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Index

ISM Code A Practical Guide to the Legal and Insurance Implications


Page 399

Index

Index

  • Bahamian Merchant Shipping Act 1976 100
  • ballasting operations 286
  • Baltic and International Maritime Council (BIMCO) 2, 55, 56, 106, 295;
  • bareboat charterers 51, 105, 162, 349, 354, 371
  • bills of lading 277, 279, 289
  • BIMCO see Baltic and International Maritime Council
  • blind-eye knowledge 1357
  • Bourbon Dolphin 267
  • breakdown policy 298
  • bridge management 26876
  • Bridge Procedures Guide 204, 205, 206
  • Bridge Team Management – A practical guide 204
  • bulk carriers 10, 24, 42, 149, 15
  • burden of proof 134, 280, 281, 294
  • cargo 39, 512;
  • cargo ships 10, 23, 42, 164, 165
  • cargo underwriters 111, 149
  • carriage of goods 110, 268, 27693;
    • due diligence 278
  • Carriage of Goods by Sea Act 1936 (US) 279
  • Carriage of Goods by Sea Act 1971 (UK) 279
  • Carver Report 6
  • casualties 6
  • casualty investigations 31720
  • Certificate of Competency (COC) 107, 218, 224, 225, 229, 2389, 2734;
    • fraudulent 240
  • certificates: medical 2423;
    • registers of 241

  • Page 400

    certification 16287, 23740;
  • charterers 1469
  • charter hire 147
  • charterparties 99, 278, 279, 2956
  • charts 111, 261, 282, 305, 315
  • chemical tankers 10, 24, 149, 165
  • CICs see concentrated inspection campaigns
  • civil actions 275
  • Class Certificates 158
  • Classification Societies 93105
  • Coast Guard and Maritime Transportation Act 2004 42
  • COC see Certificate of Competency
  • Code of Good Management Practice in Safe Ship Operations 4, 5, 116
  • Code of Safe Working Practices for Merchant Seamen (COSWP) 189, 191, 203
  • collisions 268, 275;
    • and human error 6
  • COLREG see Convention on the International Regulations for Preventing Collisions at Sea 1972
  • commercial management 106
  • Companies 10520;
    • accident prevention 31117;
    • ‘alter ego’ of 1345;
    • auditable systems 457;
    • commitment to safety 39;
    • Company Security Officers (CSOs) 129;
    • compliance with the ISM Code 401, 445;
    • culture 59, 64, 2089;
    • defined 51, 105;
    • DOCs 16271;
    • DPAs 123, 125, 12930, 2067;
    • Drug and Alcohol Policy 243;
    • emergency preparedness 31, 2968;
    • external audits 47;
    • implementation of corrective action 32;
    • internal safety audits 323, 47, 142, 143, 145, 3069;
    • maintenance of the ship and equipment 312;
    • obligations and responsibilities 51, 1056, 11419, 118, 21924, 229, 253;
    • one-ship 501;
    • plans for shipboard operations 301;
    • requirements placed upon 113, 31117;
    • role as enforcer 1456;
    • Safety and Environmental-Protection Policy 113, 141;
    • safety culture 636, 339;
    • safety management objectives 41, 215, 265;
    • Safety Management Systems 4850, 113, 11719, 193, 207;
    • support for Masters 2367;
    • threefold mantra 445;
    • verification, review and evaluation 33, 356, 3069
  • Company Security Officers (CSOs) 120
  • compliance culture 50, 1456
  • concentrated inspection campaigns (CICs) 224
  • condition surveys 150
  • confidentiality 320
  • container ships 24
  • contract of carriage 52, 96, 275, 279, 295
  • contractual disputes 275
  • Convention on Limitation of Liability for Maritime Claims 1976 (LLMC) 133, 139, 281
  • Convention on the International Regulations for Preventing Collisions at Sea 1972 (COLREG) 72, 214, 271
  • Cosco Busan 12
  • Costa Concordia 345
  • COSWP see Code of Safe Working Practices for Merchant Seamen
  • crew: liability for actions of 112;
    • management 1067;
    • responsibilities 223;
    • see also Designated Persons (DPs); Masters; resources and personnel
  • criminal prosecutions 275
  • critical systems 301
  • CSC see International Convention for Safe Containers 1972
  • CSOs see Company Security Officers
  • culture 5766;
  • electro-technical officers 262
  • emergency equipment 301
  • emergency preparedness 31, 2968
  • employment, continuity of 50, 534, 209, 273
  • EMSA see European Maritime Safety Agency
  • engineering officers 262
  • environment, protection of 523, 13944;
    • see also marine pollution; pollution prevention; Safety and Environmental Protection Policy
  • equipment 298304
  • Erika 1034, 147
  • Estonia 10
  • Eurasian Dream 13, 2356, 2678
  • European Maritime Safety Agency (EMSA) 3, 81
  • evaluation, Company 33, 356, 3069
  • experience 26, 256;
  • explosions 6
  • familiarisation 2524
  • fatigue 24752
  • fault see actual fault or privity
  • feedback 236, 302, 303
  • ferries: Ro-Ro passenger 5, 9, 10, 222;
    • safety management 5, 9, 10
  • fire 6, 113, 281
  • fire-fighting 91, 150, 178, 266, 277
  • fitness for duty 248
  • flag Administrations 7685;
    • accident prevention 31722;
    • certification and verification 34, 76, 80;
    • compliance with the requirements of the Code 15, 49;
    • definition 76;
    • detention rates 224;
    • DOCs 1634, 168, 181;
    • external audits 47;
    • Guidelines for 1415, 26, 80, 113, 116;
    • major shipping flags 77;
    • role as enforcer 146;
    • Safety Management Certificates 34, 1714, 1845;
    • Safety Management Systems 1979;
    • see also Recognised Organisations (ROs)
  • flags of convenience (FOCs) 7, 77, 80
  • flexible culture 63
  • FOCs see flags of convenience
  • fraudulent certificates 2402
  • freight 147
  • gas carriers 10, 23, 42, 165
  • GIE see Group of Independent Experts
  • GMDSS radio operators 261
  • good faith 101, 138
  • goods: definition 289;
    • liability for loss or damage 133, 139
  • government-operated ships 42
  • Grainville 4
  • gross negligence 112
  • groundings 268, 275;
    • and human error 6

  • Page 402

    Group of Independent Experts (GIE) 17, 25, 26, 56, 117, 124
  • Guidelines on the Application of the IMO International Safety Management (ISM) Code 116, 194, 299
  • H&M insurance 6, 7, 149, 150
  • Hague Rules 279, 292
  • Hague–Visby Rules 226, 274, 27783, 289
  • Hamburg Rules 278, 279
  • hazardous occurrences 32, 119, 144, 31113
  • hazards 28, 29, 1889
  • Health and Safety Executive (HSE) 43, 64
  • health and safety protection 191
  • Herald of Free Enterprise 35, 8, 121, 344, 345
  • high-speed craft 10, 42, 164
  • hours of rest 24752
  • hours of work 24752
  • Human Element in Shipping Casualties, The 6
  • human error: and accidents/incidents 58, 150;
    • and casualties 6;
    • and collisions 6;
    • and fires/explosions 6;
    • and groundings 6;
    • Swiss cheese model 61, 3401, 343
  • IACS see International Association of Classification Societies
  • ICS see International Chamber of Shipping
  • ILO see International Labour Organization
  • ILS see International Labour Standards
  • IMDG Code 277
  • IMO see International Maritime Organization
  • imprisonment 199
  • IMSBC Code 277
  • incidents: and human error 6;
    • serious 21;
    • statistics 21
  • incompetency 2278
  • inefficiency 227, 228
  • informed culture 61
  • inspections: by insurers 150;
    • by Port State Control 22, 804, 151, 1535, 170;
    • pre-vetting 149;
    • reports of 154;
    • see also concentrated inspection campaigns (CICs)
  • Instructions for the Guidance of Surveyors 180, 194
  • insurers 14951
  • INTERCARGO see International Association of Dry Cargo Shipowners
  • Inter-Governmental Maritime Consultative Organization (IMCO) 70
  • interim certification 34, 17786;
  • INTERMANAGER see International Association of Shipmanagers
  • International Association of Classification Societies (IACS) 2;
  • International Association of Dry Cargo Shipowners (INTERCARGO) 2, 56
  • International Association of Independent Tank Owners (INTERTANKO) 2, 56
  • International Association of Shipmanagers (INTERMANAGER) 2
  • International Chamber of Shipping (ICS) 2, 4, 56, 116
  • International Convention for Safe Containers (CSC) 1972 277
  • International Convention for the Prevention of Pollution from Ships 73/78 (MARPOL) 2, 85, 1512, 318
  • International Convention for the Safety of Life at Sea 1974 (SOLAS) 2, 9, 412, 85, 151, 260, 31819
  • International Convention on Standards of Training, Certification and Watchkeeping for Seafarers 1978 (STCW) 2, 214;
  • International Labour Organization (ILO) 25, 56, 735;
    • conventions 1978;
    • Member States 76;
    • structure 74

  • Page 403

    International Labour Standards (ILS) 25, 74
  • International Maritime Organization (IMO) 703;
    • audit scheme 73;
    • Conventions and Protocols 712, 1978;
    • development of ISM Code 815;
    • Facilitation Committee 71;
    • ‘Go to Sea!’ campaign 534;
    • historical reasons 38;
    • Legal Committee 71;
    • Marine Environment Protection Committee (MEPC) 71;
    • Maritime Safety Committee (MSC) 5, 71;
    • Member States 76;
    • Recognised Organisations 856;
    • safety culture 645;
    • sub-committees 71;
    • Technical Co-operation Committee 71
  • International Safety Guide for Oil Tankers and Terminals (ISGOTT) 204
  • International Safety Management Code (ISM Code): amendments to 11, 15, 2537, 124;
    • application 413;
    • background 137;
    • compliance requirements 401, 44, 4950, 162347;
    • developments at IMO 815;
    • effectiveness of implementation 1 524;
    • enforcers 14558;
    • facilitators 6975;
    • Guidance on the Qualifications, Training and Experience 26;
    • Guidelines for Administration 1415, 26, 80, 113, 116;
    • Guidelines for the Operational Implementation 26;
    • key players 69159;
    • legislators/regulators 75105;
    • mandatory compliance with 910;
    • non-compliance with 12, 41, 151;
    • personalised system 40;
    • preamble to 3740, 49, 52, 1201, 140;
    • purpose and key objectives 3741, 214;
    • research into implementation 1619;
    • underlying principles 3766
  • International Ship and Port Facility Security Code (ISPS Code) 2
  • International Shipping Federation (ISF) 2, 4, 55, 56, 65, 116
  • international standard 379
  • International Transport Workers Federation 56
  • International Union of Marine Insurance (IUMI) 1921
  • international voyage 42
  • INTERTANKO see International Association of Independent Tank Owners
  • ISF see International Shipping Federation
  • ISGOTT see International Safety Guide for Oil Tankers and Terminals
  • ISM Code see International Safety Management Code
  • ISM consultants 52, 59
  • ISPS Code see International Ship and Port Facility Security Code
  • IUMI see International Union of Marine Insurance
  • job descriptions 115
  • just culture 623
  • KISS principle 194, 271
  • knowledge 2278;
    • blind-eye 1357;
    • of unseaworthiness/incompetence issues 1369;
    • privity 1368
  • language 107, 25863;
  • latent conditions 3414
  • leadership 39, 52
  • learning culture 63
  • liability: Classification Societies acting as ROs 93105;
    • development of 12;
    • fire 133;
    • limits of 139;
    • loss or damage of goods 133, 139, 280;
    • of ship managers 11112;
    • of shipowners 1324;
    • unseaworthiness/incompetence issues 1368
  • Liberia 77
  • Limitation Convention 1957 133, 139, 281
  • live animals 289
  • LLMC see Convention on Limitation of Liability for Maritime Claims 1976
  • Loadline Certificates 97
  • loss or damage 110: and fire 133;
    • and unseaworthiness 280;
    • exemptions from liability 280;
    • to cargos 278, 283
  • MAIB see Marine Accident Investigation Branch
  • maintenance: adequate system 3024;
    • cost cutting 8;
    • non-conformities within

      Page 404

      3024;
    • of the ship and equipment 312, 298304;
    • planned maintenance policy 299
  • major non-conformities (MNCs) 22, 278, 36, 45, 47, 55, 1578, 16870, 1745, 190
  • management: commitment to safety 39, 523, 56, 66;
    • of safety systems 2935;
    • reviews 119;
    • systems 438;
    • systems approach to 43
  • Managing the Risks of Organisational Accidents 61
  • manning: and seaworthiness 287;
  • manning agents 109, 209;
    • commitment to safety 39;
    • monitoring 116
  • Marchioness disaster 188
  • Marine Accident Investigation Branch (MAIB) 321, 322
  • Marine and Coastguard Agency (MCA) 3212
  • Marine Guidance Notes (MGNs) 202
  • Marine Insurance Act 1906 136, 137, 278
  • marine pollution 701
  • Maritime and Coastguard Agency (MCA) 42, 180, 194
  • maritime labour certificate 75, 213
  • Maritime Labour Convention 2006 (MLC) 2, 25, 41, 74, 191;
    • preamble to 214;
    • resources and personnel 21016;
    • working standards for seafarers 21112
  • MARPOL see International Convention for the Prevention of Pollution from Ships 73/78
  • Masters: and Safety Management Systems 2930, 119, 1414, 22936, 186;
    • and SMS manuals 54;
    • commitment to safety 39;
    • continuity of employment 50, 209, 273;
    • hours of work/rest 2512;
    • qualifications 2249;
    • requirements 107;
    • responsibility and authority 30, 1414, 223;
    • safety and environment protection 13944;
    • standing orders 144, 270;
    • support for 2367;
    • verification 36
  • MCA see Maritime and Coastguard Agency
  • medical certificates 107, 2423
  • medical examination 2423
  • mental health 287
  • Merchant Shipping Act 1906 136
  • Merchant Shipping and Fishing Vessels (Health and Safety at Work) Regulations 1997 191
  • Merchant Shipping (ISM Code) Regulations 1998 5, 199
  • Merchant Shipping (ISM Code) (Ro-Ro Passenger Ferries) Regulations 1997 5
  • Merchant Shipping (Operations Book) Regulations 1988 5, 9, 121, 122
  • MGNs see Marine Guidance Notes
  • Minimum Safe Manning Document 246
  • MLC see Maritime Labour Convention 2006
  • MNCs see major non-conformities
  • mobile offshore drilling units (MODUs) 10, 42, 165
  • moral dilemmas 3445
  • multi-national crew 259, 260
  • Muncaster Castle 290, 291
  • observations 45, 119, 131, 313
  • OCIMF see Oil Companies International Marine Forum
  • Oil Companies International Marine Forum (OCIMF) 2, 148

  • Page 405

    oil-majors 148, 149
  • oil tankers 10, 24, 42, 149, 165;
    • pollution from 70
  • one-ship companies 501
  • open registers (ORs) 7, 77, 80
  • operational risks 18991;
    • see also risks
  • ORs see open registers
  • overriding conditions 249
  • package limitation 281
  • Panama 77
  • Passenger Safety Certificates 97
  • passenger ships 10, 42, 122, 164
  • Patraikos II 274
  • personal act or omission 1334, 139
  • P&I Clubs 6;
    • accident and loss prevention guides 204;
    • as enforcers 14951;
    • inspections and condition surveys 150;
    • medical assessments 243
  • P&I insurance 6, 7, 150
  • pollution prevention 323, 52, 121, 1312;
    • see also marine pollution
  • Port State Control (PSC) 2;
    • and compliance with the ISM Code 18;
    • as enforcer 1518;
    • certification and implementation 1556;
    • guidelines for 1538;
    • inspections 22, 804, 151, 1535, 170;
    • regional organisations 152;
    • standardisation of procedures 1523
  • Port State Control Officers (PSCOs) 1548
  • positive culture 58
  • Principles of Minimum Safe Manning 35
  • privity, concept of 136;
    • see also actual fault or privity
  • property 27
  • property damage 389
  • Protection/Protecting and Indemnity Association (P&I Clubs) 2, 21
  • PSC see Port State Control
  • PSCOs see Port State Control Officers
  • qualifications 26, 256
  • Quality Management Systems 38, 193
  • Rabaul Queen 345
  • Reason, James 59, 61, 63, 33940
  • recklessness 112, 139, 281, 300
  • Recognised Organisations (ROs) 85105;
    • accountability of 158;
    • assignment of authority to 856;
    • certification 867, 903;
    • definition 85;
    • external audits 47;
    • IACS Procedures and Guidelines 879;
    • legal status 90105;
    • MARPOL 85;
    • minimum specifications for 86;
    • performance tables 879;
    • responsibility of 84;
    • SOLAS 85;
    • verifying compliance 49
  • repairs 912, 94, 108, 246, 302
  • reporting: accidents 32;
  • reporting culture 62
  • resources and personnel: adequate understanding 2545;
    • cost cutting 8;
    • drug and alcohol abuse 2434, 248;
    • employment and social rights 215;
    • familiarisation 2524;
    • hours of work/rest 24752;
    • language 25863;
    • medical examinations 2423;
    • MLC 21016;
    • multi-national crew 259, 260;
    • recruitment and placement 229;
    • safe manning requirements 35, 54, 236;
    • Safety Management Systems 20864;
    • SOLAS 260;
    • STCW 1978 21624, 253, 2602;
    • training 216, 219, 2558;
    • working standards 21112
  • reward schemes 145
  • RINA 1034
  • risk assessment 279, 18792, 2323, 247;
  • risk-based approach 28
  • risk management 27, 29, 41, 18792
  • risks 289, 1889;
  • Ro-Ro passenger ferries 5, 9, 10, 222
  • ROs see Recognised Organisations
  • Rotterdam Rules 278, 279
  • safe practices 401
  • Safety and Environmental Protection Policy 523, 113, 141, 230
  • Safety Aspects of Ship Design and Technology 6
  • safety culture 39, 5866, 116, 142, 1445, 208
  • safety equipment 301

  • Page 406

    Safety Management Certificate (SMC) 51, 1717;
  • Safety Management Manuals 4950, 54, 192;
    • document control of 3045;
    • ready-made 50, 59;
    • reviewing 180
  • Safety Management Systems (SMSs) 3, 192309;
    • and competency of staff 546;
    • and interim DOCs 1789;
    • and Masters 1414, 22936;
    • and safety culture 65, 142;
    • auditable systems 457;
    • auditing and monitoring 47;
    • buy-in by Company personnel 567, 66;
    • certification and periodical verification 334, 16287;
    • commitment from the top 524, 121;
    • compliance with the ISM code 18, 223, 4950;
    • deficiencies in 157;
    • documented system 194;
    • evaluation 33;
    • guidelines 11720, 2013;
    • inspections of 156;
    • instructions and procedures 197;
    • national requirements 199201;
    • objectives 1946;
    • Plan, Do, Check, Act model 43, 192, 32639;
    • ready-made 50, 193;
    • requirements 478, 194, 1967, 199201, 2078;
    • review of 2930, 11920;
    • risk assessment 29, 190;
    • safety and anti-pollution activities 32;
    • structure of 192208;
    • tailor-made 4850
  • salvage 111, 275
  • San Francisco Bay 12
  • Scandinavian Star 9, 259
  • SDRs see Special Drawing Rights
  • seafarers: buy-in into SMS 567;
    • competency of 546;
    • definition 21, 252;
    • labour standards 745;
    • nationality of 78;
    • requirements 35, 54;
    • training 8;
    • worldwide supply of 55;
    • see also crew; resources and personnel
  • Seafarers International Research Centre (SIRC) 241
  • seaworthiness 13, 226;
    • and due diligence 280, 281, 282, 28891, 293, 300;
    • and loss or damage 280;
    • and Masters 228;
    • and stowage of cargo 2879;
    • knowledge of 1379;
    • manning aspect 287;
    • under contracts of carriage 2789, 2857;
    • warranty of 1323;
    • within Hague–Visby Rules 283
  • self-assessment 148
  • self-enforcement 145
  • self-incrimination 310, 320
  • self-monitoring 145
  • self-regulation 38, 40, 59, 116, 142, 145;
    • of safety 116
  • serious incidents 21
  • ship management agreements 106
  • ship managers 1059;
    • and shipowners 106113;
    • liabilities for the actions of the crew 112;
    • liabilities to owners 11112;
    • obligations 109;
    • ship operators 10545
  • shipboard operations 301, 26496;
    • and risk assessment 265;
    • functional requirements 264;
    • key 2656, 276, 292;
    • plans and instructions for 2923
  • shipping companies see Companies
  • Shipman ’98 10611
  • shipowners 1057;
    • and ship managers 106113;
    • liability of 1324;
    • obligations 109
  • Ship Security Officers (SSOs) 129
  • shore management 1202
  • short-sea trade 122
  • SIRC see Seafarers International Research Centre
  • SIRE Programme 148
  • skill 227
  • SMC see Safety Management Certificate
  • SMS documentation 3045
  • SMS Procedure Manuals 149;
    • see also Safety Management Manuals
  • SMSs see Safety Management Systems
  • SOLAS see International Convention for the Safety of Life at Sea 1974
  • sovereign immunity 84, 90, 93
  • Special Drawing Rights (SDRs) 281
  • SSOs see Ship Security Officers
  • standing orders 144, 270
  • Star Sea 137, 139

  • Page 407

    Statutory Certificates 84, 903, 158;
    • see also Documents of Compliance (DOCs);
  • statutory investigations 275
  • STCW see International Convention on Standards of Training, Certification and Watchkeeping for Seafarers 1978
  • STCW Code 21823, 2378, 2501, 271
  • stowage 2878
  • strandings 268
  • Sundancer 1001
  • Surveyor General’s Organisation 6
  • surveys 2, 53, 85, 86, 901, 150
  • Swiss cheese model 57, 61, 3401, 343
  • tacit acceptance 9
  • Tanker Management Self-Assessment (TMSA) 2
  • tanker risk assessment 148
  • technical management 106, 1089
  • THETIS database 81
  • threefold mantra 445, 322, 326
  • TMSA see Tanker Management Self-Assessment
  • TMSA Programme 1489
  • Torrey Canyon 71
  • training 26, 11819, 125, 128, 130, 216, 219, 2558
  • transparency 502
  • understanding 2545
  • United Kingdom Mutual Steamship Assurance Association (Bermuda) Limited 6
  • United Nations: maritime-related agencies 70;
    • see also International Labour Organization (ILO); International Maritime Organization (IMO)
  • United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS) 69, 318
  • United States 199200
  • VDR see Voyage Data Recorder
  • Vector 344
  • verification 16287;
    • Company 33, 356, 11819, 3069;
    • flag Administrations 767;
    • interim DOCs 17982;
    • Masters 36;
    • Safety Management Certificates 334, 1727;
    • Safety Management System 334, 80
  • Vessel Traffic Service (VTS) 275
  • Viking Islay 12
  • voyage: domestic 42;
  • Voyage Data Recorder (VDR) 275
  • VTS see Vessel Traffic Service
  • watchkeeping 26876
  • watchkeeping-related accidents 268
  • White–Grey–Black Lists 15, 80, 824, 162
  • wilful default 112
  • witness protection 320

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