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Index

International Application of FIDIC Contracts, The

Page 431 Index Index Aarhus Convention 381 Abrahamson Principles 27 Abu Dhabi Global Market 389 acceptance of works France 142 , 144 – 145 Germany 170 – 172 Romania 312 , 316 – 317 Accepted Contract Amount 124 , 189 , 321 , 375 access route 283 – 284 access to Site 342 – 343 , 351 accidental elements 147 adhesion contracts 331 – 332 adjudication 263 – 265 Australia 50 – 53 Ghana 212 , 215 Hong Kong 224 Italy 242 , 244 Malaysia 257 – 259 South Africa 335 Sri Lanka 356 , 357 , 360 Switzerland 367 , 373 advance payment 322 agreement between parties 300 binding 7 contract 12 contract elements, on 392 contract formation 31 , 144 , 225 , 247 , 253 , 332 , 358 – 259 fee 197 freedom of contract, and 6 – 7 sales, and 146 allocation of risks 23 , 176 – 177 , 417 appeal/cassation 160 applicable laws 12 – 18 consistency with 34 – 36 extra-territorial 16 governing law of the contract 15 impact 16 – 18 laws 13 – 14 local laws and the governing law of the contract 15 mandatory 12 non-mandatory 12 scope 16 Arabic text 387 arbitration agreement 16 , 133 , 165 , 194 , 227 , 371 , 393 , 396 arbitration Brazil 78 international 131 – 133 Malaysia 259 Papua New Guinea 278 – 281 Peru 299 Romania 318 – 319 South Africa 338 – 340 Sri Lanka 360 Australia common law 51 constitutional structure 50 – 51 constraints on governing law 52 – 55 court system 51 – 52 desirable Special Provisions in the Particular Conditions 56 – 58 dispute resolution 56 – 57 , 69 East coast model 56 entry into a construction contract 59 FIDIC General Conditions and governing law of the Contract 55 FIDIC General Conditions and the law of the Site/Country 56 FIDIC General Conditions and laws of the seat of the arbitration or relevant laws on dispute determination 56 formal requirements 54 – 55 freedom of choice 54 frustrated contracts 58 governing law that of jurisdiction 52 – 55 , 58 legal environment 50 – 52 misleading or deceptive conduct 71 – 72 necessary Special Provisions in the Particular Conditions 55 – 56 operation of construction contract 62 – 69 payment schedule 57 – 58 proportionate liability 58 , 73 – 75 public policy 53 seat of the dispute determination in jurisdiction 70 security of payment 56 – 58 Site/Country in jurisdiction 62 – 68 termination of construction contract 59 , 69 West coast model 56 Australian Consumer Law ( ACL ) 71 , 73 balanced risk allocation examples 23 – 24 nonstandard terms 24 standard form contracts 23 – 25 Basic Law of Hong Kong 225 bidding process China 96 – 97 Italy 245 bill of quantities 187 Brazil civil law 79 compliance with laws 83 constitutional structure 78 constraints on governing law 79 – 80 court system 78 dispute adjudication boards 82 deemed acceptance of variations 86 defect notice period 81 desirable Special Provisions in the Particular Conditions 82 – 83 dispute resolution 84 , 85 engineer 81 entry into a construction contract 84 FIDIC General Conditions and governing law of the contract 90 – 82 FIDIC General Conditions and the law of the Site/Country 81 FIDIC General Conditions and laws of the seat of the arbitration or relevant laws on dispute determination 81 – 82 formal requirements 80 Page 432 governing law that of jurisdiction 79 – 80 , 84 gross negligence 82 – 83 hardship 87 – 88 indirect damages 80 legal system 78 loss of profit 83 necessary Special Provisions in the Particular Conditions 80 – 83 notice of claim 80 – 81 operation of construction contract 84 – 85 seat of the dispute determination in jurisdiction 86 Site/Country in jurisdiction 84 – 85 termination of construction contract 84 , 85 termination for reorganisation 86 Brazilian Association of Technical Regulation (ABNT) 83 building and construction permits Czech Republic 117 Switzerland 381 building and planning controls Hong Kong 230 – 232 , 286 calendar definitions 397 cancellation, contract 124 capacity 392 carrying on business 282 case management 158 China bidding process 96 Chinese Construction Law (2019 Amendment) 98 civil law 91 constitutional structure 90 constraints on governing law 92 – 95 construction lien 99 – 103 see also construction lien court system 92 defects notification period 97 – 98 desirable Special Provisions in the Particular Conditions 98 – 103 dispute resolution 104 , 108 engineer 109 – 112 entry into a construction contract 101 exceptional events 112 – 113 FIDIC General Conditions and governing law of the contract 95 FIDIC General Conditions and the law of the Site/Country 96 – 99 FIDIC General Conditions and laws of the seat of the arbitration or relevant laws on dispute determination 98 formal requirements 94 – 95 forum public policy 92 governing law that of jurisdiction 92 – 94 Jian Li 109 – 112 legal system 91 mandatory rules 93 – 94 necessary Special Provisions in the Particular Conditions 95 – 98 operation of construction contract 104 – 108 retention money 97 seat of the dispute determination in jurisdiction 109 Site/Country in jurisdiction 105 – 108 Special Administrative Regions 90 termination of construction contract 92 , 96 time construction contracts takes effect 94 – 95 choice of law agreement 370 civil law 3 – 4 common law, and 4 – 5 Brazil 77 China 89 Czech Republic, the 115 France 141 Germany 169 Italy 240 Peru 296 Romania 311 South Africa 334 Sri Lanka 355 Switzerland 366 United Arab Emirates, the 386 CISG see United Nations Convention of Contracts for the International Sale of Goods claim details 332 claims against the State 291 claims for payment 192 claim limitation period 121 – 122 collapse of basis of contract 207 common law 3 Australia 50 civil law, and 4 – 5 Fiji 130 – 131 Ghana 212 Hong Kong 224 – 225 Malaysia 257 – 258 Papua New Guinea 278 – 279 South Africa 355 conflicts of law 10 Brazil 79 China 93 Fiji 133 France 144 Germany 173 Malaysia 260 United Arab Emirates, the 390 constitutional structure Australia 50 – 51 Brazil 78 China 90 – 91 Czech Republic, the 116 Fiji 130 France 142 Germany 170 Ghana 212 – 214 Hong Kong 224 – 225 Italy 241 – 242 Malaysia 257 – 258 Papua New Guinea 278 – 279 Peru 297 – 298 Romania 312 South Africa 355 – 356 Sri Lanka 356 Switzerland 367 United Arab Emirates, the 387 – 388 constraints on the governing law of a construction contract Australia 52 – 54 Brazil 79 – 80 China 92 – 94 Czech Republic, the 119 – 120 Fiji 131 – 133 France 144 – 145 Germany 172 – 180 Ghana 214 – 215 Hong Kong 226 – 228 Italy 244 – 246 Malaysia 259 – 260 Papua New Guinea 281 – 282 Peru 298 – 299 Romania 316 – 318 South Africa 338 – 339 Sri Lanka 357 – 358 Switzerland 369 – 370 United Arab Emirates, the 391 – 392 construction contracts 2 – 9 changes to 123 definition 2 freedom of contract 5 – 7 legal systems, and 3 – 5 pacta sunt servanda 7 proper law of the contract 8 – 9 unique features 2 – 3 construction lien 99 – 103 commencement date 101 contracting out 103 exercising 103 – 104 invalid construction contract, and 101 – 102 profits covered 100 project completion 101 subcontractor or actual contractor 102 – 102 use of 376 contract claim procedure 326 contract interpretation France 166 – 167 Switzerland 383 – 384 Contractor definition 2 general obligations 185 copyright 261 – 262 , 380 court system Australia 51 – 52 Brazil 78 – 79 China 92 Czech Republic, the 117 Fiji 131 France 143 – 144 Germany 172 Ghana 213 – 214 Hong Kong 225 – 226 Italy 242 – 243 Malaysia 259 Papua New Guinea Page 433 281 Peru 298 Romania 316 South Africa 337 – 338 Sri Lanka 357 Switzerland 369 United Arab Emirates, the 390 – 391 customary law Ghana 212 , 213 Malaysia 270 Papua New Guinea 279 Sri Lanka 357 , 365 customary practise 206 – 207 Czech Republic, the building permit 122 cancellation, contract 124 changes to construction contract 124 civil code 122 claim limitation period 121 – 122 constitutional structure 116 constraints on governing law 119 – 120 court system 117 – 118 desirable Special Provisions in the Particular Conditions 121 – 125 Dispute Adjudication Board 121 dispute resolution 127 entry into a construction contract 119 – 120 FIDIC 118 – 119 financing charges 121 formal requirements 120 frustration 124 general compatibility 120 guarantees under forms of security 124 health and safety 124 insurance 125 legal system 116 – 117 liquidated (delay) damages 120 necessary Special Provisions in the Particular Conditions 120 – 121 particular contractual provisions 125 – 127 party autonomy 127 procedural legislation 127 standardisation 117 – 118 taking over the works 122 termination of construction contract 124 – 125 waste management 122 deemed acceptance of variations Brazil 86 Italy 252 – 253 defective work, liability for 152 – 153 , 266 failure to remedy 190 – 191 rectification 373 – 374 defects notice/liability period Brazil 81 China 97 commencement time 97 – 98 France 150 – 151 Germany 174 retention money, and 97 delay damages see liquidated (delay) damages design Romania 313 Switzerland 380 determined work 300 development controls 232 – 233 direct democracy 368 Dispute Adjudication Board (DAB) 28 – 29 Brazil 82 Czech Republic, the 121 Peru 298 Romania 349 United Arab Emirates, the 397 Dispute Avoidance/Adjudication Board (DAAB) 28 – 29 Peru 305 obtaining decision 193 Romania 333 Dispute Board (DB) 28 – 29 France 166 dispute resolution Australia 60 – 61 , 69 Brazil 84 , 85 China 104 , 108 Czech Republic, the 127 Fiji 127 , 128 France 157 – 160 , 161 , 166 Germany 172 , 195 , 202 , 206 Hong Kong 234 Italy 250 , 252 Malaysia 269 , 272 – 273 Papua New Guinea 288 , 290 Peru 306 , 308 – 309 Romania 327 , 331 South Africa 346 , 349 Sri Lanka 361 , 365 Switzerland 382 United Arab Emirates, the 339 , 402 disruption claims 177 – 180 compensable amount 178 duties of Employer 178 evidence requirements 178 Germany 177 – 180 no compensation of acceleration measures 179 overview 177 – 178 summary 179 – 180 Dubai International Financial Centre 389 duty of loyalty 384 East Coast model 56 electronic licence 43 – 44 Employer cessation of liability 192 defects in requirements 324 definition 2 securities for the Contractor 196 – 197 Engineer, the Brazil 81 – 82 China 109 – 112 Germany 197 Jian Li , and 105 – 108 Peru 309 Switzerland 384 entry into a construction contract Australia 59 Brazil 84 China 104 Czech Republic, the 123 Fiji 136 France 151 , 160 Germany 202 Ghana 218 Hong Kong 234 Italy 250 Malaysia 268 Papua New Guinea 288 Peru 306 Romania 326 South Africa 346 Sri Lanka 361 United Arab Emirates, the 398 environmental protection France 145 – 146 Hong Kong 233 Papua New Guinea 284 Switzerland 381 EU/European Free Trade Association (EFTA) 378 evidence France 158 – 159 Germany 178 , 179 , 205 Hong Kong 227 Malaysia 262 Papua New Guinea 292 – 293 Switzerland 383 United Arab Emirates, the 390 , 392 exceptional events 112 – 113 explicit agreement of choice of law 92 extension of time Papua New Guinea 292 – 293 Switzerland 372 fairness of transactions 290 – 291 fees, professional 197 – 198 FIDIC Contracts 9 – 11 agreement 11 contract data 11 documents 10 – 11 General Conditions 11 , 25 Particular Conditions 11 , 25 rainbow suite 9 Special Provisions 11 standard forms 9 – 10 FIDIC Contracts Committee 25 FIDIC General Conditions and governing law of the contract with Australia 55 Brazil Page 434 80 – 81 China 95 Fiji 134 France 147 – 148 Germany 181 – 194 Ghana 217 Hong Kong 228 Italy 247 – 248 Malaysia 261 – 262 Papua New Guinea 282 – 283 Peru 301 – 305 Romania 319 – 322 South Africa 340 – 345 Sri Lanka 359 Switzerland 371 United Arab Emirates, the 393 – 396 FIDIC General Conditions and law of the Site/Country Australia 56 Brazil 81 China 96 – 98 Fiji 135 France 140 Germany 194 Ghana 217 Hong Kong 229 Italy 248 – 249 Malaysia 262 Papua New Guinea 283 Peru 305 Romania 322 – 323 South Africa 345 – 346 Sri Lanka 359 Switzerland 371 United Arab Emirates, the 396 FIDIC General Conditions and laws of the seat of the arbitration or dispute determination Australia 56 Brazil 81 – 82 China 98 Fiji 135 France 149 Germany 194 – 195 Ghana 217 Hong Kong 229 Italy 249 Malaysia 262 Papua New Guinea 283 Peru 305 South Africa 346 Sri Lanka 359 Switzerland 371 – 372 United Arab Emirates, the 396 – 397 FIDIC Golden Principles 12 , 25 – 26 balance of risk/reward 27 – 28 clear drafting 27 control 23 dispute board referral 28 – 29 fair and balanced contracts 23 – 25 guidance for drafting 29 – 30 participants duties 26 – 27 reasons for 26 – 29 time periods 28 use 22 value 22 Fiji common law 130 – 131 constitutional structure 130 constraints on governing law 131 – 133 court system 131 desirable Special Provisions in the Particular Conditions 135 – 136 dispute resolution 136 , 137 entry into a construction contract 136 FIDIC General Conditions and governing law of the contract 134 FIDIC General Conditions and the law of the Site/Country 135 FIDIC General Conditions and laws of the seat of the arbitration or relevant laws on dispute determination 135 formal requirements 133 – 134 governing law that of jurisdiction 131 – 134 , 136 – 137 international arbitration 131 – 133 legal system 133 necessary Special Provisions in the Particular Conditions 134 – 135 operation of construction contract 137 – 138 proportionate liability 139 seat of the dispute determination in jurisdiction 138 Site/Country in jurisdiction 137 – 138 termination of construction contract 136 , 138 unfair trade practices 138 – 139 financial free zones 389 – 390 financing charges 121 fitness for purpose Peru 302 Romania 319 force majeure : 35 China 112 , 113 France 153 Germany 207 Malaysia 266 Romania 333 United Arab Emirates 395 foreign exchange control 285 – 286 formal requirements Australia 54 – 55 Brazil 80 China 94 – 95 Czech Republic, the 120 Fiji 133 – 134 France 146 – 147 Germany 180 – 181 Ghana 215 – 217 Hong Kong 228 Italy 246 – 247 Malaysia 260 – 261 Papua New Guinea 282 Peru 300 – 301 Romania 318 – 319 South Africa 339 – 340 Sri Lanka 358 – 359 Switzerland 370 United Arab Emirates, the 392 France acceptance of works 150 appeal/cassation 160 case management 158 civil law 142 constitutional structure 142 constraints on governing law 144 – 145 court system 143 – 144 defective work, liability for 152 – 153 defects notification period 151 – 152 delay damages 149 – 150 desirable Special Provisions in the Particular Conditions 149 – 151 dispute resolution 157 – 160 , 161 , 164 entry into a construction contract 151 , 160 environmental damages, liability for 155 – 156 evidence 158 FIDIC General Conditions and governing law of the contract 147 – 149 FIDIC General Conditions and the law of the Site/Country 149 FIDIC General Conditions and laws of the seat of the arbitration or relevant laws on dispute determination 149 formal requirements 146 – 147 good faith principle 167 governing law that of jurisdiction 144 – 147 , 151 – 161 health and safety 162 – 163 insurance 152 – 154 interim relief 158 legal costs 160 legal system 5 , 143 liabilities/insurance 152 – 154 necessary Special Provisions in the Particular Conditions 147 – 149 nuisance, liability for 155 operation of construction contract 161 – 163 , 164 – 165 overriding mandatory provisions 145 payment of Subcontractors by Employer 148 Performance Certificate 150 – 151 rules of interpretation of contracts 166 – 167 seat of the dispute determination in jurisdiction 165 – 166 Site/Country in jurisdiction 161 – 165 subcontracting 161 – 162 Taking-Over Certificate 150 – 151 termination of construction contract 156 – 157 , 160 , 164 termination of construction contract by Employer 148 trial 158 freedom of contract 5 – 7 party autonomy, and 33 public policy 6 restricting 7 free-trade agreement 367 Page 435 frustrated contracts Australia 58 Czech Republic, the 136 Hong Kong 230 Malaysia 265 – 266 funds 286 – 287 Germany allocation of risks 176 – 177 cessation of Employer’s liability 192 civil law 171 claims for payment 192 collapse of basis of contract 207 conflicts of law 182 – 183 constitutional structure 170 constraints on governing law 172 – 181 Contractor’s general obligations 187 court system 172 customary practice 206 – 207 Defects Liability Period 173 Delay Damages 190 desirable Special Provisions in the Particular Conditions 195 – 196 difference between German construction contracts and FIDIC forms 185 dispute resolution 202 , 204 disruption claims 177 – 180 Employer’s securities for the Contractor 196 – 197 Engineer 193 entry into a construction contract 202 failure to remedy defects 190 – 191 fees, professional 197 – 198 FIDIC General Conditions and governing law of the contract 181 – 194 FIDIC General Conditions and the law of the Site/Country 194 FIDIC General Conditions and laws of the seat of the arbitration or relevant laws on dispute determination 194 – 195 FIDIC provisions in detail 184 – 185 formal requirements 180 – 181 German abbreviations 208 German Civil Code 170 German contract law 171 – 172 governing law that of jurisdiction 172 – 181 , 196 – 202 Income Tax Act 198 interim payment 191 – 192 labour law 200 – 202 labour leasing 201 Law on the Protection of Construction Claims 198 – 199 legal system 5 , 170 – 171 limitation of liability 185 – 187 mandatory rules 195 necessary Special Provisions in the Particular Conditions 181 – 196 obtaining DAAB’s decision 193 operation of construction contract 202 – 203 Performance Security 188 – 189 periods of Werkvertrag 173 – 175 private international law 182 – 183 procurement law 199 – 200 seat of the dispute determination in jurisdiction 204 – 206 Silver book provisions 185 Site/Country in jurisdiction 203 – 204 Standard Business Term Act 183 – 184 sufficiency of contract price 189 termination of construction contract 202 , 204 termination of contract by Employer 176 transferring ownership (s613a Civil Code ) 200 – 201 Variations and adjustments 191 Ghana common law 212 constitutional structure 212 constraints on governing law 214 – 215 court system 213 – 214 desirable Special Provisions in the Particular Conditions 217 dispute resolution 217 , 221 entry into a construction contract 218 FIDIC General Conditions and governing law of the contract 217 FIDIC General Conditions and the law of the Site/Country 217 FIDIC General Conditions and laws of the seat of the arbitration or relevant laws on dispute determination 217 formal requirements 215 – 216 governing law that of jurisdiction 214 – 217 , 218 legal system 212 – 213 necessary Special Provisions in the Particular Conditions 217 operation of construction contract 218 – 220 seat of the dispute determination in jurisdiction 221 Site/Country in jurisdiction 218 – 220 termination of construction contract 218 , 220 good faith France 167 – 168 Germany 207 Italy 253 Peru 300 Romania 314 South Africa 340 – 345 , 351 Switzerland 384 United Arab Emirates, the 404 governing law of jurisdiction, applicable legislation if Australia 52 , 59 – 61 Brazil 79 – 82 , 84 China 104 – 105 Fiji 136 – 137 France 147 – 149 , 157 – 161 Germany 172 – 181 , 196 – 202 Ghana 214 – 217 , 218 Hong Kong 226 – 228 , 234 Italy 244 – 246 , 250 Malaysia 259 – 261 , 268 – 269 Papua New Guinea 281 – 282 , 288 Peru 298 – 301 , 306 Romania 316 – 319 , 326 – 327 South Africa 338 – 340 , 346 Sri Lanka 357 – 358 , 361 – 364 Switzerland 369 – 370 , 377 – 378 United Arab Emirates, the 391 – 393 , 398 – 399 governing law of the contract 8 – 9 , 15 – 16 choosing 33 – 34 constraints on see constraints on the governing of law of a construction contract local laws, and 15 gross negligence: 35 , 37 Brazil 82 – 83 France 154 , 164 Hong Kong 238 Malaysia 275 Peru 304 Switzerland 375 United Arab Emirates, the 395 guarantees under forms of security 124 Hague Convention on Choice of Law 79 , 226 , 259 , 316 , 419 Hague Principles 33 – 34 , 52 , 131 hardship Brazil 87 – 88 Italy 254 health and safety Czech Republic, the 124 France 162 – 163 Papua New Guinea 286 Switzerland 382 heritage/landscape 381 Hong Kong Basic Law 224 – 225 building controls 230 – 232 common law 225 constitutional structure 224 – 225 constraints Page 436 on governing law 226 – 228 court system 225 – 226 desirable Special Provisions in the Particular Conditions 229 development controls 232 – 233 dispute resolution 234 entry into a construction contract 226 , 234 environmental controls 233 FIDIC General Conditions and governing law of the contract 228 FIDIC General Conditions and the law of the Site/Country 229 FIDIC General Conditions and laws of the seat of the arbitration or relevant laws on dispute determination 229 formal requirements 228 frustrated contracts 230 governing law that of jurisdiction 226 – 229 , 234 gross negligence 238 implied terms 237 – 238 legal system 224 – 225 local labour, hiring 233 mandatory insurance 233 misleading and deceptive conduct 237 necessary Special Provisions in the Particular Conditions 228 operation of construction contract 234 – 235 proportionate liability 237 rights of third parties 230 seat of the dispute determination in jurisdiction 236 security of payment 229 – 230 Site/Country in jurisdiction 234 – 235 Special Administrative Region 224 – 225 termination of construction contract 234 , 236 illegality contractual waiver, of 304 – 305 time-bar clauses, of 301 implied terms Hong Kong 237 – 238 Malaysia 274 – 275 Peru 301 impré vision : 315 , 325 : 326 , 330 indirect damages 80 insolvency Italy 249 Romania 320 insurance Czech Republic, the 125 France 152 – 154 Hong Kong 233 Papua New Guinea 284 – 285 intent to create legal relationship 300 Inter-American Convention on the Law Applicable to International Contracts 34 interim payment 188 – 189 interim relief 158 international conventions, country accessions 18 – 19 Italy civil law 242 constitutional structure 241 – 242 constraints on governing law 244 – 249 court system 242 – 243 deemed acceptance of variations 252 – 253 desirable Special Provisions in the Particular Conditions 249 – 250 dispute resolution 249 , 250 entry into a construction contract 250 FIDIC General Conditions and governing law of the contract 247 – 248 FIDIC General Conditions and the law of the Site/Country 248 – 249 FIDIC General Conditions and laws of the seat of the arbitration or relevant laws on dispute determination 249 formal requirements 246 governing law that of jurisdiction 244 – 247 , 250 hardship 254 insolvency 254 legal system 242 necessary Special Provisions in the Particular Conditions 247 – 249 public procurement 244 – 245 operation of construction contract 250 – 252 seat of the dispute determination in jurisdiction 252 Site/Country in jurisdiction 250 – 252 tender process 245 termination of construction contract 250 , 252 termination for reorganisation 253 – 254 Japan International Cooperation Agency (JICA) 24 l’imprévision 315 labour Germany 200 – 202 hiring local 233 , 266 Switzerland 378 – 379 language South Africa 342 Switzerland 372 lawful cause 392 legal costs 160 legal environments Australia 50 – 52 Brazil 78 – 79 China 90 – 92 Czech Republic, the 116 – 119 Fiji 130 – 131 France 142 – 144 Germany 170 – 172 Ghana 212 – 214 Hong Kong 224 – 226 Italy 241 – 243 Malaysia 257 – 259 Papua New Guinea 278 – 281 Peru 297 – 301 Romania 312 – 316 South Africa 335 – 338 Sri Lanka 356 – 357 Switzerland 367 – 369 United Arab Emirates, the 387 – 391 legal mortgage 325 lex fori 16 , 33 Germany 204 South Africa 204 lex loci rei sitae 16 lex loci solutionis 93 – 94 liability for Subcontractor’s acts 397 lien Australia 61 , 63 Brazil 84 China 99 – 103 Czech Republic, the 126 Fiji 137 France 164 Germany 203 Ghana 219 Hong Kong 235 Italy 251 Malaysia 269 Peru 307 Romania 328 South Africa 343 Sri Lanka 362 Switzerland 366 United Arab Emirates, the 379 limitation of action South Africa 352 – 353 limitation of liability Germany 185 – 187 limitation of claimable amount 187 release from principal obligations 186 – 187 South Africa 352 Switzerland 376 United Arab Emirates, the 384 limitation period claim 121 Peru 303 – 304 Romania 319 – 320 United Arab Emirates, the 399 – 402 liquidated (delay) damages Czech Republic, the 120 France 149 – 150 Germany 187 – 188 Page 437 Malaysia 262 Papua New Guinea 294 – 295 Peru 303 , 310 Romania 320 South Africa 344 – 345 , 352 Switzerland 374 – 374 United Arab Emirates, the 394 , 404 local law or custom, impact of Australia 71 – 75 Brazil 86 – 88 China 109 – 113 Czech Republic, the 127 Fiji 138 – 139 France 166 – 167 Germany 206 – 208 Ghana 221 Hong Kong 237 – 238 Italy 252 – 254 Malaysia 273 – 276 Papua New Guinea 290 – 295 Peru 309 – 310 Romania 331 – 333 South Africa 351 – 353 Sri Lanka 365 Switzerland 383 – 385 United Arab Emirates, the 403 – 405 loss of profit 80 Malaysia adjudication 263 – 265 arbitration 260 building and planning regulations 273 common law 258 – 259 constitutional structure 257 – 258 constraints on governing law 259 – 260 copyright 261 – 262 court system 259 defects 266 desirable Special Provisions in the Particular Conditions 262 – 268 dispute resolution 269 , 272 – 273 entry into a construction contract 268 FIDIC General Conditions and governing law of the contract 261 FIDIC General Conditions and the law of the Site/Country 262 FIDIC General Conditions and laws of the seat of the arbitration or relevant laws on dispute determination 262 formal requirements 260 – 261 frustrated contracts 265 – 266 governing law that of jurisdiction 259 – 261 , 268 – 269 gross negligence 275 implied terms 274 – 275 legal system 258 – 259 liquidated damages 262 – 263 local labour, hiring 266 – 267 mandatory insurance 267 – 268 misleading or deceptive conduct 274 necessary Special Provisions in the Particular Conditions 261 – 262 operation of construction contract 269 – 273 proportionate liability 274 rights of third parties 266 seat of the dispute determination in jurisdiction 273 security of payment 263 – 264 Site/Country in jurisdiction 269 – 273 termination of construction contract 272 mandatory insurance Hong Kong 233 Malaysia 267 – 268 mandatory rules China 93 – 94 Germany 119 misleading or deceptive conduct Australia 71 – 72 conduct, types 71 Fiji 138 – 139 Hong Kong 237 Malaysia 274 policy underpinnings 71 remedies 72 – 73 mobilisation of Contractor 324 Muqawala 392 mutual intention 393 native land Fiji 135 Malaysia 267 Peru 307 South Africa 342 normative deeds 312 – 313 Notice claim, of 80 Switzerland 384 United Arab Emirates, the 403 – 404 nuisance, liability for France 155 Switzerland 380 offer and acceptance 392 operation of a construction contract Australia 62 – 68 Brazil 84 – 85 China 105 – 108 Fiji 137 – 138 France 161 – 163 , 164 – 165 Germany 202 – 204 Ghana 218 – 220 Hong Kong 234 – 236 Italy 250 – 252 Malaysia 269 – 272 Papua New Guinea 288 – 289 Peru 307 – 309 Romania 327 – 329 South Africa 347 – 348 Sri Lanka 361 – 364 United Arab Emirates, the 399 – 402 oppressive conditions 395 overriding mandatory provisions 33 , 145 , 182 , 217 ownership plant and materials of 343 transferring 199 pacta sunt servanda 7 Germany 207 South Africa 339 , 341 Papua New Guinea access route 283 – 284 arbitration 286 – 288 carrying on business 282 claims against State 291 common law 274 constitutional structure 257 – 258 constraints on governing law 259 contract agreement 283 court system 281 – 283 customary law 279 delay damages 294 – 295 desirable Special Provisions in the Particular Conditions 283 – 288 dispute resolution 288 , 290 entry into a construction contract 288 environmental protection 284 extension of time 292 – 293 fairness of transactions 290 – 291 FIDIC General Conditions and governing law of the contract 282 FIDIC General Conditions and the law of the Site/Country 283 FIDIC General Conditions and laws of the seat of the arbitration or relevant laws on dispute determination 283 foreign exchange control 285 – 286 formal requirements 282 governing law that of jurisdiction 281 – 282 , 288 health and safety 286 insurance 284 legal system 279 – 281 liquidated damages 294 – 295 necessary Special Provisions in the Particular Conditions 282 – 283 offshore funds 286 operation of construction contract 288 Page 438 prevention principle 293 – 294 proportionate liability 291 public procurement 279 – 280 seat of the dispute determination in jurisdiction 290 Site/Country in jurisdiction 288 – 290 statutory time bar 291 termination of construction contract 288 , 289 Particular Conditions choosing governing law of contract 33 – 34 consistency with governing law of contract 37 content 31 format 43 – 44 electronic licence 43 Employer’s preference 40 – 43 guidance for preparation 36 – 43 Part A–Contract Data 11 , 31 – 32 , 43 – 44 Part B–Special Provisions 11 , 32 project requirements 39 – 40 special provisions for consistency with applicable law 34 – 36 , 37 – 38 Golden Principles 25 party autonomy 33 , 215 , 260 , 339 , 358 payments Romania 325 Subcontractors by Employer, by 148 Performance Certificate 150 – 151 Performance Security 188 – 189 Peru agreement between parties 300 arbitration 305 civil law 298 constitutional structure 297 – 298 constraints on governing law 298 – 301 court system 298 delay damages 303 , 310 desirable Special Provisions in the Particular Conditions 305 – 306 determined work 300 dispute resolution 306 , 308 – 309 Engineer, determination by 309 entry into a construction contract 306 FIDIC General Conditions and governing law of the contract 301 – 305 FIDIC General Conditions and the law of the Site/Country 305 FIDIC General Conditions and laws of the seat of the arbitration or relevant laws on dispute determination 305 fitness for purpose 302 formal requirements 300 – 301 good faith 305 – 306 governing law that of jurisdiction 298 – 300 , 306 illegality of contractual waiver 304 – 305 illegality of time-bar clauses 301 implied terms 301 intent to create legal relationship 300 legal system 298 limitation period 303 – 304 necessary Special Provisions in the Particular Conditions 301 – 305 operation of construction contract 307 – 308 price 321 public procurement 321 – 322 reasonable skill and care 302 – 303 reform 297 seat of the dispute determination in jurisdiction 309 Site/Country in jurisdiction 307 – 308 termination of construction contract 306 , 308 planning 380 plural system 212 posted workers 379 prevention principle 293 – 294 price 300 private international law China 93 Czech Republic, the 120 Germany 182 – 183 Peru 299 Romania 316 Switzerland 369 United Arab Emirates, the 391 procurement law Brazil 93 , 94 Czech Republic, the 120 , 123 Peru 297 , 299 Romania 314 , 316 progress payment claims 56 proper law of the contract 9 – 10 Fiji 150 Germany 206 , 220 , 222 , 228 Germany 204 , 223 proportionate liability Australia 73 – 75 concept 73 – 74 contracting out 58 damages 73 Fiji 139 Hong Kong 237 Malaysia 274 Papua New Guinea 291 pleading 74 South Africa 352 United Arab Emirates, the 404 – 405 public policy ( ordre public ) 6 – 7 , 39 – 40 , 346 Australia 62 – 63 Brazil 99 China 106 Fiji 150 , 154 France 164 Germany 193 , 197 Ghana 239 Hong Kong 252 Malaysia 289 Romania 346 South Africa 375 – 379 United Arab Emirates, the 434 public policy of forum 39 – 40 , 106 public procurement Italy 270 – 271 law 223 Papua New Guinea 310 – 311 Peru 338 – 330 Romania 347 , 356 – 357 seat of the dispute determination in jurisdiction 227 – 229 Silver book provisions 211 rate of progress 344 – 345 reasonable skill and care 302 reasonable time 25 reception of works France 150 , 151 Germany 173 – 176 Romania 313 , 323 rectification of defects 373 – 374 registration of professionals 378 registration/licencing Australia 62 Brazil 84 China 95 , 105 – 106 , 111 Fiji 137 single conditions of contract documents, and 43 Switzerland 378 Retention Money 97 Romania adhesion contracts 331 – 332 arbitration 318 – 319 civil law 311 claim details 332 clearance of land of munitions 325 concurrent delays 324 – 325 constitutional structure 312 constraints on governing law 316 – 318 contract claim procedure 326 court system 316 Delay Damages 316 design 320 desirable Special Provisions in the Particular Conditions 324 – 326 dispute resolution 327 , 331 Employer’s Requirements, defects in 324 entry into a construction contract 326 FIDIC Page 439 General Conditions and governing law of the contract 319 – 322 FIDIC General Conditions and the law of the Site/Country 322 fit for purpose 319 formal requirements 318 – 319 good faith 305 – 306 governing law that of jurisdiction 298 – 301 , 306 insolvency 289 legal mortgage 325 legal system 312 – 316 l’imprévision 325 limitation period 320 mobilisation of Contractor 324 necessary Special Provisions in the Particular Conditions 319 – 323 normative deeds 312 – 314 operation of construction contract 327 – 330 ordre public 313 payments 325 public procurement 314 , 321 – 322 reference of a dispute to DAAB 333 seat of the dispute determination in jurisdiction 331 Site/Country in jurisdiction 327 – 331 standard clauses 332 statute of limitation 331 taking over of Works 323 termination of construction contract 325 , 326 , 330 unusual clauses 320 – 321 Rome I Regulation 6 , 34 , 93 , 144 , 182 , 196 , 316 Rome II Regulation 182 , 199 , 202 seat of the dispute determination in jurisdiction Australia 70 Brazil 86 China 109 Fiji 138 France 165 – 166 Germany 204 – 206 Ghana 221 Hong Kong 236 Italy 252 Malaysia 273 Papua New Guinea 290 Peru 309 Romania 331 South Africa 349 – 351 Sri Lanka 365 Switzerland 382 – 383 United Arab Emirates, the 403 security of payment Australia 56 – 58 Hong Kong 229 – 230 Malaysia 263 – 265 settling disputes 263 Shari’a law 3 , 4 Malaysia 258 United Arab Emirates, the 388 , 391 Site data 189 , 343 Site/Country in the jurisdiction Australia 62 – 68 Brazil 84 – 85 China 105 – 108 Fiji 137 – 138 France 161 – 165 Germany 202 – 204 Ghana 218 – 220 Hong Kong 234 – 236 Italy 250 – 252 Malaysia 269 – 273 Papua New Guinea 288 – 289 Peru 307 – 309 Romania 327 – 331 South Africa 347 – 349 Sri Lanka 361 – 365 Switzerland 378 – 382 United Arab Emirates, the 399 – 402 socialist legal system 3 , 91 South Africa access to site 342 – 343 , 351 arbitration 349 – 350 civil law 334 common law 355 constitutional structure 355 – 356 constitutional values 341 constraints on governing law 338 – 339 court system 337 – 338 delay damages 344 – 345 , 352 desirable Special Provisions in the Particular Conditions 346 – 347 dispute resolution 346 , 349 entry into a construction contract 346 FIDIC General Conditions and governing law of the contract 340 – 345 FIDIC General Conditions and the law of the Site/Country 345 FIDIC General Conditions and laws of the seat of the arbitration or relevant laws on dispute determination 346 formal requirements 339 – 340 good faith 340 – 342 , 351 governing law that of jurisdiction 338 – 340 , 346 law and language 342 legal system 336 – 337 limitation of action 352 – 353 limitation of liability 352 necessary Special Provisions in the Particular Conditions 340 – 346 operation of construction contract 347 – 348 ownership of plant and materials 351 proportionate liability 352 rate of progress 344 – 345 seat of the dispute determination in jurisdiction 349 – 351 Site/Country in jurisdiction 347 – 349 Site data 343 , 351 termination for Contractor’s default 345 termination of construction contract 346 , 348 valid contract requirements 339 Special Administrative Region China 90 Hong Kong 224 – 225 Special Provisions in the Particular Conditions Australia 55 – 56 , 56 – 58 Brazil 80 – 82 , 82 – 83 China 95 – 98 , 98 – 103 Czech Republic, the 120 – 121 , 121 – 122 Fiji 134 – 135 , 135 – 136 France 147 – 149 , 149 – 151 Germany 181 – 195 , 195 – 196 Ghana 217 Hong Kong 228 , 229 Italy 247 – 249 Malaysia 261 – 262 , 262 – 268 Papua New Guinea 282 – 288 Peru 301 – 305 , 305 – 306 Romania 319 – 323 , 324 – 326 South Africa 340 – 346 Sri Lanka 359 , 359 – 360 Switzerland 371 , 372 – 377 United Arab Emirates, the 393 – 397 , 397 – 398 specialty Australia 54 Fiji 133 , 134 Ghana 221 Papua New Guinea 292 Sri Lanka arbitration 359 common law 356 constitutional structure 356 constraints on governing law 357 – 358 court system 257 desirable Special Provisions in the Particular Conditions 359 dispute resolution 361 , 365 entry into a construction contract 361 FIDIC General Conditions and governing law of the contract 359 FIDIC General Conditions and the law of the Site/Country 359 FIDIC General Conditions and laws of the seat of the arbitration or relevant laws on dispute determination 359 formal requirements 359 – 359 governing law that of jurisdiction 357 – 359 , 361 legal system Page 440 356 – 357 necessary Special Provisions in the Particular Conditions 359 – 361 operation of construction contract 361 – 363 seat of the dispute determination in jurisdiction 365 settling disputes 356 Site/Country in jurisdiction 361 – 365 termination of construction contract 361 , 364 Stamp duty 283 standard business terms 183 – 184 standard clauses 320 standardisation 118 stare decisis 3 statute of limitation 325 statutory time bar 291 – 292 sufficiency of Contract Price 189 suspension 405 Switzerland building and construction permits 381 – 382 civil law 367 copyright 380 constitutional structure 367 constraints on governing law 369 – 370 contract interpretation 383 – 384 court system 369 delay damages 374 – 375 design 380 desirable Special Provisions in the Particular Conditions 372 – 377 direct democracy 368 dispute resolution 382 duty of loyalty 384 Engineer 384 – 385 environment 381 extension of time 372 – 373 FIDIC General Conditions and governing law of the contract 371 FIDIC General Conditions and the law of the Site/Country 371 FIDIC General Conditions and laws of the seat of the arbitration or relevant laws on dispute determination 371 formal requirements 370 governing law that of jurisdiction 369 – 370 , 377 – 378 health and safety 382 heritage/landscape 381 labour 378 – 379 languages 368 legal system 367 – 369 liens, use of 329 limitation of liability 325 – 326 necessary Special Provisions in the Particular Conditions 371 notice, enforcement of 384 nuisance, liability for 380 planning 380 rectification of defects 373 – 374 registration/licencing of contractors 378 registration of professionals 378 seat of the dispute determination in jurisdiction 382 – 383 Site/Country in jurisdiction 378 – 382 taking over of Works, Employer 373 termination of construction contract 364 Switzerland’s Federal Code on Private International Law 93 taking over the Works Czech Republic, the 122 Romania 323 Switzerland 373 Taking-Over Certificate 150 – 151 tax clearance 286 technical documents 30 tender process 245 termination for Contractor’s default 345 termination for reorganisation Brazil 86 – 87 Italy 253 – 254 termination of a construction contract Australia 59 , 69 Brazil 84 , 85 China 104 , 108 Czech Republic, the 124 Fiji 136 , 138 France 160 , 165 Germany 202 , 204 Ghana 218 , 220 Hong Kong 234 , 236 Italy 250 , 252 Malaysia 268 , 272 Papua New Guinea 288 , 289 Peru 306 , 308 Romania 326 , 330 South Africa 346 , 348 Sri Lanka 361 , 364 Switzerland 375 – 376 United Arab Emirates, the 398 , 402 termination of contract by Employer France 148 Germany 176 third parties, rights Ghana 216 Hong Kong 230 Malaysia 266 time construction contracts takes effect 98 – 99 unfair trade practices 138 – 139 UNIDROIT Principles of International Commercial Contracts binding character of contract 7 choice of forum 33 Australia 53 freedom of contract 5 – 7 Germany 196 Ghana 215 Romania 314 , 315 Switzerland 370 United Arab Emirates, the agreement on contract elements 392 – 393 Arabic text 387 calendar definitions 397 capacity 393 civil law 388 constitutional structure 387 – 388 constraints on governing law 391 – 392 court system 390 – 391 desirable Special Provisions in the Particular Conditions 397 – 398 dispute resolution 399 , 402 entry into a construction contract 398 FIDIC General Conditions and governing law of the contract 393 – 396 FIDIC General Conditions and the law of the Site/Country 396 FIDIC General Conditions and laws of the seat of the arbitration or relevant laws on dispute determination 396 – 397 financial free zones 389 – 390 formal requirements 392 governing law that of jurisdiction 391 – 393 , 398 – 399 lawful cause 393 legal system 388 – 390 liability for Subcontractor’s acts 397 limitation of liability 395 limitation period 395 liquidated damages 394 , 404 mutual intention 393 necessary Special Provisions in the Particular Conditions 393 – 397 Notice provisions 403 – 404 offer and acceptance 392 operation of construction contract 399 – 402 oppressive conditions 395 proportionate liability 404 – 405 seat of the dispute determination in jurisdiction 403 Site/Country in jurisdiction Page 441 399 – 403 suspension 405 termination of construction contract 398 , 402 visas 398 working hours 398 United Nations Convention of Contracts for the International Sale of Goods (CISG) 215 , 377 unusual clauses 320 – 321 visas 398 waste management 122 Werkvertrag , periods of 173 – 174 West Coast model 56 working hours 397

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Devices

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