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Index

Law of Wreck, The


Page 801

Index

Index

  • abandoned ships 559–66
  • abandonment: derelict 222–4;
  • Accident Reporting Regulations 2012 266–7
  • adventurae maris 211–2, 247, 268–9
  • acquisition: law of the flag 214;
  • actual total loss 188–90;
  • Aegean Sea 12, 61, 100, 102, 104, 105, 137
  • Affected States: determining hazards 423–4;
  • aircraft 212, 228, 281, 282, 285, 286, 290, 291, 292, 322, 323, 338, 339, 346, 347, 348, 351, 403, 452, 484, 658, 665, 696–7, 700
  • alternative dispute resolution 619–25
  • Amoco Cadiz 11, 13, 63, 135, 137, 319, 411
  • Ancient Monuments and Archaeological Areas Act 1979 285–6
  • apportionment: collision liability 94–5;
    • GA security 172;
    • sub-apportionment of liability 111;
    • Wreckhire contract 618
  • Assi Eurolink 121, 123, 126–8, 428, 492, 531
  • Athens Convention 1974 78;
    • passenger claims 85;
    • UK domestic carriage 89
  • Athens Convention 2002 78–80:
    • compensation and limits of liability 83–5;
    • compulsory insurance 86–9;
    • domestic carriage 89;
    • liability for death and injury 80–3;
    • passenger claims 89–90;
    • passengers’ luggage 85–6;
    • terrorism 459–60;
    • UK domestic carriage 89;
    • WRC 2007 385, 492, 535–8
  • Baltic Ace 27–8, 104, 119–21, 123, 128, 140, 446, 513, 531, 595, 604, 657, 670
  • barratry 47, 177, 458, 500, 550
  • Bargehire 2008 607, 711
  • Basel Convention 1989: Conference of the Parties 668, 671–2;
  • BIMCO 607–54;
  • Bonn Agreement: Christos Bitas 657;
    • OPRC 1990 323;
    • WRC 2007 387
  • Brussels I Regulation Recast 55, 56, 89, 90, 118, 120, 124, 203, 204:
    • Art 9 125;
    • Art 45(1)(a) 125, 127;
    • EU jurisdiction 127;
    • Uno case 126
  • Bunkers Convention 2001 141–4;
    • EEZ 409–10;
    • Environmental Liability Directive 2004 150–1;
    • hazard definition 404;
    • HNSC 2010 147;
    • LLMC pollution claims 101, 626;
    • multi-state limitation proceedings 117–19;
    • national law 549–50;
    • pollution damage liability 59, 432, 505;
    • Rena legal claims 21–2;
    • salvage 583;
    • ship registry 415;
    • state parties 381, 668;
    • time charterers 63–9;
    • voyage charterers 61;
    • WRC 2007 369, 371–6, 385–7; 490, 492, 496, 502, 507, 520–1;
    • wreck pollution 14–15
  • carcasses 396, 600, 601, 662, 663, 685, 693, 700
  • cargo claims 36,-37; 44–56;
    • LLMC, and 99
  • cargo forwarding costs 39–43;
    • insurance, and 184–188;
    • see also carriage contracts
  • cargo owners/interests: carriage contracts, and 11, 36, 43, 44–56;
    • collision 94–95;
    • directions to 258;
    • insurance and GA 169, 174, 179–188, 189, 194;
    • liability for wreck 56–7, 137;
    • limitation 103, 108, 137, 710;
    • removal by

      Page 802

      interests 38, 206;
    • practical difficulties after wreck 36;
    • salvage or removal operations 37–9, 108, 166, 182, 194, 255, 271, 574, 580;
    • state immunity 163;
    • waste 685, 702;
    • wreck and 206 528, 612;
    • see also dangerous goods
  • cargo problems 30–4;
    • changing environmental focus 30;
    • see also container problems, dangerous goods
  • cargo removal 96: under CLC 140, 518;
    • under WRC 2007 140, 394, 440, 481–490, 530, 532, 547, 552;
    • HNSC 520;
    • limitation, and 100, 102–105, 106, 107, 108, 111, 114–116, 129, 151, 440, 490, 493, 521, 554;
    • lost at sea 396;
    • salvage, and 165, 167, 580, 650;
    • UK and WRC 2007 547, 552, 554;
    • waste, and 690, 691, 696, 699;
    • wreck removal contracts, and 650
  • carriage claims: forum issues 55
  • carriage contracts 39–43;
    • termination 41–3;
    • transhipment costs 40
  • CEFAS: SCU pollution response 265
  • charterers 58–69;
  • Chitra 440, 443, 445, 474, 658, 661, 670
  • Christos Bitas 261, 657;
    • see also Bonn Agreement
  • Cita 14
  • claims subject to limitation: charterers and limitation 105;
    • pollution 100–1;
    • property and personal 99;
    • wreck and cargo removal 102–4
  • CLC 1969: Amoco Cadiz 11–12;
  • CLC 1992 133–7;
  • CLCS 303–6
  • CMI: cargo removal 483–7, 489–90;
    • derelict and abandoned ships 398–406;
    • Montreal Compromise 165;
    • national legislation review 433–5, 523–4;
    • Patrick Griggs 533–4;
    • shipowner responsibility to report 418–19;
    • Torrey Canyon 9, 131–2;
    • voluntary salvor 430;
    • WRC 2007 development 361–9, 387;
    • WRC 2007 territorial sea application 411–14
  • coal 30, 54, 103, 147, 242, 295, 446, 447, 482, 483, 489, 520, 530, 661, 662
  • coastguard: wreck claims 277–8;
    • see also MCA
  • Collision Convention 1910: proportionate fault rule 94–5
  • collision liability 90–5:
    • apportionment of liability 94;
    • damages 93;
    • liability 90;
    • wreck and causation 91–2
  • Commune de Mesquer 672–3, 689–93, 702
  • compensation: death and injury of passengers 83–4;
    • Maritime Labour Convention 76
  • Conlinebooking Note 709
  • constructive total loss 36–7, 189–91, 668;
    • bareboat charterers 60–1;
    • ownership of a wreck, acquiring 220–2;
    • time charterers 66
  • consumer protection 77, 80, 83, 89, 154, 174, 193, 202, 607
  • container: problems 30–4;
    • increased size 31;
    • limitation, and 55;
    • lost overboard 30;
    • weight and contents 31;
    • see also dangerous cargo, MSC Napoli
  • contractor, choice of 603
  • Controlled Waste Regulations: EPA 1990 701
  • Coral Bulker 444
  • cost insurance freight: GA security 171–2;
    • sale of good contracts 37
  • Costa Concordia 27–9, 32;
    • casualty 27;
    • commercial choices for disposal 703;
    • compulsory insurance 491;
    • cost and liability 29, 81, 88, 103, 107, 110, 491, 531, 713;
    • EEZ 454;
    • liability cap 502, 508;
    • limitation forum shopping 128–9;
    • LLMC 1996 97, 110;
    • P&I Club 128–9, 201, 443, 511–13, 605;
    • recovery of bodies 597;
    • removal claims 102–3;
    • removal operation 28, 140, 156, 446–7, 459, 470–1, 474, 601, 641, 670, 696, 703;
    • Rena 21, 713;
    • responsibility for arranging wreck removal 602;
    • scrapping 670, 682;
    • shipowner liability 438;
    • vessel classification 452;
    • WRC 2007 comparisons 438, 452, 454, 459, 502, 508, 531, 543
  • CP Valour 444
  • crew 70–6;
    • criminalisation of seafarers 71;
    • fair treatment 72;
    • Maritime Labour Convention 2006 73–6;
    • master’s concerns after casualty 70

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    dangerous cargo 15, 16, 137, 146, 257, 312, 418, 439, 440, 445;
    • liability under contract for 51, 57–58, 62, 64, 65, 105, 137, 662, 710, 711;
    • liability 37, 150, 556;
    • limitation and 98, 105, 137;
    • misdescription of 31, 51, 440, 630;
    • salvors and 195;
    • WRC 2007, and 425, 438, 439, 440;
    • wreck removal and 601;
    • see also HNSC
  • deadweight tonnage 135, 136, 148
  • DEFRA 264
  • Department for Business Energy and Industrial Strategy 250, 683:
    • offshore installations 250
  • Department for Transport 250: Christos Bitas 657;
    • costs incurred 549, 557;
    • counter-pollution preparedness 250;
    • Gaul 598;
    • GLAs and 558;
    • historic wreck recovery, and 332, 354;
    • MAIB, and 266;
    • MSA 1995 Part 9A 534–5, 558–9, 683–4;
    • Odyssey Marine Exploration 332, 354–5;
    • receiver of wreck, and 270;
    • recycling regulation 683–4;
    • shipping inquiries 266–8;
    • SOSREP 260–1;
    • UK coastguard 277;
    • UK default wreck removal 544;
    • WRC 2007 consultation 360, 529, 534, 536, 545, 547, 550, 551, 553, 554, 555, 558, 559
  • derelict and abandoned ships: WRC 2007 398–400;
    • see also abandoned ships
  • deviation 50, 69, 185, 199
  • Dismantlecon 712
  • disposal legislation: Basel Convention 1989 670–3;
  • disposal of wreck 655–714;
  • DOALOS 320
  • Donaldson, Lord 12, 200, 249–50, 257, 262, 265
  • Dona Paz 15
  • dumping: abandonment, or 667–9;
  • EEZ: affected state definition 406–8;
  • EMSA: maritime accident review 6
  • Environmental Liability Directive 2004 150–1;
    • HNSC 2010 144;
    • pollution risks 626;
    • WRC 2007 516
  • EPA 1990 701–2
  • Erika 12–14, 135, 139, 140, 146, 150, 197, 253, 681, 689
  • EU: limitation fund recognition 124–7
  • EU legislation: Environmental Liability Directive 2004 150–1;
    • Offshore Safety Directive 2013 150–1;
    • Rome II Regulation 127–8;
    • Ship Recycling Regulation 2013 678–85;
    • Waste Framework Directive 2008 674, 683, 685–703;
    • Waste Shipment Regulation 2006 673–6;
    • see also Brussels I Regulation Recast
  • Exempted Activities Order: Art 9 698;
    • Art 17B 699–700;
    • Art 28698;
    • Explanatory Memorandum 699;
    • Marine and Coastal Access Act 2009 666;
    • marine waste licensing 697
  • Exxon Valdez 11
  • Fedra 33, 91, 152, 161, 254, 445, 471, 573, 604, 612, 637
  • fixed and floating platforms: WRC 2007 400–2
  • flag State obligations 415–22;
  • Floreana 448, 658, 670
  • Frustration 35, 40–43, 49, 171, 185, 572, 579, 592
  • Fund Convention 1971: Amoco Cadiz 11;
    • Braer 12;
    • CLC 1992 134;
    • IMCO 132;
    • WRC 2007 371
  • Fund Convention 1992 138–40;
    • Amoco Cadiz 11;
    • Braer 12;
    • CLC 1992 132–3, 135;
    • Commune de Mesquer 689–90;
    • Environmental Liability Directive 2004 150;
    • Erika 12;
    • HNS Fund 149;
    • LC Protocol 1996 663;
    • maritime pollution liability conventions 515–19;
    • Prestige 13, 442
  • Galapaface 448, 658, 670
  • Gaul 268, 321, 467, 598
  • general average 169–73;
    • claims 170;
    • cutting away wreck 173;
    • security 171–2

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    general lighthouse authority: directions, and 549;
    • finances, and 534;
    • locating/marking wrecks, and 540;
    • powers 527–530, 541, 544, 555;
    • SOSREP, and 251;
    • wreck removal, and 528–530, 544, 555–559
  • Hague Rules: Art III r8 63;
  • Hague/Visby Rules: Article III 50;
    • Article IV 50;
    • Art IV r6 57–8;
    • Athens Convention 2002 78, 82, 84;
    • BIMCO 709–12;
    • burden of proof 50;
    • cargo overboard 49;
    • carriage contracts 40–1;
    • liability for cargo loss or damage 44;
    • liability scheme 45–7;
    • limitation of liability 53–5;
    • proof of loss or damage 51–4;
    • transhipment costs 40–1;
    • voyage charterers 62;
    • wreck cargo 710–11
  • Hamburg Rules 1978: proof of fault 46
  • Harbour authority: abandoned wrecks and 560;
    • buoys, and 529;
    • claims, and 93, 524–5;
    • directions to 257–8;
    • locating/marking wreck, and 540, 667;
    • wreck removal, and 527–8, 544, 558, 698
  • Haven 11
  • Heavycon 708–12;
    • Heavyconbill, and 710
  • Himalaya clause 41, 49, 625, 633, 640, 708, 763;
    • see also privity, of contract
  • HNSC 2010 144–50;
    • Art 7(5) 440;
    • bareboat charterers 59;
    • cargo owner’s liability 58;
    • cargo removal 489–90;
    • Commune de Mesquer 689;
    • hazard definition 404;
    • liability cap 502, 507;
    • multi-state limitation proceedings 117;
    • pollution claims 100–2, 515–16;
    • pollution threats 432;
    • SCOPIC 593;
    • state liability 435;
    • state of ship’s registry 415;
    • time charterers 64;
    • voyage charterers 61;
    • WRC 2007 130, 375, 385, 492, 519–20, 530;
    • wreck and cargo removal claims 103
  • Hong Kong Convention 2009: Ship Recycling Regulation 2013 679–82;
  • human remains 222, 280, 281, 282, 333, 346, 349, 396, 406, 466–8, 479, 596–600
  • Ievoli Sun 30, 662
  • IMDG: nuclear liability conventions 521
  • IMO 375–6;
    • Baltic Ace 121;
    • “Blue Cards” 76;
    • Bunkers Convention 2001 143;
    • CLC 99-cruise ship wrecks, reaction to 15;
    • defences of liability 80–1;
    • Environmental Liability Directive 2004 151;
    • EU compensation regimes 14;
    • “Guidelines on Fair Treatment of Seafarers in the Event of a Maritime Accident” 71–3;
    • “Guidelines on Provision of Financial Security in Case of Abandonment of Seafarers” 73, 74–5;
    • “Guidelines on Shipowners’ Responsibilities in Respect of Contractual Claims for Personal Injury to or Death of Seafarers’’ 73;
    • HNSC 1996 145–6;
    • Legal Committee 88, 135;
    • “Liability and Compensation Regarding Claims for Death, Personal Injury and Abandonment of Seafarers” 72–3;
    • liability for pollution following wreck 131–3;
    • MEPC 297;
    • Salvage Convention 1989 289;
    • Torrey Canyon 6, 10;
    • UNCLOS, obligations 300, 306, 308;
    • WRC 2007 200
  • Institute of International Law 231, 290–3, 352, 394
  • in specie salvage award 245–6
  • influential wreck casualties 5–29
    • see also cargo problems; other wrecks 14; tanker wrecks; individual ships’ names
  • insurance: cargo cover 179–188;
  • insurer’s rights 231–9;
  • international conventions: Athens Convention 2002 78–9;
  • Intervention Convention 132, 296–8, 306, 319, 361;
    • 1973 Protocol 252, 262;
    • “Affected State” 410–11;
    • EEZ 380;
    • major harmful consequences 405;
    • maritime casualty 394, 399;
    • proportionality 431;
    • related interests definition 405–8;
    • ship definition 400–2;
    • state liability 434;
    • Torrey Canyon 296;
    • WRC 2007 measures 375, 377–8, 423, 438, 530
  • ISM Code 419
  • ISU Sub-Contract (Award Sharing) 2001 572, 573
  • Kea Trader 30, 448, 696
  • Lagik 360, 526
  • law of finds 246–7
  • law of the sea 295–324;
    • Intervention Convention 1969 296–9;
    • OPRC 1990 321–4;
    • polluting wrecks and intervention 296;
    • United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea 299–321
  • LC 1972 657–64, 667;
    • objects and cargo lost at sea 396;
    • relationship with 692–3;
    • Waste Framework Directive 2008 692–3
  • LC Protocol 1996 657–64;
    • Art10 660–1;
    • civil liability for dumping 663;
    • objects and cargo lost at sea 396;
    • Waste Framework Directive 2008 692–3
  • liability: burden of proof 50;
  • Limitation Convention 1924 96
  • limitation of liability 95–130:
  • LLMC 1976 97, 109, 111;
    • air-cushioned vehicles 395;
    • floating platforms 401;
    • fund and wreck removal reservation 122–3;
    • opt-out for wreck and cargo removal claims 100, 101, 102, 104, 114–16, 143, 151, 489, 490, 493, 498, 502, 503, 505–8, 514, 516, 517, 521, 531, 532, 545, 552, 553, 554,;
    • gross tonnage 493–4;
    • limitation of liability 96, 119, 122, 128, 503;
    • major casualty 84;
    • passenger claims 90;
    • Rena 21, 26;
    • UK reservation 115, 552, 553, 554;
    • Uno Case 126;
    • Waste Framework Directive, relationship with 693;
    • WRC 2007 508–10, 514, 532, 535, 553;
    • see also limitation of liability, LLMC 1996
  • LLMC 1996: Art 1(6) 552–3;
    • Art 2(1)(e) 554;
    • Art 6(2) 554;
    • Art 7 99;
    • Art 10 116;
    • Art 11 116;
    • Baltic Ace 120–2;
    • Hague/Visby Rules 53–5;
    • limitation of liability 57, 84–5, 96–7, 109–11, 119, 128, 142–3, 147, 490, 517, 520–1, 624, 626;
    • MSC Napoli 17;
    • passengers, wreck and 77;
    • pollution claims 100–2;
    • Shen Neng 1 489–90;
    • The Cape Bari 624;
    • WRC 2007 399, 402, 492–4, 502–11, 514, 532–8;
    • wreck removal 369;
    • wreck removal reservation 115, 122–5, 130;
    • see also limitation of liability, LLMC 1976
  • LOF 7, 16, 19, 38, 108, 153, 154, 155, 157, 158, 160, 161, 163, 168, 169, 172, 173, 239, 254, 255, 433, 444, 447, 448, 515, 568, 569, 571, 572, 573, 578, 579–82, 586, 588, 589, 590, 592, 594, 597, 602, 611, 612, 620, 674
  • LSSAC: cl 2(d) 582;
    • LOF 2011 163
  • Lusitania 216–7, 226–7, 238, 242, 247, 269
  • Lutine 229, 237–8
  • MAIB 266
  • Marine and Coastal Access Act 2009: dumping in the UK 664–7;
    • marine licensing 696, 699;
    • oil recovery equipment 264;
    • Part 4 664;
    • wreck disposal 664–7
  • marine insurance 173–210;
  • maritime casualty: WRC 2007 394–5
  • Maritime Labour Convention 2006 71–7;
    • compensation 75;
    • financial security for abandonment 74;
    • implementation of financial security provisions 76;
    • indemnity for unpaid wages 75;
    • P&I Club cover 208–9;
    • repatriation costs 74
  • MARPOL: coastal state 407, 420;
  • Marchioness 15, 79, 267
  • MCA 250, 263, 264, 277:
    • MSC Napoli, and 15, 16, 18, 264–266, 276;
    • Receiver of Wreck 270;
    • recycling 679, 683;
    • reporting accidents 267;
    • SOLAS waters 449;
    • SOSREP and engaging contractors 559
  • MEPC 297
  • MIA 1906 174, 198, 232–7;
    • amendments 193;
    • constructive total loss 190–1;
    • s55 177, 199, 499;
    • s57(1) 188;
    • wilful misconduct definition 499
  • Mikhail Lermontov 15, 438
  • MOD 220, 283–4294, 354
  • Mont Louis 359–60, 408, 491, 521
  • mortgagee 178–9, 668, 706
  • MSA 1995 527–30;
  • New Flame 445–6, 491, 604
  • MSC Napoli 15–18, 445;
    • casualty 15, 459;
    • charterers 36, 39, 40, 56, 69, 98, 105, 257;
    • containers 31, 52, 57, 118, 163, 182, 252, 490, 575, 671, 708;
    • insurance 177, 180, 182, 185, 491;
    • legal claims 17, 105, 177, 445, 491, 575;
    • limitation 105, 110;
    • removal operations 16, 254, 445, 454, 601, 660–1, 664, 670–1, 700, 703, 708;
    • response coordination 251, 254, 264–6, 559, 571, 591, 596, 684;
    • YAR 170
  • MSMSA 1997 284–5
  • MTA 1994: Rena 19, 20–1
  • NCP 250–1;
    • MSC Napoli 265;
    • public agencies 263–4
  • non-State parties: Athens Convention, and 78, 87;
    • LLMC 503;
    • Basel Convention, and 672;
    • UCH 2001, and 315;
    • Hong Kong Convention, and 678;
    • UNCLOS, and wreck 309;
    • WRC 2007, and 370–1, 374, 376–87, 409; 452–453, 494–497, 503, 512, 513, 514;
    • WRC 2007, UK MSA 1995, and 535, 536, 540, 541, 543, 544, 548, 552,
  • notice of abandonment 12, 171, 187, 190–193, 195–6, 224, 231–234, 236, 238, 525
  • Oceanus 446
  • Oliva 447
  • OPRC 1990 249, 250, 312, 321–4, 595;
    • coastal states 312;
    • public relations 595;
    • WRC 2007 387, 417–18, 420, 422
  • OPRC-HNS Protocol 322
  • OSPAR Convention 1992 663–4, 666–7
  • ownership 213–22;
  • Paris Convention 1960: nuclear liabilities 521
  • P&I Clubs 174;
    • Athens Convention 2002 88;
    • availability of cover 197;
    • crew claims 208–10;
    • cover for casualties 197–205;
    • financial security for abandonment 74–5;
    • HNS diplomatic conference 130;
    • Large Casualty Working Group 443;
    • major incident analysis 32–4;
    • Montreal Compromise 165;
    • SCOPIC 2018 167–8, 582–3;
    • shipowner liability 456, 576, 602;
    • spill handling 14;
    • state action 603;
    • tankers 135–6;
    • typical cover for casualties 198–200;
    • WRC 2007 469, 491, 501–2, 511–14;
    • wreck liabilities 204–7;
    • wreck removals 69–70
  • passengers 77–89:
    • Athens Convention 2002, application of 78–9;
    • claims 89;
    • compensation 83–4;
    • compulsory insurance 86–8;
    • domestic carriage 89;
    • forum issues 89;
    • liability for death and injury 80–2;
    • limits of liability 83–4;
    • luggage 85–6
  • platforms: decommissioning 712;
    • LC 1972 658; limitation 97–98, 129, 448;
    • OPRC reporting 322;
    • recycling 680;
    • salvage 158, 159, 577;
    • WRC 2007 394, 395, 400–402, 407, 449, 450, 451–452, 493, 494, 533, 539, 712,
  • polluting wrecks: intervention beyond territorial seas 296;
    • United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea jurisdiction 316–21
  • pollution liability 131–51;
    • Bunkers Convention 2001 141–3;
    • CLC 1992 133–7;
    • Environmental Liability Directive 2004 150–1;
    • Fund Convention 1992 138–9;
    • HNSC 2010 144–9;
    • international action after Torrey Canyon 131;
    • Supplementary Fund Protocol 2003 140

  • Page 807

    possession: salvor’s right of 239–41, 396;
  • Prestige 13, 14, 18, 135, 139, 140, 146, 203, 204, 253, 297, 304, 431, 442, 462, 493, 511, 512, 531, 596
  • Privity 47, 112:
    • actual fault, and 47, 67, 112, 113, 119, 199;
    • of assured 178, 183, 199;
    • of contract, and 108, 708
    • and see Himalaya clause
  • Projectcon 709, 711, 712
  • proof of loss or damage 51–3
  • proportionate action 321
  • proportionate costs 471, 478, 531, 599
  • proportionate fault 94
  • proportionate loss 117
  • proportionate marking 465, 480
  • proportionate measures 33, 319, 414, 431, 433, 436, 441, 456, 471
  • proportionate protection 320
  • proportionate removal 475
  • proportionate responses 411
  • Protection of Military Remains Act 1986 249, 280–5;
    • human remains 222;
    • salvage law 331
  • Protection of Wrecks Act 1973 213, 249, 278–80;
  • Public relations 595–6
  • quantitative risk assessment (QRA) 605–606
  • reasonable measures see proportionate action; proportionate costs; proportionate fault; proportionate loss; proportionate marking; proportionate measures; proportionate protection; proportionate removal; proportionate responses
  • receiver of wreck 270–7
  • Recyclecon 2012 678, 682, 705, 712
  • recycling: regulation 683–4;
    • see also dumping, scrapping, ship recycling
  • refuge, place of 12, 16, 18, 89, 162, 170, 194, 253–4, 265, 323, 462, 596, 627, 684
  • registered shipowner’s liability for costs 437–56;
  • Registration Regulations 1993: ship deregistration, wreck and 705
  • Rena 18–27, 320, 406, 442, 444, 447, 595, 661, 666;
    • bills of lading 39, 56, 630;
    • casualty 18–19, 608;
    • charterers 36, 39, 69, 257–8;
    • consent order 24–5;
    • criminal proceedings 71;
    • legal claims 21, 32, 48, 197, 264, 459, 491, 511, 531, 605;
    • legal problems 20, 145, 168, 207, 318, 481, 523, 560, 612;
    • limitation 96, 103, 110, 114, 128–9, 503, 532;
    • practical problems 20, 30, 32, 320–1, 608, 618, 630, 661;
    • salvage problems 168, 569, 571, 575, 583, 591;
    • trust fund and finality 320, 712–14;
    • WRC 2007 comparisons 471, 474, 490, 502–3, 508, 511–13
  • repatriation costs: Maritime Labour Convention 2006 74
  • reporting of accidents 267
  • rights: abandonment 222–31;
  • Rokia Delmas 445
  • Rome II Regulation: Art 15 127–8
  • Sale see also wreck (sale of), wreck (sale of goods contracts, and)
  • Saleform 2012 705
  • salvage: applicable law 153;
    • environment, and 163–8;
    • equitable jurisdiction 571;
    • frustration of charter 572, 579;
    • in specie award 245–6;
    • law of 152–68;
    • liability to pay 161;
    • non-commercialisation of cultural heritage 334–6;
    • of or by State vessels 276;
    • professional salvage and wreck removal contractors 155;
    • receiver of Wreck’s function 271–2;
    • reward 159–61, 164;
    • SCOPIC 2018 167–8, 567–94;
    • security for payment 162;
    • ships about to sink or strand 396–8;
    • special compensation 164–6;
    • terminology 154;
    • underwater cultural heritage 327–32
  • Salvage Association 216, 239
  • Salvage Convention 1910 158;
  • Salvage Convention 1989 103, 137, 144, 154–5, 157, 158–9, 167, 294, 398, 514–15, 578–9;

  • Page 808

    Salvcon 2005 570, 573
  • Salvhire 2005 570, 573
  • salvors and finders’ rights 239–48;
  • SCOPIC 165, 167–9, 515, 600;
    • Appendix B 584;
    • Appendix C 585;
    • bunkers and caretaking role 144, 254, 582–4, 602, 603–4, 698;
    • cl 1 590;
    • cl 2 584, 587;
    • cl 3 587, 614–15;
    • cl 4 587–92;
    • cl 5 692;
    • cl 9 578, 589–92;
    • cl 12 584;
    • cl 13 585–6;
    • cl 14 593–4;
    • cl 15 172;
    • CTL, and 190;
    • damages, and 60;
    • GA, and 171, 172;
    • limitation, and 108;
    • MSC Napoli 16;
    • P&I Clubs, and 32, 33, 199, 205, 444, 445, 446, 572, 577, 608, 610;
    • preventing pollution from wreck 593–4;
    • Rena 19, 571;
    • Salvage Convention 1989 154, 155, 158, 188, 254;
    • security 614–5;
    • special hull representative 71, 194;
    • special casualty representative 71, 577, 584–5, 632;
    • special representatives 71, 585–6;
    • termination provisions 571, 578, 586–93, 621;
    • transition from salvage to wreck removal 569, 570, 582–94, 605;
    • waste 690;
    • WRC 2007 515
  • scrapping 669–70;
    • see also dumping, ship recycling
  • Sea Diamond 446, 503
  • Sea Empress 12, 140, 249, 250, 257, 265, 596, 685
  • seagoing 79, 85, 89, 97, 134, 141, 145, 395, 402, 448–452, 493, 553
  • Seawheel Rhine/Assi Eurolink case 123, 126–8
  • Sewol 15, 156, 320, 467, 492, 597, 598, 599, 610, 710
  • Shen Neng 1 112, 147, 320, 447, 489
  • ship recycling 676–85
  • Ship Recycling Regulation 2013 678–85;
    • deregistration 706;
    • Waste Shipment Regulation 2006 673–4
  • Ship Recycling Requirements (EU Exit) Regulations 2019: Brexit entry into force 679
  • Ship Recycling Requirements Regulations 2018 679, 682–5
  • shipowners’ and insurers’ liabilities: Bunkers Convention 2001 520–1;
  • single ship company 19, 56, 74, 77, 102, 113, 128, 132, 135, 142, 183, 187, 202, 360, 471, 500–1, 524, 531, 568, 602–3, 614, 628
  • Smart 30, 147, 446, 447, 489, 604, 606, 610, 658, 661, 670
  • SOLAS: coastal states 312;
    • marine environment regulation 309;
    • other ship obligations 259–60;
    • sea definition 449;
    • State obligations 426;
    • wreck reporting 418, 419, 420
  • SOSREP 12, 261, 265;
    • coastguard, and 276;
    • directions 252–5, 257, 258, 265;
    • exclusion zones, and 263;
    • GLAs, and 426, 556, 557–9;
    • MSC Napoli, and 16–18;
    • role 250–252;
    • place of refuge 253–4;
    • power to act 260;
    • public relations 596
    • wreck removal 539, 541, 542, 544, 545, 556, 557–9,
  • sovereign immunity 287–94
  • State: non-commercial ships WRC 2007 definition 402–3
  • State rights 249–94;
  • sunken or stranded ship: WRC 2007 395–6
  • Supplementary Fund Protocol 2003 140–1;
  • tanker wrecks 10–14
  • Tanio 11, 428, 431, 443
  • Tasman Spirit 71, 572, 606
  • territorial waters: extension of WRC 2007 530–4;
  • terrorism: Athens Convention 2002 459–60
  • time charter 36, 45, 58, 62, 63–70, 556, 572;
    • CLC 137;
    • collision 93;
    • dangerous cargo 57;
    • directions, and 256–7;
    • limitation and 105–106, 109;
    • orders to owner 41, 56;
    • salvage of bunkers 161, 165, 257;
    • termination 41–43;
    • unsafe port, and 56
  • Titanic 237, 238, 243–8, 284–5, 303, 314, 345–6, 597
    • Tojo Maru 47, 106, 107, 143, 153, 556, 574, 578
  • tonnage: dwt 9, 135;
    • limitation 9, 96, 99, 105, 106, 107, 109, 110, 135, 136, 148, 624,;
    • WRC 2007 insurance, and 365, 381, 382, 434, 449, 450, 451, 452, 492–4, 545,
  • Torrey Canyon 6–10;
    • BP charterer, and 7–10;
    • casualty 7;
    • international action after 30, 32, 131–2, 134, 138, 144, 163, 184, 249, 252, 261, 296, 359, 361–4, 408, 425, 514, 656,

      Page 809

      663, 697;
    • legal claims 8–9, 48, 56, 110, 123, 361–2, 381, 441, 575–6, 590
  • Towcon 2008 109, 569, 573, 607, 608, 631, 708, 711
  • Towhire 2008 109, 569, 573, 607, 608, 611, 615, 622, 624, 631, 632, 708, 711
  • Tricolor 28, 92, 320, 360, 361, 444, 595
  • TSWR Regulations 2007: wreck disposal powers 674
  • Tubantia 226, 241–2, 287
  • UCH 2001 315–16, 325–55;
    • dispute settlement 389;
    • elimination of law of salvage 334–6;
    • international cooperation 344–6;
    • jurisdictional structure 337–41;
    • regulatory regime 341–3;
    • Salvage Convention 1989 332;
    • state practice 349–55;
    • state-owned vessels 346–9;
    • UNCLOS 306, 316;
    • underwater cultural heritage, definition 332–4;
    • UNESCO implementation 349;
    • US approach to historic wreck 286;
    • WRC 2007 420
  • UK Club Rules 2018: payment first by the Owner 201
  • UK legislation: Accident Reporting Regulations 2012 266–7;
    • Ancient Monuments and Archaeological Areas Act 1979 285–6;
    • Carriage of Passengers Regulations 2012 89;
    • Environmental Protection Act 1900 701–2;
    • Marine and Coastal Access Act 2009 264, 664–7;
    • MIA 1906 174, 198, 232–7;
    • MSA 1995 252–63, 523–66;
    • MTA Maritime Transport Act 1994 19–21;
    • Protection of Military Remains Act 1986 249, 280–25;
    • Protection of Wrecks Act 1973 213, 249, 278–80;
    • Registration Regulations 1993 705;
    • Ship Recycling Requirements (EU Exit) Regulations 2019: Brexit entry into force 679;
    • Ship Recycling Requirements Regulations 2018 679, 682–5;
    • Ship Recycling Requirements Regulation 2013 678–85;
    • TSWR Regulations 2007 674;
    • Waste Regulations 2011 694–6;
    • Wreck Removal Convention Act 2011 524, 534–5, 550
  • UK regulation: abandoned ships 559–66;
  • UK territorial waters: rights outside 269–70;
  • UNCLOS 299–321;
  • underwater cultural heritage 325–58;
  • UNESCO Convention: historic wrecks 213, 325–6, 343;
    • Director-General of 340;
    • implementation of UCH 2001 349;
    • Italian cultural heritage sites 340;
    • ISA reporting 306;
    • UCH 2001 306;
    • US position 350–1;
    • World Heritage Site 448
  • Uno case 121–3, 126, 128
  • unpaid wages 75
  • US Abandoned Shipwreck Act 1987 213, 228–9, 247, 286–7, 350
  • V Due 254
  • vessels in distress 270–1
  • Vienna Convention on the Law of Treaties 370–6;
    • Art 34 371, 378, 379–80;
    • Art 38 383;
    • Art 41 372;
    • IMO Legal Committee 379;
    • MSA 1995 741;
    • WRC 2007 382
  • Vienna Nuclear Damage Convention 521
  • Voyage charter 36, 43, 45, 61–3, 64, 65, 66, 109, 609, 710;
    • GA 171, 173;
    • CLC 137;
    • dangerous cargo 57;
    • directions, and 256–7;
    • limitation and 105–106, 109;
    • salvage, and 38;
    • unsafe port, and 56;
    • see also Wreckhire 2010
  • warships: WRC 2007 402–3;
    • see also sovereign immunity
  • Waste: EU Waste Framework Directive 674, 683, 685–703;
  • Waste Framework Directive 2008 674, 683, 685–703;
  • Waste Regulations 2011 694–6;
    • Environmental Protection Act 1990 701;
    • practical compliance 703
  • Waste Shipment Regulation 2006: wreck disposal 673–6

  • Page 810

    wilful misconduct 113, 136, 138, 176, 177, 178, 182, 183, 184, 187, 196, 198, 199, 207, 458, 459, 465, 498, 499–501, 502, 506, 552, 656, 663, 726, 743
  • wreccum maris 211–2, 247, 268–9
  • wreck: cargo position after 36;
  • wreck cases: Baltic Ace 119–21;
    • Christos Bitas 657;
    • Commune de Mesquer 689–93, 702;
    • Costa Concordia 27–9;
    • MSC Napoli 15–18, 265;
    • Rena 18–25;
    • Seawheel Rhine/Assi Eurolink case 126–7;
    • Torrey Canyon 6–9, 131;
    • see also, individual ships’ names
  • wreck disposal; see disposal of wreck
  • wreck protection legislation: Ancient Monuments and Archaeological Areas Act 1979 285–6;
    • comparative US approach 286–7;
    • Protection of Military Remains Act 1986 280–5;
    • Protection of Wrecks Act 1973 278–80
  • wreck removal 567–94;
  • Wreckfixed 2010: analysis 633–639;
    • comparisons 633, 639–641;
    • limitation waiver 109;
    • risk allocation 610–11;
    • text facsimile 767
  • Wreckhire 2010 108, 143, 165, 171, 584, 594, 606, 608, 610–632, 692, 708;
    • analysis 610–632;
    • bodies 600;
    • comparisons 633, 634, 635, 636, 637, 638, 639–641, 642, 643, 644, 645, 647, 648, 649;
    • limitation waiver 109;
    • risk allocation 610–11;
    • text facsimile 753
  • Wreckstage 2010 608, 639–651, 708, 712;
    • analysis 639–651;
    • comparisons 639–641;
    • Explanatory notes 793;
    • limitation waiver 109;
    • risk allocation 610–11;
    • text facsimile 781
  • WRC 2007 359–566;
  • WRCA 2011 534–5, 550;
    • MSA 1990 Part 9A 539, 557;
    • UK legislation 524;
    • WRC 2007, incorporation of 535–8, 538
  • YAR 170;
    • cutting away wreck 173;
    • YAR 2016 170–2;
    • YAR 1994 170

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