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Index

Maritime Law


Page 613

Index

Index

  • abuse of dominant position 581588
    • assessment of dominance 584585
    • examples 585587
    • identification of relevant geographic market 582584
    • identification of relevant product market 584
    • impact on trade between member states 587588
  • action in personam 533534, 539
  • action in rem 533536
  • Admiralty Court 68, 533
  • Admiralty jurisdiction of High Court 532542
  • affreightment contract 110, 570, 572
  • agency
    • brokers 472
    • court jurisdiction 4142
  • anti-suit injunctions
    • arbitration 1014
    • contempt of court 10, 54
    • delay 10
    • discretion 10, 53
    • granted by arbitration tribunal 13, 14
    • jurisdiction 5354
    • Jurisdiction Regulation, and 1112
    • Recast jurisdiction Regulation, and 1314
  • anti-technicality clauses 171, 173176
  • arbitration 417
    • advantages over court litigation 4
    • anti-suit injunction 1014
      • delay 10
      • contempt of court 10
      • effectiveness 10
      • Jurisdiction Regulation, and 1112
      • Recast jurisdiction Regulation, and 1314
    • assignment 9
    • damages for breach of agreement 14
    • direct action against insurer 9
    • incorporation of clause in charterparty 57
    • jurisdiction of tribunal 5
    • recognition and enforcement 1417
    • subrogated insurer 9
    • valid agreement 510
  • archipelagic waters
  • armed personnel 355356
  • arrest 536542, 543548
    • caution against 546547
    • consequences 544
    • cross–border insolvency, and 553556
    • judicial sale 545546
    • release of ship under 545
    • wrongful, damages for 547548
  • arrived ship
  • Asbatankvoy charterparties 130, 185, 190
  • assignment
    • abandonment, and 496
    • jurisdiction 9, 22
  • Association of Average Adjusters 272
  • Association of European Shipbuilders and Shiprepairers Form see AWES Form
  • Athens Convention (1974) 239240
    • Jurisdiction 236
    • direct action against insurer 237
  • Athens Regulation
    • carriage of passengers 238
    • direct action against insurer 238
    • jurisdiction 236, 237
  • atmospheric pollution 460463
  • AWES Form 82
  • bailment 199, 286
    • towage and carriage 288289
  • Baltic and International Maritime Council (BIMCO) 82
    • implications of ISPS 385
    • non-payment 174
    • War Risks Clause 156
    • York-Antwerp Rules 271, 274
  • banks
    • rejection of documents by 126127

  • Page 614

    Basel Convention 405406, 451453
    • scrapping of ships 454460
  • bearer bills 201202
  • bills of lading
    • clausing 213214
    • incorporating charterparty terms 218219
    • lawful holder 201
    • made out to order of named consignee who is not shipper 202203
    • source of contract, as 217
    • straight 203204
  • bollard pull and brake horsepower (BHP) 307
  • Brandt v Liverpool contract 205
  • breach by owner
  • Brexit
    • impact on competition law in maritime industry 605608
  • Bunker Convention (International Convention on Civil Liability for Bunker Oil Pollution Damage) (2001) 428434
    • definitions 428430
    • direct action against insurer 409, 428, 433
    • enforcement of judgments 433434
    • jurisdiction 433434
    • liability for bunker oil pollution 430431
    • limitation of liability 431432
    • owner losing right to limit liability 432433
    • scope 428430
    • time bar 431
    • time charterparty 178
  • burden of proof 48, 117, 138139, 288289
    • barratry 505
    • breach, of 492
    • carrier, on the 220
    • charterer, on the 179180
    • Misrepresentation Act (1967) 142
    • presumption of inducement 484
    • wilful misconduct 502
    • worldwide freezing injunctions 562
  • cabotage sector
  • cargo
  • cargo claims 196225
    • Brandt v Liverpool contract 205
  • cargo insurance 509513
  • carriage, contract of
  • carriage of goods by sea
  • Carriage of Goods by Sea Act (1992) 201204
    • bearer bills 201202
    • bills of lading made out to order of named consignee who is not shipper 202203
    • lawful holders of bills of lading 201
    • sea waybills 203204
    • shipper’s order bills 202
    • ship’s delivery orders 204
    • straight bills of lading 203204
  • carriage of hazardous wastes, pollution from 451453
  • carriage of passengers 226245
    • Athens Convention (1974) 239240
    • Athens Regulation 238
    • basis of liability 230233
    • commercial reality 240
    • compulsory insurance 237
    • Covid-19, and 244245
    • direct action 237, 238
    • EU law for sea passengers 240243
    • jurisdiction 236237
    • legal framework 227237
    • liability for damage or loss of luggage and vehicles 232233
    • liability for loss of life and personal injury 230232
    • limits of liability 233234, 235
    • time bar 234236
    • withdrawal of UK from European Union 243244
  • carrier
    • excluding or limiting liability 221224
      • breaking limitation 223224
      • exceptions to liability 222
      • one–year time bar 221222
      • qualification and limitation of loss 222223
    • proving breach 215221
      • bill of lading 217
      • identifying terms 219221
      • sources of terms of contract 216219
    • bill of lading incorporating charterparty terms 218219
    • contract itself 216217
    • charterparty 217218
  • carrier identity in cargo claims 207209
    • claimant charterer, where 207
    • claimant not charterer, where 208
    • claiming against “actual” carrier 208209
    • nature of problem 207
  • cash against documents transactions
    • curing documentary tender 127
    • seller’s duties to buyer 120121
  • causation 251252, 506507
  • Central Register of British Ships, Cardiff 9293, 94
  • cesser clauses 195
  • charterers
    • title to sue 200

  • Page 615

    charterparties 128195
    • breach by owner, remedies 141149
    • deviation 150152
    • frustration 157159
    • Hague, Hague-Visby and Hamburg Rules 132137
    • reasonable despatch 149150
    • safe ports 152156
    • seaworthiness 137141
    • shipbrokers 129132
    • time see time charterparties
    • timing at beginning 159161
    • voyage see voyage charterparties
  • Choice of Court Agreements 1819
  • choice of law clause 64, 84, 210, 525
  • c.i.f (cost, insurance and freight) contracts 109110
  • claimant’s potential liability towards carrier 224225
  • claimant’s title to sue 198206
    • complexities 197198
    • f.o.b seller and title to sue 206
    • Hague-Visby Rules 209211
    • identity of carrier 207209
    • locus standi 198
    • loss of claimant, proving 211215
    • no doubt about title to sue 200
    • party with title to sue claiming for benefit of another 205206
    • privity problem 200201
    • problems with title to sue not solved by 1992 Act 205206
  • claims 198
  • classification societies 397402
  • clause paramount 133138
  • clausing bills 213214
  • CLC Convention (International Convention on Civil Liability for Oil Pollution Damage) 421
  • climate change 460463
  • CMI (Comité Maritime International) 271272, 274, 332
  • Coast Guard
    • European Border Agency 396397
    • flag state jurisdiction 357
    • US policy 180
  • collisions 248254
    • action in rem in respect of 543
    • apportionment of liability 253
    • causation 251252
    • investigation 253254
    • liability for damage 248250
    • regulations 251
    • time bars 252
    • towing operation, during 289290
    • who can claim in respect of damage 252253
  • “Collision Statement of Case” (formerly Preliminary Act) 254
  • collusive behaviours
    • control (TFEU Art 101) 565566
  • COLREGs (International Regulations for Preventing Collisions at Sea) (1972) 369
  • common law 7475
    • forum non conveniens 4749
    • jurisdiction agreement 4952
    • tonnage limitation 5253
  • community law
    • domestic contract, in a 67, 7778
    • Rome I 71
    • Rome II 78
  • competition law 564608
    • Article 101 TFEU 565581
      • application to shipping industry 566567
      • block exemption for liner conferences 567568
      • commission guidelines on applications 569573
      • part regime 567568
      • repeal of Regulation 4056/86 568569
    • Article 101 and tramp shipping and cabotage sectors 576578
    • Brexit, impact of 605608
    • compliance with Article 101 601602
    • compliance with Article 102 602603
    • current scenario for liner conferences 573574
    • effect on trade between Member States 570571
    • general consequences in case of non–compliance 581
    • horizontal agreements in maritime transport sector 572573
    • liner shipping, definition 570
    • meaning 564565
    • Merger Regulation 591601
    • merger regulation in shipping industry 603608
    • possibility of individual exemption under Article 101(3) 574576

    • Page 616

      recent mergers decisions in EU maritime sector 594601
    • relevant market definition 571572
    • shipping consortia 580581
    • tramp shipping, definition 570
  • compliance
    • Article 101, with 601602
    • Article 102, with 602603
    • enforcement, and 394395
    • non–compliance 390, 581
    • role of classification societies, and 397398
    • safety, and 374399
    • STCW compliance, responsibility for 390
  • conditions
    • employment, of 393
    • exceptions, and 515
    • insurance 491492
  • confirmation notes
    • contracts 107
    • seller’s documentary duties 119
  • conflict of laws 280
    • arbitration 417
    • court jurisdiction 1755
    • governing law 5580
  • consortia
  • construction
    • letter of undertaking 521522
    • regulation of hazardous materials 456457
    • ship standards 406408
  • Contact Group on Piracy 355
  • contracting governments 385
  • contracts
  • contractual exceptions 113
  • contractual framework
    • shipbuilding, and 8283
  • contra proferentem rule 87, 113, 489
  • contributory negligence 87, 237
  • Conwartime clause 156
  • court jurisdiction see jurisdiction
  • Covid-19
    • carriage of passengers, and 244245
  • crew wages
    • charterer’s obligation 170
    • maritime liens 552
    • piracy 270271
    • voyage charterparty 182
  • cross-border insolvency
  • cross-elasticity 584
  • cruise ships 227, 241
  • culpa in contrahendo 76
  • customary international law 336337
  • damages
    • breach of a jurisdiction agreement 5455
    • breach of an arbitration agreement 14
    • detention, for 190191
    • early delivery under a time charterparty 163168
    • late redelivery under a time charterparty 168170
      • illegitimate final voyage under a time charter-party 168170
      • legitimate final voyage under a time chater-party 168170
    • mitigation 147, 164168, 194
    • remote 143, 149
    • wrongful arrest, for 547551
  • deadfreight
  • death or injury
    • “pay to be paid” rule 519
    • time bar 234
  • defective tender
    • seller’s right to cure 127128
  • delivery
  • de minimis allowance 117
  • demise charterparty 72, 495496
  • demurrage 190191
    • calculation 190
    • damages for detention distinguished 190191
  • deviation 150152
  • deviation rule 224
  • diplomatic immunity 336
  • direct action against insurer 518
    • arbitration clause 9
    • Athens Convention 238
    • Athen Regulation 238
    • Bunker Oil Pollution Convention 433
    • HNS Convention 2010 444
    • jurisdiction clause 22
    • LLMC 1976 295
    • Protection and Indemnity insurance 518
  • discharge
    • notice of loss at 211

  • Page 617

    Document of Compliance (DOC)
  • documentation
    • record keeping, and 390
  • Donaldson Report 330
  • Dover Coastguard 254
  • drilling platforms
    • object of salvage, as 256
  • D terms (destination/arrival or delivered contracts) 107, 111
  • EEDI (Energy Efficiency Design Index) 462
  • EEIGs (European Economic Interest Groupings)
    • registration of ships 9697
  • EEZ (exclusive economic zone) 346348
  • EMSA (European Maritime Safety Agency) 395397
  • encumbrances
    • sale of second–hand tonnage 9192
  • enforcement
  • enforcement of maritime claims 530551
    • action in rem 533534, 537
    • action in rem in respect of collisions 543
    • Admiralty jurisdiction of High Court 532542
    • group of one–ship sister companies 539542
    • limitation actions 550551
    • priority of claims 548550
    • procedure for claims in rem 542543
    • procedures 533
    • ship arrest 536542 see also arrest
    • withdrawal from EU, and 563
  • English Channel 316
  • Environmental Liability Directive (ELD) (2004) 464
  • Environmental Protection Agency, US 525
  • equitable set off
    • deductions from hire (time charterparties) 181183
  • estoppel
  • EU law for sea passengers 240243
    • compensation for delay and cancellation 240241
    • protection for passengers on travel package 241243
    • protection of passengers with disability or reduced mobility 240241
  • EU, withdrawal from
    • enforcement of maritime claims, and 563
  • European Commission
    • anti–suit injunctions 13
    • form of assistance 591
    • IGA 516
    • jurisdiction 604
    • Merger Regulation 600
    • MLC 391
    • Regulation 4056/86 567, 573574
    • Rome II 78
  • European Economic Community (EEC)
  • European Ship Recycling Regulation (EU–SRR) 460
  • European Union (EU)
    • UK withdrawal from 463464
  • evidence
    • physical performance, of 125
    • third party claims 212213
  • exclusion of liability 415417
    • valuables, for 233
  • ex works contracts (E terms) 107, 111
  • FD&D (freight, demurrage and defence) cover 520
  • Federation of Oils, Seeds and Fat Associations Ltd (FOSFA) 107
  • “final clauses” in international conventions
    • becoming party to IMO conventions 364368
  • financial issues 102105
    • basic structure of ship finance agreement 103104
    • registration of mortgages 103104
  • flag States
  • floating production storage and offloading units (FPSO) 82, 411
  • floating storage units (FSUs) 411
  • f.o.b (free on board) contracts 109110
  • f.o.b seller
    • title to sue, and 206
  • fog, navigation in 186, 251
  • foi publique doctrine 101
  • “follow the settlements” clauses 527528
  • foreseeability 158
  • forum non conveniens 4749
  • freedom of choice 6166, 7677
  • freedom of navigation 333, 339, 340, 347349
  • freezing injunctions 556563
    • assets subject to 562563
    • consequences 560561
    • when English courts can issue 557558
    • when English courts will issue 558560
    • worldwide 561562

  • Page 618

    freight
    • voyage charterparty 183184
  • freight prepaid 193
  • frustration 157159
  • fundamental breach 143
    • doctrine of 151, 224
    • secondary obligation 145
    • unjustified deviation 151
  • GAFTA (Grain and Feed Trade Association) 107
  • GATT (General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade) 343
  • Gencon charterparty 130
  • general average 269274
  • General Lighthouse Authorities 328329
  • General Underwriters Agreement (GUA) 471
  • good faith
    • post–contractual duty 486488
  • “good seamanship”
    • collision regulations 251
    • liability 290
    • navigational standards 249, 250
  • goods
  • governing law 5580
    • common law 7475
    • harmonisation of rules 55
    • Rome I 5774
      • community law 71
      • community law in domestic contract 67
      • freedom of choice 6166
      • international conventions 7071
      • limits on party choice 66
      • no choice 7174
      • overriding mandatory provisions 6770
      • provisions which cannot be derogated from by agreement in domestic contract 6667
      • public policy 70
      • scope 5761
    • Rome II 7579
      • community law 78
      • community law in domestic contract 77
      • direct action against insurer 76, 77
      • freedom of choice 7677
      • international conventions 78
      • overriding mandatory provisions 78
      • provisions which cannot be derogated from by agreement in domestic contract 77
      • public policy 78
      • scope of law applicable 79
      • subrogation 77
    • sections 9 to 15 of Private International Law (Miscellaneous Provisions) Act (1995) 7980
  • greenhouse gases 461
  • Hague Rules (1924)/Hague–Visby Rules (1968) charterparties 132137
  • Hague-Visby Rules
  • Hamburg Rules (1978)
  • hazardous and noxious substances 438450
    • 2010 HNS fund 447449
    • application of 2010 HNS Convention 442
    • damage covered 441442
    • direct action against insurers 444
    • HNS Convention 438450
    • insurance issues 444
    • jurisdictional issues 446447, 449450
    • limitation of liability 444446
      • applicable limits 444445
      • establishment and distribution of limitation fund 445446
      • loss of right 445
    • scope of application 440
    • ships subject to 2010 HNS Convention 440441
    • time bars 446, 449
    • type of liability imposed 443
    • who is liable 442443
  • Herald of Free Enterprise disaster (1987) 233234
  • high seas 348359
    • duties of flag State 352356
    • exceptions to exclusivity of flag State jurisdiction 356359
      • hot pursuit 357
      • right of visit 356
    • nationality of ships 348352
  • HNS Convention (International Convention on Liability and Compensation for Damage in Connection with the Carriage of Hazardous and Noxious Substances by Sea 1996) 440441, 442
  • HNS Fund 447449
  • hull and machinery insurance 500509
  • ICC (International Chamber of Commerce) 108109, 122
  • ICJ (International Court of Justice)
  • ICS (International Chamber of Shipping) 378, 516
  • IHM (International Certificate on Inventory of Hazardous Materials) 456457, 460
  • illegality 35
    • warranty of 488
  • IMDGC (International Maritime Dangerous Goods Code) 440
  • IMF (International Monetary Fund) 223, 323
  • IMO (International Maritime Organization) 359369
    • becoming party to conventions 364368
    • competent international organization in UNCLOS 368369
    • conventions of multilateral treaties 363364
    • role 359361
    • structure 361363
  • Inchmaree clause 503505
  • Incoterms (ICC Official Rules for the Interpretation of Trade Terms) 108109, 112
    • wording for 2020 Rules 118120
  • injunctions see freezing injunctions
  • innominate terms 491
  • Institute Cargo Clauses 509
  • insurance 466529
    • brokers 472476
    • cargo 509513
    • conditions 491493
    • contracting out of Insurance Act 2015 493
    • deemed full disclosure 479480
    • disclosure 479
    • duty of fair presentation of risk 478488
    • facts that need not be disclosed 480481
    • formation of contracts 467472
    • hull and machinery 500509
    • inducement 483484
    • leading underwriter 470472
    • material facts 482483
    • materiality 481482
    • open market placement 468470
    • post-contractual duty of good faith 486487
    • premium 476478
    • presumption of inducement 484485
    • protection and indemnity 513523
    • remedy for breach of duty of fair presentation of risk 485486
    • subrogation 493497
    • sue and labour expenses 497500
    • terminology 467468
    • waiver of breach 486
    • warranties 488491
  • Intergovernmental Maritime Consultative Organisation 351
  • internal waters 343344
  • International Association of Marine Insurance (IUMI) 274
  • International Group Agreement (IGA) 516
  • International Group of P&I Clubs 262, 268, 515517
  • international law 334373
  • International Ready for Recycling Certificate 457
  • International Salvage Union (ISU) 262, 269, 516
  • International Ship Security Certificate (ISSC) 382384
  • international trade 106127
    • carriage arrangements 109110
    • c.i.f contracts 109110
    • contract and its terms 107109
    • f.o.b contracts 109110
    • international commercial sales on shipment terms 107110
    • parties to contract of carriage 110
    • passing of risk and property in goods 110114
      • contractual exceptions 113
      • exceptions to rule 113114
      • legal exceptions 113114
      • property passes when intended to pass 114
      • risk passes on or as from shipment 111113
    • performance of contract 114124
      • see performance of contract
    • rejection of goods 124127
      • see rejection of goods
    • risk of market fluctuations 109110
  • International Tribunal for the Law of the Sea (ITLOS) 338, 371
    • The Camouco 371
    • The Juno Trader 373
    • The Louisa 349
    • The Monte Confurco 371372
    • The M/V Saiga (No 2) 347, 351
    • The Volga 372
  • investigation
  • IOPC Fund Convention 408, 426

    • Page 620

      Landcatch Ltd v International Oil Pollution Compensation Fund 414
  • ISM Code 376381
  • ISPS Code 382386
    • commercial and insurance implications 385386
    • contracting governments 385
    • legal and commercial implications 384386
    • overview 382384
    • port facilities 385
    • ports 385
    • ships entering port 384385
    • training 383, 386
  • Japan Shipping Exchange Form see Nipponsale Form
  • judicial decisions 338339
  • jurisdiction 1754
    • agency 41
    • agreement 4951
    • anti–suit injunctions 5354
    • application of maritime conventions 17
    • Arrest Convention 44
    • assignment 22
    • clause 2227
    • common law 4653
    • contract claims 3438
    • damages for breach of jurisdiction agreement 5455
    • direct action 22
    • forum non conveniens 4749
    • Hague Convention on Choice of Court
    • Agreements 2005 1819
    • insurance 22
    • Jurisdiction Regulation 1946
    • limitation 43
    • multiple defendants 4243
    • multiple proceedings 2831
    • no clause 3334
    • Recast Jurisdiction Regulation 1946
    • related actions 3133
    • remuneration for salvage of cargo or freight 42
    • third party proceedings 43
    • tonnage limitation 5253
    • tort claims 3841
  • jurisdictional issues
  • laytime 184190
  • League of Nations Conference on the Codification of International Law (1930) 340
  • letter of indemnity (LOI) 214, 522
  • letters of credit 127128
  • letters of undertaking
    • protection and indemnity insurance 520524
  • liability
    • apportionment 253
    • Athens Conventions 239240
    • bunker oil pollution 430431
    • carriage of hazardous waste 451453
    • carriage of passengers 230233
    • carrier 221224
    • claimants 224
    • collision damage 248251
    • exceptions 222
    • faults of ships under pilotage 299302
    • ISM Code 380381
    • limitations 233234, 263264, 302328
    • Merchant Shipping Act (1995) 434
    • oil pollution, for 408428
    • pollution from hazardous and noxious substances 438450
    • ports and harbours 329
    • three-fourths collision 505
    • time bar 263264
  • liens 192195
  • liens, maritime 550553
  • limitation fund
  • limitation of liability 302328
    • claims excluded from 311312
    • claims paid out of limitation fund 324
    • claims subject to 307311
    • consequences of constitution of limitation fund 325326
    • constitution of limitation fund 322324
    • counterclaims 320322
    • jurisdictional issues 327328
    • limits 317320
    • loss of life 319320
    • multiplicity of defendants 320322
    • owners limiting liability against each other 305306

    • Page 621

      personal injury 319320
    • ports and harbours 329
    • priority of claims 322324
    • privilege lost, when 312317
    • property damage 318
    • ships subject to 306307
    • who is entitled 303305
    • without constitution of fund 326327
  • liner shipping
    • definition 570
  • liquified natural gas (LNG) 448449
  • liquified petroleum gas (LPG) 448
  • lis pendens 21, 26
  • litigation
    • impact of ISM Code 378381
  • Lloyd’s Coffee House 92
  • Lloyd’s Maritime Law Newsletter 45
  • Lloyd’s Open Form (LOF)
    • “No Cure–No Pay” 265268
  • locus standi
  • London Maritime Arbitrators’ Association (LMAA) 62
  • London Market 63, 467468, 472
  • losses
    • proving by claimant 211215
  • mandatory provisions
  • Marchioness disaster (1989) 240
  • Mareva injunctions see freezing injunctions
  • marine pollution 403464
    • see also pollution
  • maritime industry see shipping industry
  • Maritime Labour Convention (MLC) (2006) 390394
    • accommodation 393
    • compliance and enforcement 394
    • conditions of employment 393
    • food and catering 393
    • fundamental rights and principles 392394
    • health protection 393394
    • medical care 393394
    • minimum requirements to work on ship 392
    • recreational facilities 393
    • training 392
    • welfare and social security protection 393394
  • maritime zones 339359
    • coastal and flag State rights 343359
    • new zones in modern law of sea 341343
    • two traditional 339341
  • market fluctuations
  • market foreclosure 566
  • Mediterranean Yacht Brokers Association Memorandum of Agreement (MYBA MOA) 88
  • Memorandum of Agreement 6162, 88, 100
  • Merger Regulation framework 591601
  • minimum rest periods
    • shipowners’ responsibilities 389
  • misrepresentation 131, 142
    • duty of fair presentation of risk 481
  • mortgages
  • MRC (Market Reform Contract) 468
  • multiple defendants
    • court jurisdiction 4243
  • multiple proceedings
    • court proceedings 2831
  • Nairobi Convention (2007) 292296
    • compulsory insurance 295296
    • rights and obligations of registered shipowner 294295
    • rights of coastal state 293294
    • scope of application 292293
    • time bar 296
    • wreck removal 292296
  • nationality of ships 348352
  • negotiorum gestio 76
  • NEWBUILDCON 82, 85
  • New York Produce Exchange (NYPE) form 129130
  • Nipponsale Form (1999) 88
  • Norwegian Sale Form (NSF) 6162, 88
  • Norwegian Standard Form of Shipbuilding Contract 82
  • Notice of Actual Readiness (NOAR) 90
  • notice of readiness
  • notice of readiness for delivery (NORD) 90
  • novus casus interveniens 506
  • OBOs (Oil/Bulk/Ore ships) 411
  • off hire
    • time charterparties 177181
  • oil pollution 408435
    • 2003 Supplementary Fund 424425
    • challenges to 1992 CLC and 1992 IOPC Fund system 425427
    • civil liability 408409

    • Page 622

      Civil Liability Convention 1992 410411
    • exclusion of liability 415417
    • jurisdiction for actions under 1992 IOPC Fund Convention 423424
    • jurisdictional issues 420421
    • role of 1992 IOPC Fund 421422
    • liability 412413
    • limitation of liability 417418
    • limits of liability under Fund conventions 423
    • Merchant Shipping Act 1995, section.154 434
    • shipowner’s limitation fund 419420
    • spilled oil as waste 434435
    • STOPIA 2006 427428
    • time bar 422423
    • TOPIA 2006 427428
    • types of vessel covered 411412
    • when liability may arise 413415
    • when shipowner loses right to limit liability 418419
  • open covers
    • cargo insurance 509
  • Open Market Placement 468470
  • opinio iuris sive necessitatis
    • customary international law 336
  • out turn clauses 113
  • P&I Clubs 515517
  • P&O/Nedlloyd Container Line Ltd 592593
  • package and unit limitation 199, 221
  • pacta tertiis principle 337
  • Paris Memorandum of Understanding on Port State Control (1982) 376
  • Particularly Sensitive Sea Areas 297, 369
  • passengers see carriage of passengers
  • passing of risk and property in the goods 110114
  • “pay to be paid” rule 518519
  • performance of contract
    • as agreed in sale contract 117119
    • conditions by contract 115116
    • conditions by law 116117
    • seller’s documentary duties 119124
      • to bank under letter of credit 121124
      • to buyer under sale contract 120
    • seller’s physical duties 115119
    • shipping contractual goods 115117
  • pilotage 298302
    • definition 298
    • liability for faults of ships under 299302
    • liability of 299300
    • liability of harbour authority 300301
    • shipowner’s vicarious liability 301302
    • statutory provisions 298299
  • piracy
  • piracy clause
  • places of refuge 330331
  • pollution 403464
    • carriage of hazardous wastes 451453
    • EC Directive 2004/35 435438
    • EU provisions 435438
    • hazardous and noxious substances 438450
    • radioactive substances 450451
    • ship standards in construction, operation and manning 406408
    • UK withdrawal from EU 463464
  • port safety management 329
  • port state control 330
  • ports and harbours 328331
    • claims by port authorities 329330
    • limitation of liability 329
    • places of refuge 330331
  • private international law 24, 50
    • see also international law
  • Private International Law (Miscellaneous Provisions Act) (1995) 56, 76, 7980
  • private law
    • evidentiary value of the register 99102
    • ship registration 94
  • privity problem 200201
  • promissory estoppel 490491, 529
  • Protection and Indemnity insurance (P&I insurance) 513523
    • calls 517
    • claims handling 517
    • claims settlement
    • club letters of undertaking 520523
    • conditions 515
    • direct action 518
    • exceptions 515
    • freight, demurrage and defence cover 520
    • International Group of P&I Clubs 515517
    • letter of undertaking 520523
    • managers’ agents 517
    • mutual system 520
    • pay to be paid rule 518519
    • risks covered 513514
    • structure of clubs 514515
    • technical advice and support 517518
    • underwriting 517
  • proving claimant’s loss 211215
    • clausing bills 213214
    • estoppel weaker than it seems 213
    • notice of loss at discharge 211
    • third party claim
      • conclusive evidence 212213
    • weight and quantity unknown clauses 214215
    • where shipper claims
      • prima facie presumption 211212
  • public international law 334373
    • see also international law
  • public law
    • evidentiary value of the register 99

  • Page 623

    public policy 70, 78
  • quasi contracts 270
  • Queen Elizabeth ship 82
  • radioactive substances, pollution from 450451
  • readiness
  • reasonable despatch 149150
  • record-keeping 390
  • Registrar General of Shipping and Seamen 93
  • registration of mortgages 104105
    • power of sale 104105
    • priority among mortgages 105
  • registration of ships 92102
    • basic features 9395
    • British connection 98
    • evidentiary value of register 99102
      • private law 99102
      • public law 99
      • statutory treatment given to register documents 102
    • four parts of register 94
    • key features of centralised system 9293
    • public and private law aspects 94
    • qualifications to own British ship 9596
    • requirements for registration under Part I of register 9598
    • ships entitled to be registered in Part I of register 9697
    • voluntary character 9495
  • Regulation 4056/86 567569
  • reinsurance 523529
    • as original 524527
    • claims provisions 528529
    • follow the settlements clauses 527528
  • rejection of goods 124127
    • buyer, by 125126
    • buyer’s remedy 124127
    • curing documentary tender in cash against documents transactions 127
    • curing documentary tender in letters of credit transactions 127
    • curing physical performance 127
    • rejection of documents by bank 126127
    • seller’s right to care 124127
  • related actions
    • court jurisdiction 3133
  • remedies
    • owner’s breach, for 141149
  • remuneration 34, 165, 177, 294, 310311
    • Salvage Convention 266268, 288
    • salvage of cargo or freight, for 42
    • salvage reward 258259
    • towage law 284286
  • retrocession 524, 526
  • risk 511, 513514
  • Rome I (Convention on the Law Applicable to Contractual Obligations) 5774
    • community law 71
    • domestic contract 6667
    • freedom of choice 6166
    • international conventions 7071
    • no choice 7174
    • overriding mandatory provisions 6770
    • party choice 66
    • public policy 70
    • scope 5761
  • Rome II (Regulation of Law Applicable to Non–Contractual Obligations) 7579
    • community law 78
    • direct action 76, 77
    • domestic contract 7778
    • freedom of choice 7677
    • international conventions 7879
    • overriding mandatory provisions 78
    • public policy 78
    • scope 79
    • subrogation 77
  • ROs (Recognised Organisations)
    • liabilities in performance of statutory duties 399402
  • safe ports 152156
    • meaning 152
    • nominations 153
    • secondary obligation 155
    • weather conditions 154
  • safety and compliance 374402
  • Safety Management Certificate (SMC) 378, 395
  • Safety Management Manual 378
  • SAJ (Shipbuilders’ Association of Japan Form) 82
  • sale contracts 107109
  • sale of second-hand tonnage 8792
    • deposit 8990
    • encumbrances 9192
    • notice of readiness 9091
  • salvage 254269
    • apportionment of reward 263
    • contracts under Salvage Convention 264
    • control of operation by coastal states 268269
    • dismissal of salvors 265
    • financial security 262
    • limitation of liability 263
    • Lloyd’s Open Form
      • “No cure–No pay” 265268
    • reward 258261
    • time bar 263
    • towage, and 284288
    • who can claim reward 261262

  • Page 624

    Salvage Convention (International Salvage Convention) 256258
    • contracts under 264
    • review of 269
  • salvage reward 258262
    • apportionment 263
  • SCOPIC Clause (P&I Club) 507, 548, 551
  • SCR (Special Casualty Representative) 267
  • scrapping of ships 453460
    • authorised ship recycling facilities 457458
    • entry into force of SRC 458459
    • equivalent level of control 459460
    • European ship recycling regulation 460
    • regulation of hazardous materials used for construction of ships 456457
    • regulations for safe and environmentally sound recycling 456
    • ship recycling convention 455
    • structures to which SRC applies 455456
  • SDRs (Special Drawing Rights) 223
  • sea waybills 203204
  • seaworthiness 137141
    • burden of proof 138
    • due diligence 139
    • meaning 138
    • time bar 141
  • SEEMP (Ship Energy Efficiency Management Plan) 462
  • seller
  • “shelf-to-shelf” cover 510
  • Shelltime form 7
    • 3 or 4 form 130
    • 4 charterparty 160
    • charter period 170
  • ship arrest 536542
    • see also arrest
  • Ship Recycling Convention (SRC) 455
  • Ship Recycling Facilities
  • shipbrokers 129132
  • shipbuilding 8287
    • contractual framework 8287
    • delivery of the “good” 86
    • formation of contract 8485
    • nature of contracts 8384
    • pre-delivery inspection 86
    • terms of contract 8587
    • trials 86
    • warranties under contract 8687
  • shipment terms
    • international commercial sales 107
  • shipper’s order bills 202
  • shippers 200
  • shipping consortia 578581
  • shipping documentation see documentation, shipping
  • shipping industry
    • application of Article 101 TFEU 566567
    • merger regulation 603605
  • shipping pools
  • ship’s delivery order 204
  • Singapore Shipsale Form (SSF 2011) 88
  • slot charterers 303
  • SOLAS (International Convention for the Safety of Life at Sea) 375376
  • SOSREP (Secretary of State’s Representative), UK 268269
  • special compensation
  • standard of care 227, 284
  • State aid 588591, 603
  • STCW2010 (International convention on Standards of Training, Certification and Watchkeeping as amended in2010) 386390
    • aim 386
    • certification 388389
    • crew co–ordination 389
    • documentation 390
    • flag administrations 387388
    • minimum rest periods 389
    • non-compliance and legal consequences 390
    • record–keeping 390
    • responsibilities of shipowners 388390
    • responsibility for compliance 390
    • training 386390
    • ship-specific familiarisation 389
  • STOPIA 2006 (Small Tanker Oil Pollution Indemnification Agreement) 427428
  • straight bills of lading 203204
  • sub-freight
  • subrogation
    • arbitration 9
    • insurance, and 493497
  • sue and labour expenses 497500
  • sue and labour clause 497, 505506
  • Supplementary Fund 2003 424425
  • UCP (Uniform Customs and Practice for Documentary Credits) 122, 208
  • UKSTC (UK Standard Conditions for Towage and Other Services) 278280
  • ultra vires contracts 35
  • UNCITRAL (UN Commission on International Trade Law) 368
  • UNCLOS (UN Convention on the Law of the Sea) 337
    • Article 220 prompt release procedure 369373
    • IMO as competent international organisation in 368369
  • UNCTAD (UN Conference on Trade and Development) 98, 368
  • UK (United Kingdom)
  • unjust enrichment 38, 76, 79
  • unjustified deviation 151
  • unseaworthiness
    • cargo claims, and 379
    • debility, and 503
  • unseaworthy ship
    • general average 272
  • “Waller Test” 115
  • warranties
    • marine insurance 488491
    • under the contract 8687
  • War Risks Clause for Time Charters 2004 156
  • waste, hazardous
  • “weight and quantity unknown” clauses 214215
  • withdrawal 171177
    • see also UK
  • Woolf Report on Access to Justice (1996) 378
  • World Trade Organisation (WTO) 343344
  • wreck removal 290297
    • 2007 Nairobi Convention 292296 see also Nairobi Convention 2007
    • historic wrecks 296297
    • wreck–raising contracts 296
  • wrongful arrest
  • York-Antwerp Rules

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