Transport Documents in Carriage of Goods by Sea
The role of the bill of lading in international trade
9.1 Bills of lading in international trade
Contracts of carriage and contracts of international sale exist separately, but not completely independently. A contract of carriage usually follows the contract of sale and serves to enable delivery of the goods from seller to buyer. The seller, as shipper, delivers the goods for carriage to the carrier, who in turn issues a bill of lading. The seller then transfers the bill of lading to the buyer, to whom the carrier is required to deliver the goods, since the buyer as consignee is the lawful holder of the bill.