We use cookies to improve your website experience. To learn about our use of cookies and how you can manage your cookie settings, please see our Cookie Policy. By continuing to use the website, you consent to our use of cookies. Close

Index

Maritime Law

Page 613 Index Index abuse of dominant position 581 – 588 assessment of dominance 584 – 585 examples 585 – 587 identification of relevant geographic market 582 – 584 identification of relevant product market 584 impact on trade between member states 587 – 588 action in personam 533 – 534 , 539 action in rem 533 – 536 claims procedure 542 – 543 collisions 543 ship arrest 536 – 542 Admiralty Court 68 , 533 action in rem 531 arrest 543 – 544 priority of claims 548 Admiralty jurisdiction of High Court 532 – 542 affreightment contract 110 , 570 , 572 agency brokers 472 court jurisdiction 41 – 42 anti-suit injunctions arbitration 10 – 14 contempt of court 10 , 54 delay 10 discretion 10 , 53 granted by arbitration tribunal 13 , 14 jurisdiction 53 – 54 Jurisdiction Regulation, and 11 – 12 Recast jurisdiction Regulation, and 13 – 14 anti-technicality clauses 171 , 173 – 176 arbitration 4 – 17 advantages over court litigation 4 anti-suit injunction 10 – 14 delay 10 contempt of court 10 effectiveness 10 Jurisdiction Regulation, and 11 – 12 Recast jurisdiction Regulation, and 13 – 14 assignment 9 damages for breach of agreement 14 direct action against insurer 9 incorporation of clause in charterparty 5 – 7 jurisdiction of tribunal 5 recognition and enforcement 14 – 17 subrogated insurer 9 valid agreement 5 – 10 archipelagic waters maritime zones 341 , 346 armed personnel 355 – 356 arrest 536 – 542 , 543 – 548 caution against 546 – 547 consequences 544 cross–border insolvency, and 553 – 556 judicial sale 545 – 546 release of ship under 545 wrongful, damages for 547 – 548 arrived ship laytime 184 – 186 Asbatankvoy charterparties 130 , 185 , 190 assignment abandonment, and 496 jurisdiction 9 , 22 Association of Average Adjusters 272 Association of European Shipbuilders and Shiprepairers Form see AWES Form Athens Convention (1974) 239 – 240 Jurisdiction 236 direct action against insurer 237 Athens Regulation carriage of passengers 238 direct action against insurer 238 jurisdiction 236 , 237 atmospheric pollution 460 – 463 AWES Form 82 bailment 199 , 286 towage and carriage 288 – 289 Baltic and International Maritime Council (BIMCO) 82 implications of ISPS 385 non-payment 174 War Risks Clause 156 York-Antwerp Rules 271 , 274 banks rejection of documents by 126 – 127 Page 614 Basel Convention 405 – 406 , 451 – 453 scrapping of ships 454 – 460 bearer bills 201 – 202 bills of lading clausing 213 – 214 incorporating charterparty terms 218 – 219 lawful holder 201 made out to order of named consignee who is not shipper 202 – 203 source of contract, as 217 straight 203 – 204 bollard pull and brake horsepower (BHP) 307 Brandt v Liverpool contract 205 breach by owner remedies 141 – 149 Brexit impact on competition law in maritime industry 605 – 608 Bunker Convention (International Convention on Civil Liability for Bunker Oil Pollution Damage) (2001) 428 – 434 definitions 428 – 430 direct action against insurer 409 , 428 , 433 enforcement of judgments 433 – 434 jurisdiction 433 – 434 liability for bunker oil pollution 430 – 431 limitation of liability 431 – 432 owner losing right to limit liability 432 – 433 scope 428 – 430 time bar 431 time charterparty 178 burden of proof 48 , 117 , 138 – 139 , 288 – 289 barratry 505 breach, of 492 carrier, on the 220 charterer, on the 179 – 180 Misrepresentation Act (1967) 142 presumption of inducement 484 wilful misconduct 502 worldwide freezing injunctions 562 cabotage sector Article 101, and 576 – 578 cargo liens on 192 – 194 cargo claims 196 – 225 Brandt v Liverpool contract 205 cargo insurance 509 – 513 Institute Cargo Clauses 509 limits of cover 511 – 512 losses 512 – 513 scope of policy 509 – 511 carriage, contract of breach 219 – 220 parties to 110 terms 216 – 218 carriage of goods by sea towage, and 288 – 289 Carriage of Goods by Sea Act (1992) 201 – 204 bearer bills 201 – 202 bills of lading made out to order of named consignee who is not shipper 202 – 203 lawful holders of bills of lading 201 sea waybills 203 – 204 shipper’s order bills 202 ship’s delivery orders 204 straight bills of lading 203 – 204 carriage of hazardous wastes, pollution from 451 – 453 carriage of passengers 226 – 245 Athens Convention (1974) 239 – 240 Athens Regulation 238 basis of liability 230 – 233 commercial reality 240 compulsory insurance 237 Covid-19, and 244 – 245 direct action 237 , 238 EU law for sea passengers 240 – 243 jurisdiction 236 – 237 legal framework 227 – 237 liability for damage or loss of luggage and vehicles 232 – 233 liability for loss of life and personal injury 230 – 232 limits of liability 233 – 234 , 235 time bar 234 – 236 withdrawal of UK from European Union 243 – 244 carrier excluding or limiting liability 221 – 224 breaking limitation 223 – 224 exceptions to liability 222 one–year time bar 221 – 222 qualification and limitation of loss 222 – 223 proving breach 215 – 221 bill of lading 217 identifying terms 219 – 221 sources of terms of contract 216 – 219 bill of lading incorporating charterparty terms 218 – 219 contract itself 216 – 217 charterparty 217 – 218 carrier identity in cargo claims 207 – 209 claimant charterer, where 207 claimant not charterer, where 208 claiming against “actual” carrier 208 – 209 nature of problem 207 cash against documents transactions curing documentary tender 127 seller’s duties to buyer 120 – 121 causation 251 – 252 , 506 – 507 Central Register of British Ships, Cardiff 92 – 93 , 94 cesser clauses 195 charterers title to sue 200 Page 615 charterparties 128 – 195 breach by owner, remedies 141 – 149 deviation 150 – 152 frustration 157 – 159 Hague, Hague-Visby and Hamburg Rules 132 – 137 reasonable despatch 149 – 150 safe ports 152 – 156 seaworthiness 137 – 141 shipbrokers 129 – 132 time see time charterparties timing at beginning 159 – 161 voyage see voyage charterparties Choice of Court Agreements 18 – 19 choice of law clause 64 , 84 , 210 , 525 c.i.f (cost, insurance and freight) contracts 109 – 110 claimant’s potential liability towards carrier 224 – 225 claimant’s title to sue 198 – 206 complexities 197 – 198 f.o.b seller and title to sue 206 Hague-Visby Rules 209 – 211 identity of carrier 207 – 209 locus standi 198 loss of claimant, proving 211 – 215 no doubt about title to sue 200 charterers 200 shippers 200 party with title to sue claiming for benefit of another 205 – 206 privity problem 200 – 201 problems with title to sue not solved by 1992 Act 205 – 206 claims 198 action in rem 536 – 542 Brexit, enforcement and 563 contract 34 – 38 enforcement 530 excluded from liability 311 – 312 handling 517 limitation of liability 239 – 240 , 307 – 311 paid out of limitation fund 324 – 325 port authorities 329 – 330 prioritisation 322 – 324 , 548 – 550 procedure for in rem 542 – 543 provisions 528 settlement 519 – 520 shipper 211 – 212 third party 212 – 213 tort 38 – 41 unseaworthiness, and 379 classification societies 397 – 402 clause paramount 133 – 138 clausing bills 213 – 214 CLC Convention (International Convention on Civil Liability for Oil Pollution Damage) 421 climate change 460 – 463 CMI (Comité Maritime International) 271 – 272 , 274 , 332 Coast Guard European Border Agency 396 – 397 flag state jurisdiction 357 US policy 180 collisions 248 – 254 action in rem in respect of 543 apportionment of liability 253 causation 251 – 252 investigation 253 – 254 liability for damage 248 – 250 regulations 251 time bars 252 towing operation, during 289 – 290 who can claim in respect of damage 252 – 253 “Collision Statement of Case” (formerly Preliminary Act) 254 collusive behaviours control (TFEU Art 101) 565 – 566 COLREGs (International Regulations for Preventing Collisions at Sea) (1972) 369 common law 74 – 75 forum non conveniens 47 – 49 jurisdiction agreement 49 – 52 tonnage limitation 52 – 53 community law domestic contract, in a 67 , 77 – 78 Rome I 71 Rome II 78 competition law 564 – 608 Article 101 TFEU 565 – 581 application to shipping industry 566 – 567 block exemption for liner conferences 567 – 568 commission guidelines on applications 569 – 573 part regime 567 – 568 repeal of Regulation 4056/86 568 – 569 Article 101 and tramp shipping and cabotage sectors 576 – 578 Brexit, impact of 605 – 608 compliance with Article 101 601 – 602 compliance with Article 102 602 – 603 current scenario for liner conferences 573 – 574 effect on trade between Member States 570 – 571 general consequences in case of non–compliance 581 horizontal agreements in maritime transport sector 572 – 573 liner shipping, definition 570 meaning 564 – 565 Merger Regulation 591 – 601 merger regulation in shipping industry 603 – 608 possibility of individual exemption under Article 101(3) 574 – 576 Page 616 recent mergers decisions in EU maritime sector 594 – 601 relevant market definition 571 – 572 shipping consortia 580 – 581 tramp shipping, definition 570 compliance Article 101, with 601 – 602 Article 102, with 602 – 603 enforcement, and 394 – 395 non–compliance 390 , 581 role of classification societies, and 397 – 398 safety, and 374 – 399 STCW compliance, responsibility for 390 conditions employment, of 393 exceptions, and 515 insurance 491 – 492 confirmation notes contracts 107 seller’s documentary duties 119 conflict of laws 2 – 80 arbitration 4 – 17 court jurisdiction 17 – 55 governing law 55 – 80 consortia shipping 578 – 581 construction letter of undertaking 521 – 522 regulation of hazardous materials 456 – 457 ship standards 406 – 408 Contact Group on Piracy 355 contracting governments 385 contracts carriage of 110 , 216 – 221 c.i.f and f.o.b 109 – 110 claims 34 – 38 domestic 66 – 67 , 77 – 78 formation of insurance 467 – 470 performance see performance of contract sale 117 – 119 , 120 salvage 264 – 265 shipbuilding 83 – 85 terms 85 – 87 , 107 – 109 towage, of 275 – 277 wreck-raising 296 contractual exceptions 113 contractual framework shipbuilding, and 82 – 83 contra proferentem rule 87 , 113 , 489 contributory negligence 87 , 237 defence of 131 , 142 , 233 , 413 liability 430 Conwartime clause 156 court jurisdiction see jurisdiction Covid-19 carriage of passengers, and 244 – 245 crew wages charterer’s obligation 170 maritime liens 552 piracy 270 – 271 voyage charterparty 182 cross-border insolvency arrest, and 553 – 556 cross-elasticity 584 cruise ships 227 , 241 culpa in contrahendo 76 customary international law 336 – 337 damages breach of a jurisdiction agreement 54 – 55 breach of an arbitration agreement 14 detention, for 190 – 191 early delivery under a time charterparty 163 – 168 late redelivery under a time charterparty 168 – 170 illegitimate final voyage under a time charter-party 168 – 170 legitimate final voyage under a time chater-party 168 – 170 mitigation 147 , 164 – 168 , 194 remote 143 , 149 wrongful arrest, for 547 – 551 deadfreight voyage charterparty 183 , 192 , 194 death or injury “pay to be paid” rule 519 time bar 234 defective tender seller’s right to cure 127 – 128 delivery redelivery 163 – 170 shipbuilding contracts 86 – 87 ship’s orders 204 – 205 de minimis allowance 117 demise charterparty 72 , 495 – 496 definition 128 – 129 demurrage 190 – 191 calculation 190 damages for detention distinguished 190 – 191 deviation 150 – 152 deviation rule 224 diplomatic immunity 336 direct action against insurer 518 arbitration clause 9 Athens Convention 238 Athen Regulation 238 Bunker Oil Pollution Convention 433 HNS Convention 2010 444 jurisdiction clause 22 LLMC 1976 295 Protection and Indemnity insurance 518 discharge notice of loss at 211 Page 617 Document of Compliance (DOC) ISM Code 378 , 381 , 395 documentation record keeping, and 390 Donaldson Report 330 Dover Coastguard 254 drilling platforms object of salvage, as 256 D terms (destination/arrival or delivered contracts) 107 , 111 EEDI (Energy Efficiency Design Index) 462 EEIGs (European Economic Interest Groupings) registration of ships 96 – 97 EEZ (exclusive economic zone) 346 – 348 bunkering 346 – 348 creeping jurisdiction 346 – 348 law enforcement 346 – 348 EMSA (European Maritime Safety Agency) 395 – 397 training 396 encumbrances sale of second–hand tonnage 91 – 92 enforcement compliance, and 394 – 395 EEZ 364 – 348 judgments, of 433 – 434 recognition, and 14 – 17 enforcement of maritime claims 530 – 551 action in rem 533 – 534 , 537 action in rem in respect of collisions 543 Admiralty jurisdiction of High Court 532 – 542 group of one–ship sister companies 539 – 542 limitation actions 550 – 551 priority of claims 548 – 550 procedure for claims in rem 542 – 543 procedures 533 ship arrest 536 – 542 see also arrest withdrawal from EU, and 563 English Channel 316 Environmental Liability Directive (ELD) (2004) 464 Environmental Protection Agency, US 525 equitable set off deductions from hire (time charterparties) 181 – 183 estoppel weakness 213 EU law for sea passengers 240 – 243 compensation for delay and cancellation 240 – 241 protection for passengers on travel package 241 – 243 protection of passengers with disability or reduced mobility 240 – 241 EU, withdrawal from enforcement of maritime claims, and 563 European Commission anti–suit injunctions 13 form of assistance 591 IGA 516 jurisdiction 604 Merger Regulation 600 MLC 391 Regulation 4056/86 567 , 573 – 574 Rome II 78 European Economic Community (EEC) creation 565 European Ship Recycling Regulation (EU–SRR) 460 European Union (EU) UK withdrawal from 463 – 464 evidence physical performance, of 125 third party claims 212 – 213 exclusion of liability 415 – 417 valuables, for 233 ex works contracts ( E terms ) 107 , 111 FD&D (freight, demurrage and defence) cover 520 Federation of Oils, Seeds and Fat Associations Ltd (FOSFA) 107 “final clauses” in international conventions becoming party to IMO conventions 364 – 368 financial issues 102 – 105 basic structure of ship finance agreement 103 – 104 registration of mortgages 103 – 104 flag States administrations 377 – 378 , 387 – 388 European 395 Non-traditional 386 – 387 port state control 330 , 376 rights over shipping 343 – 359 statutory surveys 398 floating production storage and offloading units (FPSO) 82 , 411 floating storage units (FSUs) 411 f.o.b (free on board) contracts 109 – 110 f.o.b seller title to sue, and 206 fog, navigation in 186 , 251 foi publique doctrine 101 “follow the settlements” clauses 527 – 528 foreseeability 158 forum non conveniens 47 – 49 freedom of choice 61 – 66 , 76 – 77 freedom of navigation 333 , 339 , 340 , 347 – 349 freezing injunctions 556 – 563 assets subject to 562 – 563 consequences 560 – 561 when English courts can issue 557 – 558 when English courts will issue 558 – 560 worldwide 561 – 562 Page 618 freight voyage charterparty 183 – 184 freight prepaid 193 frustration 157 – 159 fundamental breach 143 doctrine of 151 , 224 secondary obligation 145 unjustified deviation 151 GAFTA (Grain and Feed Trade Association) 107 GATT (General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade) 343 Gencon charterparty 130 general average 269 – 274 functioning of 272 – 273 future of 274 meaning 269 – 270 piracy 270 – 271 typical examples 270 unseaworthy ship 272 York–Antwerp Rules 271 General Lighthouse Authorities 328 – 329 General Underwriters Agreement (GUA) 471 good faith post–contractual duty 486 – 488 “good seamanship” collision regulations 251 liability 290 navigational standards 249 , 250 goods passing of risk 110 – 114 rejection of 125 – 126 shipping of contractual 115 – 117 towage and carriage of 288 – 289 governing law 55 – 80 common law 74 – 75 harmonisation of rules 55 Rome I 57 – 74 community law 71 community law in domestic contract 67 freedom of choice 61 – 66 international conventions 70 – 71 limits on party choice 66 no choice 71 – 74 overriding mandatory provisions 67 – 70 provisions which cannot be derogated from by agreement in domestic contract 66 – 67 public policy 70 scope 57 – 61 Rome II 75 – 79 community law 78 community law in domestic contract 77 direct action against insurer 76 , 77 freedom of choice 76 – 77 international conventions 78 overriding mandatory provisions 78 provisions which cannot be derogated from by agreement in domestic contract 77 public policy 78 scope of law applicable 79 subrogation 77 sections 9 to 15 of Private International Law (Miscellaneous Provisions) Act (1995) 79 – 80 greenhouse gases 461 Hague Rules (1924)/Hague–Visby Rules (1968) charterparties 132 – 137 time bar 136 , 141 , 151 , 152 Hague-Visby Rules application 67 – 69 cargo claims 209 – 211 Hamburg Rules (1978) charterparties 132 – 137 time bar 133 , 141 hazardous and noxious substances 438 – 450 2010 HNS fund 447 – 449 application of 2010 HNS Convention 442 damage covered 441 – 442 direct action against insurers 444 HNS Convention 438 – 450 insurance issues 444 jurisdictional issues 446 – 447 , 449 – 450 limitation of liability 444 – 446 applicable limits 444 – 445 establishment and distribution of limitation fund 445 – 446 loss of right 445 scope of application 440 ships subject to 2010 HNS Convention 440 – 441 time bars 446 , 449 type of liability imposed 443 who is liable 442 – 443 Herald of Free Enterprise disaster (1987) 233 – 234 high seas 348 – 359 duties of flag State 352 – 356 exceptions to exclusivity of flag State jurisdiction 356 – 359 hot pursuit 357 right of visit 356 nationality of ships 348 – 352 HNS Convention (International Convention on Liability and Compensation for Damage in Connection with the Carriage of Hazardous and Noxious Substances by Sea 1996) 440 – 441 , 442 HNS Fund 447 – 449 hull and machinery insurance 500 – 509 causation 506 – 507 collision liability 505 debility 503 fortuity 501 – 502 general average 505 Page 619 Inchmaree clause 503 – 505 losses 507 – 509 perils of the seas 501 salvage 505 sue and labour 505 – 506 unseaworthiness 503 wilful misconduct 502 – 503 ICC (International Chamber of Commerce) 108 – 109 , 122 ICJ (International Court of Justice) judgments 338 – 339 Nottebohm Case 351 ICS (International Chamber of Shipping) 378 , 516 IHM (International Certificate on Inventory of Hazardous Materials) 456 – 457 , 460 illegality 35 warranty of 488 IMDGC (International Maritime Dangerous Goods Code) 440 IMF (International Monetary Fund) 223 , 323 IMO (International Maritime Organization) 359 – 369 becoming party to conventions 364 – 368 competent international organization in UNCLOS 368 – 369 conventions of multilateral treaties 363 – 364 role 359 – 361 structure 361 – 363 Inchmaree clause 503 – 505 Incoterms (ICC Official Rules for the Interpretation of Trade Terms ) 108 – 109 , 112 wording for 2020 Rules 118 – 120 injunctions see freezing injunctions innominate terms 491 Institute Cargo Clauses 509 insurance 466 – 529 brokers 472 – 476 cargo 509 – 513 conditions 491 – 493 contracting out of Insurance Act 2015 493 deemed full disclosure 479 – 480 disclosure 479 duty of fair presentation of risk 478 – 488 facts that need not be disclosed 480 – 481 formation of contracts 467 – 472 hull and machinery 500 – 509 inducement 483 – 484 leading underwriter 470 – 472 material facts 482 – 483 materiality 481 – 482 open market placement 468 – 470 post-contractual duty of good faith 486 – 487 premium 476 – 478 presumption of inducement 484 – 485 protection and indemnity 513 – 523 remedy for breach of duty of fair presentation of risk 485 – 486 subrogation 493 – 497 sue and labour expenses 497 – 500 terminology 467 – 468 waiver of breach 486 warranties 488 – 491 Intergovernmental Maritime Consultative Organisation 351 internal waters 343 – 344 International Association of Marine Insurance (IUMI) 274 International Group Agreement (IGA) 516 International Group of P&I Clubs 262 , 268 , 515 – 517 international law 334 – 373 academic writings 338 – 339 customary 336 – 337 judicial decisions 338 – 339 place in shipping world 334 – 339 sources 334 – 339 treaties 337 – 338 International Ready for Recycling Certificate 457 International Salvage Union (ISU) 262 , 269 , 516 International Ship Security Certificate (ISSC) 382 – 384 international trade 106 – 127 carriage arrangements 109 – 110 c.i.f contracts 109 – 110 contract and its terms 107 – 109 f.o.b contracts 109 – 110 international commercial sales on shipment terms 107 – 110 parties to contract of carriage 110 passing of risk and property in goods 110 – 114 contractual exceptions 113 exceptions to rule 113 – 114 legal exceptions 113 – 114 property passes when intended to pass 114 risk passes on or as from shipment 111 – 113 performance of contract 114 – 124 see performance of contract rejection of goods 124 – 127 see rejection of goods risk of market fluctuations 109 – 110 International Tribunal for the Law of the Sea (ITLOS) 338 , 371 The Camouco 371 The Juno Trader 373 The Louisa 349 The Monte Confurco 371 – 372 The M/V Saiga (No 2) 347 , 351 The Volga 372 investigation collisions, of 253 – 254 IOPC Fund Convention 408 , 426 Page 620 Landcatch Ltd v International Oil Pollution Compensation Fund 414 ISM Code 376 – 381 cargo claims 379 certification 379 – 380 control 379 – 380 designated person 378 impact on litigation 378 – 381 insurance cover 379 – 380 limitation of liability 380 – 381 unseaworthiness 379 verification 379 – 380 ISPS Code 382 – 386 commercial and insurance implications 385 – 386 contracting governments 385 legal and commercial implications 384 – 386 overview 382 – 384 port facilities 385 ports 385 ships entering port 384 – 385 training 383 , 386 Japan Shipping Exchange Form see Nipponsale Form judicial decisions 338 – 339 jurisdiction 17 – 54 agency 41 agreement 49 – 51 anti–suit injunctions 53 – 54 application of maritime conventions 17 Arrest Convention 44 assignment 22 clause 22 – 27 common law 46 – 53 contract claims 34 – 38 damages for breach of jurisdiction agreement 54 – 55 direct action 22 forum non conveniens 47 – 49 Hague Convention on Choice of Court Agreements 2005 18 – 19 insurance 22 Jurisdiction Regulation 19 – 46 limitation 43 multiple defendants 42 – 43 multiple proceedings 28 – 31 no clause 33 – 34 Recast Jurisdiction Regulation 19 – 46 related actions 31 – 33 remuneration for salvage of cargo or freight 42 third party proceedings 43 tonnage limitation 52 – 53 tort claims 38 – 41 jurisdictional issues liability for oil pollution 420 – 421 limitation of liability 327 – 328 time bars 446 – 447 , 449 – 450 Kyoto Protocol 1997 405 , 461 – 462 laytime 184 – 190 arrived ship 184 – 186 calculation of 189 – 190 notice of readiness 186 – 187 readiness 187 – 189 League of Nations Conference on the Codification of International Law (1930) 340 letter of indemnity (LOI) 214 , 522 letters of credit 127 – 128 letters of undertaking protection and indemnity insurance 520 – 524 liability apportionment 253 Athens Conventions 239 – 240 bunker oil pollution 430 – 431 carriage of hazardous waste 451 – 453 carriage of passengers 230 – 233 carrier 221 – 224 claimants 224 collision damage 248 – 251 exceptions 222 faults of ships under pilotage 299 – 302 ISM Code 380 – 381 limitations 233 – 234 , 263 – 264 , 302 – 328 Merchant Shipping Act (1995) 434 oil pollution, for 408 – 428 pollution from hazardous and noxious substances 438 – 450 ports and harbours 329 three-fourths collision 505 time bar 263 – 264 liens 192 – 195 cargo, on 192 – 194 sub–freight, on 172 , 177 , 194 – 195 freight prepaid 193 liens, maritime 550 – 553 limitation fund claims paid out 324 – 325 consequences 325 – 326 constitution of 322 – 324 establishment and distribution of 445 – 446 shipowner’s 419 – 420 limitation of liability 302 – 328 claims excluded from 311 – 312 claims paid out of limitation fund 324 claims subject to 307 – 311 consequences of constitution of limitation fund 325 – 326 constitution of limitation fund 322 – 324 counterclaims 320 – 322 jurisdictional issues 327 – 328 limits 317 – 320 loss of life 319 – 320 multiplicity of defendants 320 – 322 owners limiting liability against each other 305 – 306 Page 621 personal injury 319 – 320 ports and harbours 329 priority of claims 322 – 324 privilege lost, when 312 – 317 property damage 318 ships subject to 306 – 307 who is entitled 303 – 305 without constitution of fund 326 – 327 liner shipping definition 570 liquified natural gas (LNG) 448 – 449 liquified petroleum gas (LPG) 448 lis pendens 21 , 26 litigation impact of ISM Code 378 – 381 Lloyd’s Coffee House 92 Lloyd’s Maritime Law Newsletter 4 – 5 Lloyd’s Open Form (LOF) “No Cure–No Pay” 265 – 268 locus standi claimant’s title to sue 198 – 199 , 200 f.o.b seller 206 London Maritime Arbitrators’ Association (LMAA) 62 London Market 63 , 467 – 468 , 472 losses proving by claimant 211 – 215 mandatory provisions overriding 67 – 70 , 78 Marchioness disaster (1989) 240 Mareva injunctions see freezing injunctions marine pollution 403 – 464 see also pollution maritime industry see shipping industry Maritime Labour Convention (MLC) (2006) 390 – 394 accommodation 393 compliance and enforcement 394 conditions of employment 393 food and catering 393 fundamental rights and principles 392 – 394 health protection 393 – 394 medical care 393 – 394 minimum requirements to work on ship 392 recreational facilities 393 training 392 welfare and social security protection 393 – 394 maritime zones 339 – 359 coastal and flag State rights 343 – 359 new zones in modern law of sea 341 – 343 two traditional 339 – 341 market fluctuations risk 109 – 110 market foreclosure 566 Mediterranean Yacht Brokers Association Memorandum of Agreement (MYBA MOA) 88 Memorandum of Agreement 61 – 62 , 88 , 100 Merger Regulation framework 591 – 601 minimum rest periods shipowners’ responsibilities 389 misrepresentation 131 , 142 duty of fair presentation of risk 481 mortgages registration 104 – 105 MRC (Market Reform Contract) 468 multiple defendants court jurisdiction 42 – 43 multiple proceedings court proceedings 28 – 31 Nairobi Convention (2007) 292 – 296 compulsory insurance 295 – 296 rights and obligations of registered shipowner 294 – 295 rights of coastal state 293 – 294 scope of application 292 – 293 time bar 296 wreck removal 292 – 296 nationality of ships 348 – 352 negotiorum gestio 76 NEWBUILDCON 82 , 85 New York Produce Exchange (NYPE) form 129 – 130 broker’s commission 131 , 132 cancellation clause 142 , 229 clause paramount 134 , 135 , 137 and 138 deductions from hire 181 lien on cargo 192 lien on sub-freight 194 mutual exceptions clause 139 offhire 149 , 177 – 180 , 251 reasonable despatch 149 safe port 152 right to withdraw 174 seaworthiness 137 , 138 war risks 155 , 156 Nipponsale Form (1999) 88 Norwegian Sale Form (NSF) 61 – 62 , 88 Norwegian Standard Form of Shipbuilding Contract 82 Notice of Actual Readiness (NOAR) 90 notice of readiness laytime 186 – 187 notice of readiness for delivery (NORD) 90 novus casus interveniens 506 OBOs (Oil/Bulk/Ore ships) 411 off hire time charterparties 177 – 181 oil pollution 408 – 435 2003 Supplementary Fund 424 – 425 challenges to 1992 CLC and 1992 IOPC Fund system 425 – 427 civil liability 408 – 409 Page 622 Civil Liability Convention 1992 410 – 411 exclusion of liability 415 – 417 jurisdiction for actions under 1992 IOPC Fund Convention 423 – 424 jurisdictional issues 420 – 421 role of 1992 IOPC Fund 421 – 422 liability 412 – 413 limitation of liability 417 – 418 limits of liability under Fund conventions 423 Merchant Shipping Act 1995, section.154 434 shipowner’s limitation fund 419 – 420 spilled oil as waste 434 – 435 STOPIA 2006 427 – 428 time bar 422 – 423 TOPIA 2006 427 – 428 types of vessel covered 411 – 412 when liability may arise 413 – 415 when shipowner loses right to limit liability 418 – 419 open covers cargo insurance 509 Open Market Placement 468 – 470 opinio iuris sive necessitatis customary international law 336 out turn clauses 113 P&I Clubs 515 – 517 P&O/Nedlloyd Container Line Ltd 592 – 593 package and unit limitation 199 , 221 pacta tertiis principle 337 Paris Memorandum of Understanding on Port State Control (1982) 376 Particularly Sensitive Sea Areas 297 , 369 passengers see carriage of passengers passing of risk and property in the goods 110 – 114 “pay to be paid” rule 518 – 519 performance of contract as agreed in sale contract 117 – 119 conditions by contract 115 – 116 conditions by law 116 – 117 seller’s documentary duties 119 – 124 to bank under letter of credit 121 – 124 to buyer under sale contract 120 seller’s physical duties 115 – 119 shipping contractual goods 115 – 117 pilotage 298 – 302 definition 298 liability for faults of ships under 299 – 302 liability of 299 – 300 liability of harbour authority 300 – 301 shipowner’s vicarious liability 301 – 302 statutory provisions 298 – 299 piracy general average 270 – 271 piracy clause time charterparty 178 – 181 places of refuge 330 – 331 pollution 403 – 464 carriage of hazardous wastes 451 – 453 EC Directive 2004/35 435 – 438 EU provisions 435 – 438 hazardous and noxious substances 438 – 450 radioactive substances 450 – 451 ship standards in construction, operation and manning 406 – 408 UK withdrawal from EU 463 – 464 port safety management 329 port state control 330 ports and harbours 328 – 331 claims by port authorities 329 – 330 limitation of liability 329 places of refuge 330 – 331 private international law 24 , 50 see also international law Private International Law (Miscellaneous Provisions Act) (1995) 56 , 76 , 79 – 80 private law evidentiary value of the register 99 – 102 ship registration 94 privity problem 200 – 201 promissory estoppel 490 – 491 , 529 Protection and Indemnity insurance (P&I insurance) 513 – 523 calls 517 claims handling 517 claims settlement disputes 519 – 520 club letters of undertaking 520 – 523 conditions 515 direct action 518 exceptions 515 freight, demurrage and defence cover 520 International Group of P&I Clubs 515 – 517 letter of undertaking 520 – 523 managers’ agents 517 mutual system 520 pay to be paid rule 518 – 519 risks covered 513 – 514 structure of clubs 514 – 515 technical advice and support 517 – 518 underwriting 517 proving claimant’s loss 211 – 215 clausing bills 213 – 214 estoppel weaker than it seems 213 notice of loss at discharge 211 third party claim conclusive evidence 212 – 213 weight and quantity unknown clauses 214 – 215 where shipper claims prima facie presumption 211 – 212 public international law 334 – 373 see also international law public law evidentiary value of the register 99 Page 623 public policy 70 , 78 quasi contracts 270 Queen Elizabeth ship 82 radioactive substances, pollution from 450 – 451 readiness laytime 187 – 189 reasonable despatch 149 – 150 record-keeping 390 Registrar General of Shipping and Seamen 93 registration of mortgages 104 – 105 power of sale 104 – 105 priority among mortgages 105 registration of ships 92 – 102 basic features 93 – 95 British connection 98 evidentiary value of register 99 – 102 private law 99 – 102 public law 99 statutory treatment given to register documents 102 four parts of register 94 key features of centralised system 92 – 93 public and private law aspects 94 qualifications to own British ship 95 – 96 requirements for registration under Part I of register 95 – 98 ships entitled to be registered in Part I of register 96 – 97 voluntary character 94 – 95 Regulation 4056/86 567 – 569 reinsurance 523 – 529 as original 524 – 527 claims provisions 528 – 529 follow the settlements clauses 527 – 528 rejection of goods 124 – 127 buyer, by 125 – 126 buyer’s remedy 124 – 127 curing documentary tender in cash against documents transactions 127 curing documentary tender in letters of credit transactions 127 curing physical performance 127 rejection of documents by bank 126 – 127 seller’s right to care 124 – 127 related actions court jurisdiction 31 – 33 remedies owner’s breach, for 141 – 149 remuneration 34 , 165 , 177 , 294 , 310 – 311 Salvage Convention 266 – 268 , 288 salvage of cargo or freight, for 42 salvage reward 258 – 259 towage law 284 – 286 retrocession 524 , 526 risk 511 , 513 – 514 duty of fair presentation 478 – 488 market fluctuations, of 109 – 110 passing of 110 – 114 voyage, and the 509 – 510 Rome I (Convention on the Law Applicable to Contractual Obligations) 57 – 74 community law 71 domestic contract 66 – 67 freedom of choice 61 – 66 international conventions 70 – 71 no choice 71 – 74 overriding mandatory provisions 67 – 70 party choice 66 public policy 70 scope 57 – 61 Rome II (Regulation of Law Applicable to Non–Contractual Obligations) 75 – 79 community law 78 direct action 76 , 77 domestic contract 77 – 78 freedom of choice 76 – 77 international conventions 78 – 79 overriding mandatory provisions 78 public policy 78 scope 79 subrogation 77 ROs (Recognised Organisations) liabilities in performance of statutory duties 399 – 402 safe ports 152 – 156 meaning 152 nominations 153 secondary obligation 155 weather conditions 154 safety and compliance 374 – 402 Safety Management Certificate (SMC) 378 , 395 Safety Management Manual 378 SAJ (Shipbuilders’ Association of Japan Form) 82 sale contracts 107 – 109 sale of second-hand tonnage 87 – 92 deposit 89 – 90 encumbrances 91 – 92 notice of readiness 90 – 91 salvage 254 – 269 apportionment of reward 263 contracts under Salvage Convention 264 control of operation by coastal states 268 – 269 dismissal of salvors 265 financial security 262 limitation of liability 263 Lloyd’s Open Form “No cure–No pay” 265 – 268 reward 258 – 261 time bar 263 towage, and 284 – 288 who can claim reward 261 – 262 Page 624 Salvage Convention (International Salvage Convention) 256 – 258 contracts under 264 review of 269 salvage reward 258 – 262 apportionment 263 SCOPIC Clause (P&I Club) 507 , 548 , 551 incorporation 266 – 268 SCR (Special Casualty Representative) 267 scrapping of ships 453 – 460 authorised ship recycling facilities 457 – 458 entry into force of SRC 458 – 459 equivalent level of control 459 – 460 European ship recycling regulation 460 regulation of hazardous materials used for construction of ships 456 – 457 regulations for safe and environmentally sound recycling 456 ship recycling convention 455 structures to which SRC applies 455 – 456 SDRs (Special Drawing Rights) 223 sea waybills 203 – 204 seaworthiness 137 – 141 burden of proof 138 due diligence 139 meaning 138 time bar 141 SEEMP (Ship Energy Efficiency Management Plan) 462 seller documentary duties 119 – 124 f.o.b 206 – 207 physical duties 115 – 119 right to cure 124 – 128 “shelf-to-shelf” cover 510 Shelltime form 7 3 or 4 form 130 4 charterparty 160 charter period 170 ship arrest 536 – 542 see also arrest Ship Recycling Convention (SRC) 455 Ship Recycling Facilities Authorised 457 – 458 shipbrokers 129 – 132 shipbuilding 82 – 87 contractual framework 82 – 87 delivery of the “good” 86 formation of contract 84 – 85 nature of contracts 83 – 84 pre-delivery inspection 86 terms of contract 85 – 87 trials 86 warranties under contract 86 – 87 shipment terms international commercial sales 107 shipper’s order bills 202 shippers 200 shipping consortia 578 – 581 shipping documentation see documentation, shipping shipping industry application of Article 101 TFEU 566 – 567 merger regulation 603 – 605 shipping pools compliance with Article 101 601 – 602 cooperation 577 EU law 574 – 575 , 604 – 605 guidelines 573 ship’s delivery order 204 Singapore Shipsale Form (SSF 2011) 88 slot charterers 303 SOLAS (International Convention for the Safety of Life at Sea) 375 – 376 SOSREP (Secretary of State’s Representative), UK 268 – 269 special compensation apportionment 263 environmental obligations 287 risks 514 salvage reward 259 – 262 , 263 , 311 SCOPIC Clause 265 – 266 , 273 , 551 standard of care 227 , 284 State aid 588 – 591 , 603 STCW2010 (International convention on Standards of Training, Certification and Watchkeeping as amended in2010) 386 – 390 aim 386 certification 388 – 389 crew co–ordination 389 documentation 390 flag administrations 387 – 388 minimum rest periods 389 non-compliance and legal consequences 390 record–keeping 390 responsibilities of shipowners 388 – 390 responsibility for compliance 390 training 386 – 390 ship-specific familiarisation 389 STOPIA 2006 (Small Tanker Oil Pollution Indemnification Agreement) 427 – 428 straight bills of lading 203 – 204 sub-freight liens on 194 – 195 subrogation arbitration 9 insurance, and 493 – 497 sue and labour expenses 497 – 500 sue and labour clause 497 , 505 – 506 Supplementary Fund 2003 424 – 425 technical agreements 570 , 573 technology 331 – 333 termination for breach of contract charterparty 143 – 147 , 169 – 173 , 191 Page 625 termination of voyage 577 terms of contract 285 territorial sea 344 – 346 TFEU (Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union) abuses of dominant position 581 – 591 control of collusive behaviours 565 – 581 third parties consequences of a freezing injunction 561 time bars charterparties 141 , 191 collisions 252 Hague-Visby Rules 136 , 141 , 151 – 152 Hamburg Rules 133 , 141 pollution 446 , 449 Rotterdam Rules 133 , 141 time charterparties 161 – 182 anti-technicality clause 171 , 173 – 176 cancellation clause 142 capture, seizure and arrest 178 charterer’s obligation to pay hire 170 – 171 , 174 deductions from hire 181 – 182 early redelivery 163 – 168 late redelivery 168 – 170 length of use of ship 162 – 170 off hire 177 – 181 piracy clause 178 – 181 withdrawal 171 – 177 TOPIA (Tanker Oil Pollution Indemnification Agreement) 427 – 428 tort claims 38 – 41 towage 274 – 290 carriage of goods by sea, and 288 – 289 collisions during operation 289 – 290 contract of 275 – 277 definition 274 – 275 salvage, and 284 – 288 standard forms 277 – 284 TOWCON 2008 282 – 284 TOWHIRE 2008 280 – 282 Traffic Separation Schemes 251 , 369 Training 375 , 383 , 386 – 390 , 392 , 396 tramp shipping Article 101 576 – 578 definition 570 treaties 337 – 338 Trinity House 254 deep sea pilots 298 responsibility 328 tugs, employment of 274 – 275 , 279 , 280 , 288 UCP (Uniform Customs and Practice for Documentary Credits) 122 , 208 UKSTC (UK Standard Conditions for Towage and Other Services) 278 – 280 ultra vires contracts 35 UNCITRAL (UN Commission on International Trade Law) 368 UNCLOS (UN Convention on the Law of the Sea) 337 Article 220 prompt release procedure 369 – 373 IMO as competent international organisation in 368 – 369 UNCTAD (UN Conference on Trade and Development) 98 , 368 UK (United Kingdom) standard towing conditions 278 – 280 withdrawal from the EU 17 , 18 , 243 – 244 , 463 – 465 , 562 unjust enrichment 38 , 76 , 79 unjustified deviation 151 unseaworthiness cargo claims, and 379 debility, and 503 unseaworthy ship general average 272 validity 13 , 26 , 60 , 64 , 568 – 569 verification 377 – 378 vessel liabilities of 246 – 333 Vessel Traffic Surveillance (VTS) service 254 vicarious liability pilotage, and 301 – 302 voyage charterparties 182 – 191 demurrage 190 – 191 freight 183 – 184 laytime 184 – 190 termination for non–payment 191 “Waller Test” 115 warranties marine insurance 488 – 491 under the contract 86 – 87 War Risks Clause for Time Charters 2004 156 waste, hazardous liability 451 – 453 “weight and quantity unknown” clauses 214 – 215 withdrawal 171 – 177 see also UK Woolf Report on Access to Justice (1996) 378 World Trade Organisation (WTO) 343 – 344 wreck removal 290 – 297 2007 Nairobi Convention 292 – 296 see also Nairobi Convention 2007 historic wrecks 296 – 297 wreck–raising contracts 296 wrongful arrest damages for 547 – 548 York-Antwerp Rules developments 273 – 274 general average 271

The rest of this document is only available to i-law.com online subscribers.

If you are already a subscriber, please enter your details below to log in.

Enter your email address to log in as a user on your corporate account.
Remember me on this computer

Not yet an i-law subscriber?

Devices

Request a trial Find out more