 , 233 , 238 foreign crew wages 229 – 30 , 232 – 3 freight rates 230 , 234 , 235 , 239 general licence 231 , 237 – 8 Harper Review (2015) 230 international relay scheme 273 judicial decisions 232 – 9 Maritime Union of Australia & Ors, Re Ex parte CSL Pacific Shipping Inc 232 – 3 temporary licence 231 – 2 , 233 – 7 , 239 B Bangladesh 265 , 266 Barents Sea 244 brain drain 59 Brazil 8 , 14 , 50 , 273 crew requirement 162 – 3 , 164 , 260 – 1 , 262 protectionist approach 110 , 162 – 7 registration of ships 162 , 255 shipbuilding 164 – 7 waivers 162 Brexit 14 , 40 , 42 , 186 , 211 – 14 Brundtland Report 15 Brunei-Indonesia-Malaysia-Philippines East Asian Growth Area (BIMP-EAGA) 168 , 170 , 220 building and repairing of vessels 39 , 41 , 78 , 107 , 108 , 112 , 249 , 250 – 3 Brazil 164 – 7 Canada 107 Chile 239 China 156 , 252 end-of-life solutions 266 Indonesia 150 Japan 151 , 153 , 252 Nigeria 39 , 136 , 143 – 4 , 250 – 1 , 252 , 253 ship classification 264 ship recycling 266 , 267 United States 15 , 41 , 107 , 113 , 115 , 118 , 125 – 6 , 127 , 135 , 250 – 2 , 253 Burma 25 Bynkershoek, Cornelius van 3 , 97 , 98 C Cambodia 144 Canada 12 – 13 , 128 Arctic region 242 , 243 , 244 , 247 Canada-EU Comprehensive Economic and Trade Agreement (CETA) 132 – 3 Coasting Page 298 Trade Act 1992 13 , 130 – 3 , 134 concluding analysis 134 – 5 duty on foreign-built vessels 132 exemptions or waivers 131 , 132 NAFTA 2 , 50n38 , 128 , 134 – 5 , 269 protectionist approach 102 , 104 , 105 , 112 , 129 – 35 RV Northern Access 133 – 4 shipbuilding 107 canon-shot rule 98 capital market 50 cartelization 76 categories of maritime activities 4 Central American region 111 Ceylon 25 Chenery model 53 , 55 – 6 Chile 105 , 127 , 239 – 41 waivers 240 China 10 , 14 , 23 , 47 – 8 , 262 , 264 , 268 anti-monopoly law 69 autarkic approach 60 bilateral agreements 155 , 178 China (Shanghai) Pilot Free Trade Zone (SH PFTZ) 158 – 9 financial subsidies 78 Hong Kong 10 , 46 – 7 , 60 – 1 , 157 , 158 international relay scheme 272 – 3 liberal measures/policies 127 , 158 mainland cabotage 89 open coast policy research 157 ownership of vessels 258 permit system 157 protectionist approach 102 , 104 , 105 , 127 , 154 – 61 ship recycling 265 , 267 shipbuilding 156 , 252 South China Sea 3 , 159 – 61 , 171 – 9 Cold War 47 colonialism 10 , 11 , 12 , 23 , 27 , 47 , 99 , 112 – 13 , 129 , 167 , 211 , 216n141 , 223 , 228 neo-colonial dependence model 56 – 8 Comoros 85 company law 1 , 8 , 32 , 93 competition law see economic development and competition law, concepts of consecutive cabotage 182 Constitution of Zeno 68 – 9 container trades 89 contiguous zone 8 , 17 , 21 , 160 continental shelf 8 , 21 , 98 , 112 Arctic nations 243 , 244 , 247 Canada 131 delimitation 95 exclusive economic zone and 243 islands 160 , 176 South China Sea 176 , 177 US: outer 129 continual professional development (CPD) 17 Convention on the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS) (1982) 7 , 22 , 30 , 33 , 94 – 5 Arctic region 243 , 244 – 5 definition of sea 188 historical rights 212 maritime zones 8 – 9 , 17 , 94 , 98 , 159 – 60 , 175 – 6 , 177 , 243 , 244 pollution 244 , 245 , 246 South China Sea 159 – 60 , 171 – 9 territorial sea 8 , 98 , 160 , 176 corporations: corporate social responsibility 265 corporate veil 259 global 101 COSCO 159 crew requirement 36 , 39 – 40 , 41 , 78 , 107 , 112 , 247 , 250 , 260 – 2 Brazil 162 – 3 , 164 , 260 – 1 , 262 European Union 182 – 3 , 261 – 2 Indonesia 145 , 261 Japan 152 , 153 , 261 , 262 Nigeria 136 , 261 , 262 registration of ships 256 United States 12 , 41 , 113 , 114 , 261 , 262 waivers 260 Crimea 13 , 94 crises: Asia (1997/8) 47 , 48 , 49 – 50 , 78 – 9 oil (1970s) 88 – 9 world financial and economic (2008-2015) 48 – 9 , 62 – 3 Cromwell, Oliver 11 CSCL 159 D definition: of international law 22 – 5 and scope of maritime cabotage 6 – 8 , 107 – 8 delimitation, maritime 8 – 9 , 95 , 244 South China Sea see separate entry Denmark 14 , 212 Arctic region 242 , 244 dependence theory see international dependence revolution theory of development developing countries 10 , 28 , 30 , 104 1974 UNCTAD Code of Conduct for Liner Conferences 88 comparative advantage 50 , 57 development, theories of see separate entry international institutions perspective 100 mainland cabotage 88 , 89 national framework of development 39 ship recycling 265 see also individual countries development, theories of 45 – 51 , 64 – 5 Chenery model 53 , 55 – 6 false-paradigm model 58 – 60 free market approach 61 – 2 international dependence revolution 56 – 60 Lewis model 53 – 5 linear stages 51 – 3 , 55 market-friendly approach 63 – 4 neo-colonial dependence model 56 – 8 neoclassical counterrevolution 60 – 4 public choice approach 62 – 3 structural change 53 – 6 developmental sovereignty 14 – 16 national framework of development 39 – 41 role of national and regional governments 43 – 4 theory of 37 – 44 , 93 , 106 , 109 , 143 , 274 Page 299 Doha Round 5 , 28 , 102 , 154 dualism 58 E economic crisis (2008-2015) 48 – 9 , 62 – 3 economic development and competition law, concepts of 66 – 7 bespoke competition law framework 71 government regulation, influence and intervention 78 – 9 infant industry 75 , 76 review of interface between 67 – 76 state aid 68 , 77 – 8 , 79 Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific (ESCAP) region 84 economies of scale 34 , 36 , 84 , 94 , 110 , 171 , 269 Egypt 24 elites 59 England 10 – 11 , 26 , 211 closed sea policy 99 island cabotage 85 open sea policy 99 – 100 Richard II 2 , 3 , 10 , 93 , 211 environment 254 – 5 greenhouse gases 90 pollution 118 , 143 , 153 , 244 , 245 , 246 , 272 Eurocentrism 22 , 23 , 24 Europe 57 , 88 , 89 , 253 economic crisis (2008-2015) 49 see also individual countries European Union 2 , 50n38 , 128 , 269 , 271 – 2 Brexit 14 , 40 , 42 , 186 , 211 – 14 Canada-EU Comprehensive Economic and Trade Agreement (CETA) 132 – 3 China 157 Commission 29 – 30 , 78 , 79 , 85 , 86 , 101 , 181 , 182 , 212 , 266 , 273 Common Fisheries Policy 212 competition law 68 , 70 – 1 , 79 Court of Justice of 85 , 86 – 7 , 123 , 186 – 210 , 212 , 213 crew requirement 182 – 3 , 261 – 2 customs union 186 , 213 definition of port 123 economic crises 2008-2015 49 false-paradigm model 59 general cabotage 82 , 91 inland waterways and non-resident carriers 82 , 91 , 188 island cabotage 80 – 1 , 83 , 84 – 5 , 86 – 7 , 181 – 3 , 184 , 200n76 , 262 liberal approach for member states 13 – 14 , 18 , 30 , 35 , 42 , 80 – 1 , 83 , 84 – 5 , 87 , 94 , 104 – 5 , 128 , 157 , 181 – 210 mainland cabotage 87 non-discrimination 86 offshore services 87 ownership requirement 258 – 9 protectionism 42 , 83 , 84 – 5 , 104 , 157 , 181 , 181 – 2 , 185 – 6 , 200 , 261 – 2 registration of ships 184 , 193 , 255 – 6 ship recycling 266 single market and UK 213 state aid 68 , 77 – 8 , 79 , 83 theoretical framework of maritime cabotage law 92n1 , 94 variants of maritime cabotage 80 – 1 , 82 European Union and liberal approach for member states 13 – 14 , 18 , 30 , 35 , 42 , 80 – 1 , 83 , 84 – 5 , 87 , 94 , 104 – 5 , 128 , 157 , 181 – 210 Agip Petroli SPA v. Capitaneria di Porto di Siracusa et seq 198 – 200 Alpina and Nicko Tours v Chioggia Port Authority 123 , 186 – 91 certificate from flag state 192 , 193 – 5 Commission v. France 190 – 1 Commission v. Greece (2004) 191 – 8 Commission v. Greece (2007) 200 – 4 Commission v. Spain 204 – 10 definition of island 196 – 7 definition of port 189 – 90 , 207 definition of sea 188 , 189 , 205 – 6 manning of cruise liners 192 , 197 – 8 maritime transport services in Vigo estuary 204 – 10 towage services in open sea 200 – 4 evolutionary synthesis see public international law and maritime cabotage law, development of exclusive economic zone (EEZ) 8 , 17 , 98 , 112 , 160 , 176 , 177 , 178 Arctic region 243 , 245 F false-paradigm model 58 – 60 Faroe Islands 242 features of maritime cabotage law 249 – 50 building and repairing of vessels see separate entry crew requirement see separate entry future see separate entry ownership requirement see separate entry registration of vessels see separate entry Finland 242 Fisher-Clark model 54 flexible approach 2 , 15 , 18 , 32 , 34 , 60 , 80 – 1 , 108 – 11 , 220 Australia 228 – 39 Chile 239 – 41 India 43 , 60 , 222 – 5 Malaysia 34 , 43 , 225 – 7 mare liberum , mare clausum and de dominio maris 97 Russia 220 – 2 theory of developmental sovereignty 41 , 42 – 3 uncertainty 42 – 3 foreign investment 48 , 52 , 75 France 11 – 12 , 35 , 183 , 184 free market approach 61 – 2 freedom of the seas 25 , 26 , 27 mare liberum , mare clausum and de dominio maris 3 , 33 – 4 , 96 – 100 , 109 Page 300 future directions 268 harmonized international maritime cabotage concept 268 – 74 future features of maritime cabotage law 262 ship classification requirement 262 – 4 ship recycling requirement 262 , 265 – 7 G G7 49 GATS (General Agreement on Trade in Services) 102 GATT (General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade) 101 , 102 – 3 , 125 , 128 general cabotage 80 , 82 , 83 definition 89 multi-regulatory conflict 90 Gentili, Alberico 26 Germany 77 global corporations 101 globalization 56 role in development of maritime cabotage law 35 – 6 governance 76 government regulation, influence and intervention 78 – 9 grand cabotage 6 , 10 , 11 grants and loans 76 , 77 Greece 14 , 35 , 49 , 184 islands 81 , 84 – 5 greenhouse gases 90 Greenland 242 , 247 Grotius, Hugo 3 , 26 , 33 – 4 , 97 – 8 , 100 , 109 Guam 114 Gulf of Guinea 242 H Hague-Visby Rules 31 – 2 harmonized international maritime cabotage concept 268 – 74 Harrod-Domar growth model 52 Hawaii 114 hazardous waste 266 high seas 3 , 9 , 21 – 2 , 95 , 96 , 97 – 8 Arctic region 244 historical review 9 – 14 Hittites 24 Hong Kong 10 , 46 – 7 , 60 – 1 , 157 , 158 human resource development 17 , 76 I Iceland 242 ICTSI Group 164 immigration law 1 , 8 , 32 , 93 , 108 India 14 , 24 – 5 , 82 , 262 autarkic approach 60 flexible approach 43 , 60 , 222 – 5 indigenous shipowners 224 , 225 international relay scheme 273 mainland cabotage 89 ship recycling 265 , 266 indigenous peoples: Arctic Indigenous Communities (AIC) 242 – 3 Indonesia 24 – 5 , 34 , 273 BIMP-EAGA 168 , 170 , 220 crew requirement 145 , 261 mainland cabotage 89 Maritime Law No.17 of 2008 144 – 50 oil and gas 39 , 82 , 146 – 50 ownership of vessels 146 protectionist approach 39 , 82 , 104 , 144 – 50 ship classification 264 shipbuilding 150 industrialization 50 , 53 – 5 , 76 , 107 infant industry 75 , 76 innocent passage by foreign vessel 16 innovation 73 , 75 , 76 International Chambers of Shipping (ICS) 247 International Competition Network (ICN) 74 International Competition Policy Advisory Committee (ICPAC) 70 International Court of Justice (ICJ) 178 , 271 Statute: sources of international law 31 international dependence revolution theory of development 56 , 100 false-paradigm model 58 – 60 neo-colonial dependence model 56 – 8 international finance 48 international institutions perspective 100 – 5 international law see public international law and maritime cabotage law, development of International Law Commission 21 international law theory on maritime cabotage law 94 – 6 international maritime cabotage bank (IMCB) 271 International Monetary Fund (IMF) 46 , 47 , 49 – 50 , 101 international relay scheme 30 , 272 – 4 International Transport Workers’ Federation (ITF) 101 Iraq 94 Ireland 49 island cabotage 80 – 1 , 83 – 7 , 109 complexities 85 definition 83 European Union 80 – 1 , 83 , 84 – 5 , 86 – 7 , 181 – 3 , 184 , 200n76 , 262 public service schemes 81 , 82 , 85 – 7 , 200n76 Italy 14 , 35 , 184 , 200 islands 84 – 5 ius gentium 25 Page 301 J Japan 23 , 46 , 47 , 85 , 88 , 128 , 268 congested and hazardous coastal sea lanes 153 crew requirement 152 , 153 , 261 , 262 exemptions 151 freight rate 153 – 4 ownership requirement 152 , 258 protectionist approach 94 , 102 , 104 , 105 , 151 – 4 Ship Law No. 46 of 1989 151 – 4 shipbuilding 151 , 153 , 252 joint ventures 70 , 136 , 146 , 156 , 258 K knowledge transfer 50 L labour law 8 , 32 , 93 , 108 Australia 229 – 30 , 232 – 3 , 238 foreign crew wages 219 , 229 – 30 , 232 – 3 ship registration 254 – 5 labour market 54 , 57 , 62 , 167 , 265 Lagash and Umma 23 – 4 land cabotage 5 , 253 Latin America 60 , 241 see also individual countries League of Nations 7 , 23 Lewis model 53 – 5 liberal approach 2 , 15 , 18 , 19 , 32 , 108 – 11 , 180 Brexit 14 , 40 , 42 , 186 , 211 – 14 economic development and competition law 66 , 67 , 69 , 73 , 75 , 76 EU member states 13 – 14 , 18 , 30 , 35 , 42 , 80 – 1 , 83 , 84 – 5 , 87 , 94 , 104 – 5 , 128 , 157 , 181 – 210 false-paradigm model 58 freight rates 180 indigenous shippers 25 – 6 international relay scheme 274 island cabotage 87 mare liberum , mare clausum and de dominio maris 97 market-friendly approach 64 NAFTA 50n38 , 128 New Zealand 18 , 42 , 94 , 216 – 19 OECD dimension 103 – 5 one country-one approach 80 – 1 , 83 South Africa 18 , 42 , 214 – 16 theoretical framework of maritime cabotage law 93 – 4 theories of development 46 theory of developmental sovereignty 41 , 41 – 2 Liberia 104 linear stages of development theory 51 – 3 , 55 liquefied natural gas (LNG) vessels 252 lobbying 101 M Macau 10 Maersk Group 164 mainland cabotage 80 , 82 , 83 , 87 – 9 , 90 , 262 definition 87 Malaysia 14 , 19 , 34 , 74 , 82 BIMP-EAGA 168 , 170 , 220 domestic shippers 93 flexible approach 34 , 43 , 225 – 7 indigenous shipowners 227 liberal approach 93 mainland cabotage 89 protectionist approach 82 manufacturing sector 46 , 51 – 2 , 57 , 107 , 108 , 157 , 164 , 239 , 251 , 266 mare liberum , mare clausum and de dominio maris 3 , 33 – 4 , 96 – 100 , 109 marine pollution 118 , 153 , 244 , 245 , 246 maritime delimitation 8 – 9 , 95 , 244 South China Sea see separate entry market-friendly approach 63 – 4 Marshall Plan 40 mergers 70 Mexico 128 , 140 – 1 NAFTA 2 , 50n38 , 128 , 134 – 5 , 269 Middle Ages 3 , 20 , 24 , 26 misconceptions 3 – 4 N NAFTA (North American Free Trade Area) 2 , 50n38 , 128 , 134 – 5 , 269 nation states 22 national economic development 17 , 18 – 19 , 35 , 37 , 92 , 105 , 249 competition law 71 , 75 framework of development 39 – 41 international relay scheme 272 liberal regime in New Zealand 219 liberal regime in United Kingdom 212 ownership requirement 259 , 260 productivity growth 73 protectionist approach 41 , 157 , 158 registration of ships 256 ship classification 264 ship recycling 266 – 7 shipbuilding 251 , 252 , 253 theoretical framework of maritime cabotage 93 – 4 see also economic development and competition law, concepts of national government role: theory of developmental sovereignty 43 – 4 national security 8 , 15 , 17 – 18 , 29 , 30 , 92 , 94 , 96 , 249 China 159 Greece 81 United States 110 , 125 – 7 national treatment principle 101 – 2 nationalism 27 , 34 – 5 neo-colonial dependence model 56 – 8 neoclassical counterrevolution theory of development 60 – 1 free market approach 61 – 2 market-friendly approach 63 – 4 public choice approach 62 – 3 Page 302 Netherlands 11 , 14 , 35 inland waterways 89 – 90 open coast policy 99 , 184 New Zealand 8 liberal approach 18 , 42 , 94 , 216 – 19 waivers 218 Nigeria 14 , 35 , 38 – 9 , 82 analysis of law 143 – 4 Coastal and Inland Shipping (Cabotage) Act No. 5 of 2003 135 – 44 crew requirement 136 , 261 , 262 dredging 143 drilling rigs 140 – 1 general cabotage 90 indigenous shipowners 135 , 138 – 43 ISAN and Pokat v. MBX 138 – 9 mainland cabotage 89 , 90 multi-regulatory conflict 90 Niger Delta crisis 18 Noble Drilling v. NIMASA and Minister of Transport 140 – 1 ownership of vessels 39 , 41 , 135 , 136 – 7 , 258 Polmaz Limited v. Nigerian National Petroleum Corporation 141 – 3 protectionist approach 103 , 104 , 135 – 44 rebuilt vessels 136 registration of vessels 39 , 41 , 113 , 135 , 136 , 255 shipbuilding 39 , 136 , 143 – 4 , 250 – 1 , 252 , 253 surcharge of 2 per cent 137 theory of developmental sovereignty 15 , 41 triangular dimension 138 – 9 waivers 136 , 137 , 253 normative jurisprudence 14 North America 30 , 269 see also individual countries Norway 14 , 35 , 184 Arctic region 242 , 243n110 , 244 O OECD (Organization of Economic Cooperation Development) 101 , 103 – 5 Common Principles of Shipping Policy 103 , 104 oil and gas 36 , 116 Arctic region 243 , 244 , 245 , 246 Brazil 165 China 159 , 160 general cabotage 90 Gulf of Mexico 246 Indonesia 39 , 82 , 146 – 50 mainland cabotage 87 , 89 Nigeria 89 , 90 , 135 , 138 – 43 oil crises (1970s) 88 – 9 Russia 221 , 222 South China Sea 160 , 173 US: offshore production 129 US: product alteration 124 – 5 one port in-country stop 3 one-ship company structure 259 open registries 89 , 104 , 255 , 256 , 262 overview of fundamental themes of maritime cabotage law 16 – 18 ownership requirement 36 , 39 , 41 , 78 , 112 , 247 , 250 , 257 – 60 China 157 , 159 , 258 European Union 258 – 9 Indonesia 146 Japan 152 , 258 Nigeria 39 , 41 , 135 , 136 – 7 , 258 Philippines 168 , 258 shipowner in context of maritime cabotage law 259 – 60 United States 12 , 41 , 113 , 114 , 115 , 258 P Pacific region 30 Economic and Social Commission for Asia and (ESCAP) 84 Pakistan 265 Panama 104 patterns of development empirical analysis/Chenery model 53 , 55 – 6 Persia 23 petit cabotage 6 , 11 – 12 Petrobras 165 Philippines 57 , 167 – 71 , 172 – 3 exemptions 168 , 170 – 1 freight costs 170 , 171 mainland cabotage 88 ownership of vessels 168 , 258 ship classification 263 – 4 Philippines v. China 3 , 33 , 160 , 171 – 9 , 243 aggravation of dispute between parties 177 – 8 Chinese activities 177 ‘nine-dash line’ and China’s claim to historic rights 159 , 175 status of features in South China Sea 175 – 6 piracy 94 pollution 118 , 143 , 153 , 244 , 245 , 246 , 272 Pontanus, Jan 3 , 97 – 8 port, definition of 123 , 189 – 90 Port State Control (PSC) 3 Portugal 10 , 183 islands 84 – 5 pragmatism 38 , 39 , 40 , 41 , 44 , 84 , 85 , 99 privatization 69 , 75 product alteration 124 – 5 productivity 47 , 53 , 54 , 73 , 74 , 75 , 233 protectionism and liberalization 18 , 46 – 50 , 79 , 101 , 219 , 241 closed conference system 88 infant industry 75 WTO 101 – 2 protectionist approach 2 , 10 – 14 , 18 , 19 , 28 , 30 , 38 – 9 , 108 – 11 , 112 African Union 59 Brazil 110 , 162 – 7 Britain in nineteenth century 12 , 27 , 42 , 99 – 100 Canada 102 , 104 , 105 , 112 , 129 – 35 China 102 , 104 , 105 , 127 , 154 – 61 competition law 74 domestic freight costs and 80 , 105 economic development and competition law 69 indigenous shipowners and shipbuilders 25 , 39 , 89 , 93 Indonesia 39 , 82 , 104 , 144 – 50 international relay scheme 274 intersection of internationality and Page 303 national maritime frontiers 34 – 5 Japan 94 , 102 , 104 , 105 , 151 – 4 legal habitat of maritime cabotage law 32 mainland cabotage 89 mare liberum , mare clausum and de dominio maris 97 Nigeria 103 , 104 , 135 – 44 OECD dimension 103 – 5 one country-one approach 80 – 1 , 83 Philippines 167 – 71 , 172 – 3 political tool 29 public service schemes 82 , 87 South Africa: inclination to adopt 214 – 16 state aid 77 theoretical framework of maritime cabotage law 93 – 4 theory of developmental sovereignty 15 , 41 United States, protectionist approach of see separate entry WTO dimension 102 – 3 , 125 , 128 public choice approach 62 – 3 public international law and maritime cabotage law, development of 20 – 2 comparative overview 25 – 30 international law 22 – 5 intersection of internationality and national maritime frontiers 33 – 5 legal habitat 31 – 3 role of globalization in development of maritime cabotage law 35 – 6 public service compensations (PSCs) 81 public service contacts (PSCs) 81 , 85 – 6 , 209 – 10 public service obligations (PSOs) 81 , 85 – 6 , 209 – 10 Puerto Rico 114 Q quantitative easing 49 R Ramses II 24 raw materials 57 recycling requirement 262 , 265 – 7 regionalization 28 , 30 , 32 , 35 , 79 , 160 , 249 Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific (ESCAP) region 84 mega-regional maritime cabotage system 269 – 72 protectionism 50 , 59 South African Development Community (SADC) 215 , 215 – 16 sub-regional framework first 84 theory of developmental sovereignty 43 – 4 , 50 see also European Union registration of vessels 18 , 36 , 39 , 41 , 78 , 112 , 250 , 253 – 7 Australian International Shipping Register (AISR) 231 , 237 – 8 , 256 – 7 Brazil 162 , 255 Canada 130 Canada-EU CETA 133 categories of registries 255 Chile 240 China 157 EU member states 184 , 193 , 255 – 6 genuine link 256 India 223 Indonesia 146 Nigeria 39 , 41 , 113 , 135 , 136 , 255 open registries 89 , 104 , 255 , 256 , 262 Philippines 168 Russia 221 SADC 215 United States 12 , 41 , 116 regulatory approaches 106 – 8 flexible approach see separate entry liberal approach see separate entry protectionist approach see separate entry research and development 57 Reunion Island 85 Richard II 2 , 3 , 10 , 93 , 211 road and rail 4 , 5 , 82 , 89 – 90 , 93 , 110 , 143 , 153 , 185 , 253 , 272 islands 84 rock salt market 127 – 8 Roman legal philosophy 96 Rostow, W. 51 , 52 Rotterdam Rules 5 Russia 13 , 178 1999 Merchant Shipping Code 13 , 220 – 2 anti-monopoly law 69 Arctic region 242 , 244 , 245 , 246 , 247 , 264 Crimea 13 , 94 flexible approach 220 – 2 ship classification 264 S safety, maritime 177 scope of maritime cabotage 6 – 8 , 107 – 8 Scotland 11 , 211 Selden, John 3 , 34 , 97 , 98 , 100 , 109 services sector 54 , 60 , 213 ship classification requirement 262 – 4 ship recycling requirement 262 , 265 – 7 shipbuilding see building and repairing of vessels Singapore 46 – 7 , 60 – 1 Shipowners Association (SSA) 144 , 148 Smith, Adam 211 sources: of international law 31 – 2 of maritime cabotage law 32 – 3 , 94 South Africa: inclination to adopt protectionist approach 214 – 16 liberal approach 18 , 42 , 214 – 16 South African Development Community (SADC) 215 – 16 South America 30 see also individual countries South China Sea 3 , 159 – 61 , 171 – 9 aggravation of dispute between parties 177 – 8 Chinese activities in 177 ‘nine-dash line’ and China’s claim to historic rights 159 , 175 status of features in 160 , 175 – 6 Page 304 South Korea 46 , 47 , 60 – 1 , 111 , 154 , 252 mainland cabotage 88 sovereign rights 16 – 17 , 30 , 94 , 98 – 9 Arctic region 242 , 243n110 , 247 law of the sea 94 , 95 , 96 , 177 sovereignty 1 , 2 , 4 , 7 – 8 , 10 , 15 , 16 , 28 – 9 , 30 , 92 , 108 , 249 Arctic region 243 , 244 China 157 – 8 developmental see separate entry international law in seventeenth century 27 law of the sea 94 , 95 – 6 liberal approach and 105 mare liberum , mare clausum and de dominio maris 96 – 100 merchant fleet, size of 88 no one state can claim 242 – 8 regional member states 32 , 94 South China Sea 159 – 60 territorial sea 16 , 30 , 95 , 96 , 98 , 159 – 60 United States 103 Soviet Union 46 , 47 Spain 14 , 35 , 49 , 184 islands 84 – 5 , 86 Sri Lanka 225 state aid 68 , 77 – 8 , 79 , 81 , 83 steel 265 structural change development theory 53 Chenery model 53 , 55 – 6 Lewis model 53 – 5 subsidies 69 , 76 , 78 , 79 , 241 subsistence sector 53 , 54 – 5 , 57 Sumerian kingdoms 23 – 4 surplus labour/Lewis model 53 – 5 sustainable development 15 , 215 , 247 theory of developmental sovereignty 38 Sweden 242 T Taiwan 46 , 47 , 60 – 1 taxation 36 , 96 Australia 237 , 238 Brazil 164 Chile 240 China 157 New Zealand 218 , 219 ship recycling 266 ship registration 254 – 5 , 256 United States 127 territorial sea 3 , 7 – 8 , 9 , 10 , 95 1958 Conference on the Law of the Sea 21 Arctic region 244 eighteenth century 27 Pontanus 97 – 8 seventeenth century 27 South China Sea 159 – 60 , 176 sovereignty 16 , 30 , 95 , 96 , 98 , 159 – 60 UNCLOS 1982 8 , 98 , 160 , 176 terrorism 94 Thailand 144 theoretical framework of maritime cabotage law 92 – 4 international institutions perspective 100 – 5 international law theory 94 – 6 mare liberum , mare clausum and de dominio maris 96 – 100 theories of development see development, theories of theory of developmental sovereignty 37 – 44 , 93 , 106 , 109 , 143 , 274 three-mile rule 98 training 17 , 41 , 59 , 78 Trans-Pacific Partnership (TPP) 269 – 70 Transatlantic Trade and Investment Partnership (TTIP) 116 , 269 – 70 transitional economies, Asian 47 – 8 Turkey 13 , 23 , 81 , 265 two sector/Lewis model 53 – 5 U Ukraine: Crimea 13 , 94 Umma and Lagash 23 – 4 uncertainty: Australia 82 flexible approach 42 – 3 island transport services 85 UNCTAD (United Nations Conference on Trade and Development) 1974 Code of Conduct for Liner Conferences 88 , 135 ship registration: genuine link 256 United Kingdom 11 , 12 – 13 , 14 , 27 , 129 , 151 , 178 , 179 Brexit 14 , 40 , 42 , 186 , 211 – 14 Carriage of Goods by Sea Act 1971 31 – 2 colonialism 11 , 12 , 99 , 112 – 13 , 129 , 211 , 216n141 , 223 , 228 corporate veil 259 economic crisis (2008-2015) 49 economic development 212 , 213 England see separate entry liberal approach 35 , 42 , 99 – 100 , 184 , 200 , 212 – 13 maritime services sector 54 nineteenth century 11 , 12 , 27 , 99 , 211 – 12 , 213 protectionist approach 11 , 12 , 27 , 42 , 99 , 211 – 12 , 213 United States 112 – 13 United Nations 32 Security Council 178 UNCTAD: ship registration - genuine link 256 UNCTAD Code 88 , 135 United States 10 , 12 , 179 , 268 aid 47 antitrust law 68 , 69 , 70 – 1 Arctic region 242 , 243 , 244 , 247 China 157 container shipment costs 80 crew requirement 12 , 41 , 113 , 114 , 261 , 262 Department of Defence leasing foreign vessels 126 Doha Round 102 domestic seamen 93 , 110 , 113 domestic shippers 115 , 117 , 127 economic crisis (2008-2015) 49 freight costs 80 , 118 general cabotage 91 indigenous shipowners 41 , 93 , 113 , 117 – 18 , 127 International Court of Justice 178 Page 305 international relay scheme 272 Iraq 94 Japan 151 , 153 mainland cabotage 89 Merchant Marine Act 1920 (Jones Act) 12 , 19 , 40 , 80 , 103 , 112 – 29 , 252 , 258 , 261 merchant marine decline 126 , 127 NAFTA 2 , 50n38 , 128 , 134 – 5 , 269 ownership of vessels 12 , 41 , 113 , 258 Philippines 167 protectionist approach 15 , 18 , 19 , 41 , 92 , 94 , 102 – 3 , 104 , 105 , 110 , 112 – 29 , 272 Ready Reserve Force (RRF) 126 – 7 Sherman Antitrust Act (1890) 68 shipbuilding 15 , 41 , 107 , 113 , 115 , 118 , 125 – 6 , 127 , 135 , 250 – 2 , 253 theory of developmental sovereignty 15 , 41 United States, protectionist approach of 15 , 18 , 19 , 41 , 92 , 94 , 104 , 105 , 110 , 112 – 29 , 272 American Maritime Association v. Blumenthal 124 analyzing 1920 Merchant Marine Act 125 – 9 exemptions or waivers 114 , 116 , 117 , 123 Jones Act Reform Coalition (JARC) 115 – 16 Marine Carrier Corp. v. Fowler 119 – 22 modifications to Jones Act 116 – 18 , 128 Navigation Act 1817 113 , 114 , 118 – 19 oil rig for repair on foreign submersible barge 122 – 3 Passenger Vessel Services Act 1886 114 POWER Act: offshore renewable energy services 128 – 9 Prevention of Smuggling Act 1866 113 , 114 , 118 – 19 product alteration 124 – 5 rebuilt vessels 117 – 18 , 119 – 22 recent rulings of US Customs and Border Protection 124 – 5 rock salt market 127 – 8 Shipbuilders Council of America et al. v United States 122 – 3 Shipping Act 1916 115 Tariff Act 1789 113 , 115 Tariff Act 1930 115 text of s 27 Merchant Marine Act 1920 114 United States v. 250 Kegs of Nails 114 , 118 – 19 , 124 World Trade Organization rules 102 – 3 , 125 , 128 Uruguay Round 5 , 28 , 102 V Van Bynkershoek, Cornelius 3 , 97 , 98 Venezuela 88 W Washington Consensus 61 World Bank 46 , 47 , 61 , 101 World Economic Forum (2013) 59 , 273 World Trade Organization (WTO) 5 , 6 , 28 , 101 – 3 , 125 , 128 , 133 , 269 – 70 , 271 Doha Round 5 , 28 , 102 , 154 Z Zeno, Constitution of 68 – 9

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